The concept of a No Trump opening bid changed forever the game of bridge since the very first bid by a bridge player limited the holding not only to a certain pre-determined number of values, but also to a pre-determined and agreed upon distribution. The bridge player, who made such an opening bid, had with this one particular bid limited the holding and the partner of the No Trump bidder became the captain of the partnership.

The first response, even a call of pass, became the determining factor for the final contract. The imagination of the bridge community at large was without limit and many response methods were developed, devised, tested, fabricated, and formulated. As a result many ensuing concepts received justifiably a designation, and soon afterwards variations, variants, revised, and modified concepts were developed and authored.

This almost universal response method, the Stayman convention, has perhaps the most variations and covers most of the possible purposes of the partner of the No Trump bidder, but there are many conventional methods, approaches, and treatments to be considered and reviewed.

Transfer Breaks
In the game of bridge conventional methods are employed to communicate information about a holding. In certain conventional methods one partner may employ transfer bids with the intention that the hand of the stronger partner declares. This is the case, for example, with the Jacoby Transfer conventional method, which uses an artificial bid by the responder to transfer partner to a certain suit.

However, the player being transferred is under no obligation to accept the transfer. The Laws of Duplicate Contract Bridge disclose that a player may, in rotation, make any legal bid without penalty. It is owing to these two parameters of the game of bridge that transfer breaks were introduced. The designation only means that the player being transferred is not obligated to accept the transfer, but rather may make a bid higher than the intended suit to communicate certain information.

An illustrating example of the Jacoby Transfer conventional method is: 1 No Trump - 2 Diamonds (transfer bid) - 2 Spades, whereby the No Trump bidder has committed a transfer break in order to communicate certain previously agreed upon information. As an example only, this bidding sequence with the transfer break may communicate the information that the No Trump bidder has 3-4 cards support for Hearts (the intended transferred suit), excellent support also for Diamonds, plus maximum No Trump values.

In principle this treatment / approach can be applied to any conventional method, which makes use of transfer bids. The approach is mainly employed over a 1 No Trump opening bid, a 2 No Trump opening bid, and even a 3 No Trump opening bid.

Afair Conventional Responses
The origin of this conventional method is unknown. These responses are employed by the responder after partner opens with a strong No Trump to show a certain distributional pattern.

Allen Conventional Responses
A convention allowing responder to explore for a 4-4 Minor suit fit.

Anti-Lemming Convention
This conventional response method following a 1 No Trump opening bid by partner allows the responder to communicate weakness in both Major suits. This method was devised by Mr. Alan Fraser Truscott. The one requirement is that the responder must hold a certain distribution with game values.

Åpningen 1 No Trump
This is a response method following a No Trump opening devised by Mr. Nils Otto Eliassen. The response method is also designated as NOE, which are the first initials of the name of Mr. Nils Otto Eliassen. This write-up is only in the language of Norway and any contribution of a translation would be greatly appreciated. The visitor can find the original article at the above online source.This information has also only been preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.

August Two Diamonds - August 2 Diamonds
The August 2 Diamonds convention is designed to show a weak holding of a 4-card Major suit and a 5-card Minor suit. The No Trump range is not quantified and therefore the conventional method can be employed by any No Trump range and adapted to corresponding values.

Baze Conventional Response Method
The origin of this method is unknown. The principle behind the concept is show interest in a slam following a No Trump opening bid by partner. The range becomes irrelevant as the Baze conventