The evidence is strong that Mr. Harold Stirling Vanderbilt, who fathered the scoring method of the game of bridge, devised, developed, and originated the concept, the notion, the idea of employing an opening bid on the one level as an artificial bid showing strength, generally with an opening bid of 1 Club. Mr. Harold Vanderbilt employed this artificial 1 Club opening for his system, appropriately named the Vanderbilt Club, which was first published in the year 1934.

This approach of employing the 1 Club opening bid to show a strong holding and reserving all other one level opening bids for holdings worth only opening values enjoyed initial success and popularity among the community of bridge players. This concept was incorporated into the publication of Mr. Paul Stern titled The Stern Austrian System, with Margery Belsey, and which was published in the year 1938.

Note: This approach was also designated as the Vienna System, albeit in a different form, which communicated the information that the Club suit was the longest held suit, that the values, based on the Bamberger Point Count, has a range between 11 and 17 high card points, and that this opening bid is one-round forcing unless the immediate opponent overcalls.

As with all great ideas, however, the interest, the enthusiasm, the excitement within the bridge community turned in other directions and the concept of natural bids became prevalent. Bridge historians maintain that the concept only began to return to popularity with the re-introduction by expert bridge players from Italy, who were dominating the international bridge events in the 1960s. Many bridge experts believe that the introduction of the bidding system designated as the Neapolitan Club was the official renaissance or rebirth of this concept.

The attempt has been undertaken to list these bidding systems, these artificial, strong opening bids. All collected information regarding the Precision bidding system and its multitude of variations and modifications are listed. Many of the Precision agreements, of which all employ the artificial 1 Club opening bid, are presented in .pdf file format, and which have been compiled, composed, and contributed by other bridge players, other bridge theoreticians, other bridge experts.

Note: We thank each bridge player individually and all collectively, who have contributed information, and remain in their debt by allowing this information to be preserved and archived on this site for future reference.

Note: The visitor must remain aware of the fact that this list will contain approaches, which are listed elsewhere on this site. The main reason is that only the opening bids of these systems remain. This site also attempts to list these approaches separately, whereby only the opening bids are known.

Aces Club Opening Bids
The Aces Club opening bidding system was played by Mr. Bob Hamman and Mr. Bobby Wolff in the American Aces Team. The similarity to the bidding system of Blue Team Club is evident and the differences are only slight.

Bernier Big Club Opening Bids
These opening bids were devised by Mr. Jerry Bernier and Mr. Mike Schmenk in the 1960s and is based on the Kaplan-Sheinwold and Schenken Club. This opening system was devised by Mr. Jerry Bernier and Mr. Mike Schmenk in the 1960s and is based on the Kaplan-Sheinwold and Schenken Club. Source: A Bridge System Collection as presented by Mr. Jan Eric Larsson.

Blue Club
The Blue Team developed a bidding system using a combination of the Neapolitan and Roman bidding systems. Combining the most favorable features of both bidding systems resulted in the formation of the Blue Club bidding system. The main proponents of this bidding system were Mr. Walter Avarelli, Mr. Benito Garozzo,Mr. Pietro Forquet, Mr. Massimo D'Alelio, and Mr. Giorgio Belladonna. They had great success at the bridge tournaments using the Blue Club System.

Blue Team Club Openings
Blue Team became the popular name for the Italian International Bridge Team, which had many international successes from 1956 to 1975. The captain and the members of the Blue Team devised a bidding system, which is still played today. The Blue Team Club was the result of the efforts of the Italian Bridge Federation, Mr. Carl Alberto Perroux, the team captain, and the team members, who dedicated themselves to the study of the game of bridge.

Blue Team Club System
The Blue Team Club System was mainly devised by Mr. Benito Garozzo. The Blue Team Club System is based on the principle that a 1 Club opening is forcing. The style of this system is called Canape, and this means that the opener can / should bid the short suits before bidding the long suits. Canape is a bidding method in which the opener bids his long suit on his rebid and was developed by Mr. Pierre Albarran from France.

Blue Team Club Responses
As the name implies, the opening will be 1 Club. The significance of this 1 Club opening is that it is defined as 1. forcing, and 2. shows 17 or more points using a 4-3-2-1 count. Sometimes it is also a distributional factor which may define a 1 Club opening with slightly less than 17 points, or a weaker 1 Club opening with exactly 17 points.

Blue Team Roman Responses to Blackwood
Even the Roman Blackwood convention method, a variation of the original Blackwood convention, has a variation. This variation was devised by the Blue Team Club and was applied with some success. The Blue Team was the popular name given to the Italian International Bridge Team which had a series of huge successes starting in 1956 and fading in the year 1969.

Blue Club Responses
In the United Kingdom, the 2 No Trump response to a Weak Two Opening by partner is known as Blue Club Responses. In the United States, the 2 No Trump responses to a Weak Two opening bid by partner are known as the Ogust Convention. See: Ogust Convention.

Blue Club, Calgary Casual Style
The online version is presently off line. Presented by Mr. Alex Knox and is Version 8.3, dated September 1, 1999. According to the Author's Notes: The first part of this work is adapted from the book The Blue Club by Benito Garrozo and Leon Yalloze, edited by Terence Reese, which I consider the best "system" book I have ever read. I have incorporated several of my own ideas and also those of some other authors. This information has only been archived and preserved in .pdf file format on this site.

Blue Club
The online version is presently off line. Published by Mr. Emil M. Prodanov. This modified version has only been preserved and archived as a .pdf file on this site for future reference.

Italian Blue Club
The online version is presently off line. This is a Summary of The Blue Club, published by Mr. Benito Garozzo and Mr. Leon Yallouze in 1969, posted to the Internet and modified by Mr. G. Meier in the year 1995. This information has only been archived and preserved in .pdf file format on this site for future reference.

Blue Club European Austrian Version
This modified version of the Blue Club Bidding System is a European/Austrian work in progress by Mr. Stefan Zijlstra and which has been dated 1999. This non-completed version is only archived on this site in a .pdf file format for future reference. Footnotes have been added to aid the student of this modified version, which is incomplete. According to the author the description of this modified concept is presented below:

Four ideas have to be known to get the sense of the system:
1. 4-card majors: Think of it what you like, it HAS advantages if you hit on a 4-4 fit in opening bid. Many drawbacks or further advantages might be discussed for decades (and so it has been), but if you found a 4-4 or better fit you are in no-bottom position for sure.
2. Strong club opening: Again, think what you like, but getting more room for big hands is an advantage. Again all other facts (more preemptive room, cheap lead-directing bids etc.) can be discussed, and have their rights, but nothing brings more exact contracts then an uncontested strong club auction, especially with a positive hand opposite.
3. Canapé style: Although it might be seen as a side effect of rigorous 4cM openings done ever since, this style, played with discipline and knowledge of the system it is a powerful weapon, not only for the dreaded hidden side suit.
4. Strictly defined openings: All 3 approaches mentioned above make sure that every opening in Blue Club is defined very clearly. 5 Point range (11-16), 4! Card major possible or not. Trust me, that helps.
A Warning: This document contains much of the base system, much standard conventions used with it and some treatments, which are coming generally with the system…. BUT…. the author denies ANY thought of delivering a full system. Much too much is missing, far too many sequences not discussed. Filling those holes would take months and years, and a better brain.

Breakthrough Opening Bids
These opening bids were devised and developed by Mr. Robert Sundby of Wisconsin, United States.

Cable Car Opening Bids
These opening bids were devised by Mr. Steve Altus of Stanford, California, United States. These opening bids are based on the strong, artificial 1 Club opening, which shows 17 plus points.

Computer Oriented Bridge Analysis is the result of feeding a computer certain elements of the evaluation and distributional factors of card combinations by Mr. Torbjörn Lindelöf.

Concepts and Definitions - This is a .pdf file link, which will be automatically opened by your browser in a new window.

Cobra Evaluation - This is a .pdf file link, which will be automatically opened by your browser in a new window.

Cobra Opening Bids
As a base for the entered data into the software application, Mr. E. Torbjörn Lindelof used the following opening bids, similar to the Schenken Club opening bids.

Cranberry Club Opening Bids
These opening bids constitute a simplified version of the Tangerine Club system and was developed by Mr. Jan Eric Larsson of Sweden, who developed the Tangerine Club system.

Crazy Diamond Opening Bids
These opening bids are from a bidding system used in The Netherlands and was developed by Mr. and Mrs. Arie van Heusden, Mr. Jaap Kokkes, Mr. Kees Kaiser and co-bridge players and has been published in the book by Mr. G.J.R. Forch with the title Bieden voor Gevorderden.

Currified Precision
This is the documentation on the Internet of Mr. Neill Currie as presented by Mr. Tony Melucci, who was declared King of Bridge in the year 1995, at the included links. The system has been developed by both Mr. Neill Currie and Mr. Tony Melucci.

DESY Polish Club Bidding System - Presently off line
This is a form of the Polish Club bidding system used in northern Germany. The designation comes from the fact that the players are employees of a company called High Energy Physics Laboratory located in Hamburg, Germany. The website did offer the visitor the chance to download their version of the DESY Polish Club bidding system, but the format was an internal company format. The present URL has been deleted, but the features of the bidding system were maintained on the website of Mr. Henk Uijterwaal, who lives in Rozendaal, The Netherlands. He has, however, not included the original version in his present website.

DESY Polish Club Opening Bids
These bids represent the opening bids with corresponding explanation for the developed DESY Polish Club Bidding System. According to the website of the DESY Bridge Group these bids are attributed to Katherine Wipf, Mr. Bill Murray, Mr. Doug Hasell, and Mr. Henk Uijterwaal. The interested reader may wish to also visit the S.B.C. Dombo Studenten Bridge Club in Holland.

Note: This website has been deleted from the web. The information for the DESY Polish Club presented on this website has been archived and preserved on this site in .pdf file format for future reference. The main contributors for this information are Katherine Wipf, Mr. Bill Murray, and Mr. Doug Hasell, in collaboration with other contributors from 1985.

Note: This bidding system has been included on this list even though the opening bid of 1 Club is defined as holding values between 12 and 15 points. However, this opening bid is forcing for one round, even following competition.

Dragon 2 No Trump - Dragon 2 NT
Contributed by Mr. Robert Hanly of Canada. This conventional method is employed when the partnership employs Weak No Trump openings and an opening of 1 Club or 1 Diamond promises multiple values and shape.

Note: The link is to a prepared .pdf file, which will be automatically opened by your browser in a new window.

Note: Included in this .pdf file are also Dragon 3 Clubs, which is an Asking Bid when playing 1M-2NT as natural and forcing to game; Canadian 2 Diamonds, which is a variation of the Mexican 2 Diamonds conventional method; Dragon Defense to Polish Club, which is a constructive defense mechanism to the Polish Club System; and GForce, which is a conventional method for responses to a Forcing Raise in a Major suit, compiled by Mr. Fred Gitelman, with a few variations.

Dragon 1 No Trump
Mr. Robert Hanly of Canada has expanded this system of conventional responses. Words of the originator and contributor: This system of conventional responses to a weak no trump opening would not be possible without the prior work presented in the Polish Club (WJ2005) and the Kokish Weak NT. Mr. Robert Hanly has contributed this information, which is archived and preserved in .pdf file format on this site for future reference.

Eastern Scientific
This bidding system, which employs a 1 Club opening to show various shapes and strengths, is similar to the concept known as Standard American and was devised and developed mainly by Mr. Robert Goldman and Mr. William Eisenberg.

Efos Bidding System
The Economical Forcing System was used in international championships by leading Swedish players such as Mr. Jan Wohlin, Mr. Nils Olaf Lilliehook, and Mr. Gunnar Anulf. The concept is reported to have originated with Mr. Eric Jannersten.
The publication of Mr. Eric Jannersten, Vi spelar tävlingsbridge: Boken om Efos, (Translation: We Play Tournament Bridge: The Book / Story of Efos.), in the year 1956 contains and outlines additional information about his concept and bidding system.

Efos Opening Bids
The Economic Forcing System introduced new features, especially after a No Trump opening. One of these features is the Repeated Stayman or Extended Stayman convention. The bidding system is similar to a relay system in that, after an opening by one partner, the next, cheapest suit bid is considered either natural or a generally forcing bid.

Estonian Diamond Opening Bids
The origin of these opening bids are unknown and the designation is also vague. For additional information the interested visitor can contact the Estonian Bridge Federation.

FClub - F-Club - Scanian Strong Club
The origin of this artificial 1 Club opening plus complete continuances is a result of Mr. Mats Nilsland, Mr. Magnus Lindkvist, and Mr. Anders Wirgren, who have created the Scania Bridgekonsult website.
This bidding system and/or approach has only been preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file 1 and .pdf file 2 format for future reference. These files will automatically be opened by your browser in a new window.

Finnish Panel Standard Opening Bids
This document, as detailed by Mr. Jukka Korpela, presents a foundation for the Finnish Standard Bidding System for bridge. Officially the standard is defined for the bidding panel of the Finnish Bridge magazine, but it is often regarded as a more general standard.

Finnish Junior Standard Opening Bids
These opening bids were developed in the late 1980s and has gained some amount of popularity among bridge players.

Goren Opening Bids
In the original version, Mr. Charles Goren proposed that any raise to the three level are absolutely game forcing and that all two level openings should also be game forcing and contain at least a 5-card suit of that denomination.

Jacoby Modern Opening Bids
Mr. Oswald Jacoby devised these opening bids during his bridge career with certain established requirements for the bridge player, intended to become standard. However, the concept of opening a 4-card Major suit was eventually replaced with the concept of a 5-card Major suit.

Kaplan-Sheinwold Bidding System
A bidding system developed by
Mr. Edgar Kaplan and Mr. Alfred Scheinwold based on five-card Major suits and weak No Trump openings. The system has the purpose of precisely limiting the strength shown by all bids during the auction.

Kentucky Club Bidding System
The origin of the Kentucky Club bidding system is unknown. The concept behind this bidding system is that the system employs a forcing 1 Club opening for only two distinctly types of holdings.

MG Precision Handbook
This is a Precision bidding system handbook, published privately March 24, 2009, for those serious about playing a more sophisticated and scientific system, devised by Mr. Greg Earnest together with wife and bridge partner Meaghin Burke of Oxford, Mississippi, United States. The designation MG is from the first initials of both names. Mr. Greg Earnest has published this information privately and offers it for downloading on his web blog Walking the Dog.

MG Precision Cuebids
This bidding method has been developed by Mr. Greg Earnest together with wife and bridge partner Meaghin Burke. The first letter of their first names constitute the initials of this bidding approach with Meaghin Burke receiving first billing. The concept and employment of these particular cuebids lie in the fact that they are able to show game values, 4-card plus support, slam interest, and promise also a first-round control in the suit bid.

MG Opening Bids Only
The opening bids of the MG Precision bidding system are listed separately.

Mock Swedish Opening Bids
This is a opening bidding system devised in 1993 by Mr. Richard Lighton of New Jersey, who was fascinated by the Muppet Show created by Mr. Jim Henson. Especially one character captured his imagination, and that was the Swedish Chef who spoke in babbled sounds and made absolutely no sense, but was comical and chaotic. The concept of the Mock Swedish opening bidding system is that several opening bids can have two different and distinctive interpretations.

Monaco Bidding System
The Monaco system was the original Relay System. It was devised by Mr. Pierre Ghestem of France around 1954, and used with Mr. Rene Bacherich in several World Championship tournaments. The main concept of the Relays some transfers is to bid in such a manner as to make the stronger hand become the declarer in the final contract.

Moscito and Variations
Moscito is a partial acronym for Major-Oriented-Strong-Club and was first devised by Mr. Paul Marston and Mr. Stephen Burgess. The concept was based on the Symmetric Relay system basically in auctions when the opening partnership has the balance of power. Originally, Mr. Paul Marston and Mr. Stephen Burgess conceived this system of bidding as a Strong Pass system. Owing to the numerous variations upon the concept of the Moscito approach the variations are listed on an additional web page.

SCRAPE or Strong Club Relay Avoiding Passing Ever
Mr. Mark Abraham
of Australia has compiled a collection of various bidding systems. This particular bidding system is a derivative, modification and/or adaptation of the Moscito System and is therefore included in this list. The system has also been archived and preserved on this Website for future reference. The photograph of Mr. Mark Abraham is from the year 2006.

Included on the website of Mr. Mark Abraham are:
Notes on T-Rex   SCRAPE - Preliminaries
CATOMULT   SCRAPE - Relay Structure
REGRESsion   SCRAPE - After Negative Responses to 1 Club
TOSR   SCRAPE - Very Strong Relays (Transfer-Oriented Symmetric Relay)
Relay Precision   SCRAPE - Alternate 1 Club-1 Diamond Artificial Game Force
Suspensor Forcing Pass   SCRAPE - Major Suit Openings
    SCRAPE - Minor Suit Openings
    SCRAPE - 1 No Trump Opening
    SCRAPE - Weak Two-Level Openings
    SCRAPE - Other Agreements
    SCRAPE - Puppet Stayman

Toad Club System
This bidding system was developed by Americans Mr. Ken Schutze and Mr. James Griffin, and played in the 2005 United States Women's Trials. The Toad Club system is a Big Club System in which all good hands (16 plus high card points or equivalent playing strength) are opened with 1 Club. Failure to open 1 Club, therefore, limits the hand to at most 15 points (except a 1 Heart opening may contain 17 high card points when holding a 5-card suit and unbalanced hand).

Note: The photograph of Mr. Ken Schutze, on the left, and Mr. James (Jim) Griffin, on the right, is from the Daily Bulletin dated Friday, March 19, 1999, 42nd Spring North American Bridge Championships in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Note: For a completely outlined description of the Toad Club - Relay Precision, as designated by online BBO, the following source provides the reader with information as provided within the .pdf file. By clicking on the individual links attached to the opening bid the reader can also review the continuances and the complete, theoretical bidding sequences.

Note: The system actively encourages aggressive opening bids and, by design, allows the opener to get out at a low level in many auctions in which he has elected to open light. Consequently, many auctions that would be forcing in Standard American are non-forcing in Toad Club. The major component of the Toad Club system is the use of many distributional relays to ascertain partner’s exact distribution.

Note: This bidding system is only preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference (126 pages). As far as can be determined the original .pdf file posted online was accomplished by Mr. Marin Johnson. However, this link is no longer enabled.

Universal Club Bidding System
This bidding system was developed by Mr. Fred R. Thomas and was published in the year 1980 by the UNICLUB Press, located in Los Angeles, California, United States. The title of his publication is Universal: The System For Everyone, and in the words of the author, is so named because it is the one system that is natural and also universally suitable for everyone, average players as well as the experts. Portions of the bidding system are presented in addition to the opening bids.

Universal Club Opening Bids
This bidding system was developed by Mr. Fred R. Thomas, born in the year 1925, and was published in the year 1980 by the Uniclub Press, located in Los Angeles, California, United States. The title of his publication is Universal: The System For Everyone, and in the words of the author, is so named because it is the one system that is natural and also universally suitable for everyone, average players as well as the experts.

Universal Club Two Clubs Opening
In the Universal Club bidding system, origin unknown, the opening bid of 2 Clubs has been assigned a specific meaning, which is that it shows a three-suited holding, generally a distribution of 4-4-1-4, with values between 12 and 17 high card points. A minimum and a maximum point count is known and also the short suit, which is Diamonds.

Universal Club Two Diamonds Opening
In the Universal Club bidding system, origin unknown, the opening of 2 Diamonds has been assigned a specific meaning. This opening bid promises a three-suited holding. The required point count is between 16 and 21 high card points. This opening demands that the Diamond suit be one of the three suits as opposed to the 2 Clubs opening bid, which shows Diamond shortage.

Universal Club 2 Hearts and 2 Spades Opening
The Universal Club bidding system has relegated special, if not specific, information in the opening bid of either 2 Hearts or 2 Spades. Either of these two openings promise at least a 5-card card, or longer, and a second, unspecified second suit, also a 5-card suit, or longer. The point range is a minimum of 14 high card points and the upper range is unlimited. Therefore, these two opening bids are forcing for one round. They are not considered to be absolutely game-forcing in nature.

Universal Transfer Responses
Off-line. Devised by Mr. Kenneth L. Lindsay this is a bidding structure which applies after any natural opening bid in a suit, not No Trump, below the three level, provided the opener's left hand opponent passes. The concept can also be applied after an artificial 2 Clubs opening bid. This information has only been preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.

Vanderbilt Club
This is a bidding system devised and developed by Mr. Harold Stirling Vanderbilt, born July 6, 1884 and died July 4, 1970, and first published in 1934, these opening bids formed the foundation for all following bidding systems employing a strong, artificial, and one-round forcing 1 Club opening bid.



If you wish to include any of these these features, or any other feature, of the game of bridge in your partnership agreement, then please make certain that the concept is understood by both partners. Be aware whether or not the feature is alertable or not and whether an announcement should or must be made. Check with the governing body and/or the bridge district and/or the bridge unit prior to the game to establish the guidelines applied. Please include the particular feature on your convention card in order that your opponents are also aware of this feature during the bidding process, since this information must be made known to them according to the Laws of Duplicate Contract Bridge. We do not always include the procedure regarding Alerts and/or Announcements, since these regulations are changed and revised during time by the governing body. It is our intention only to present the information as concisely and as accurately as possible.


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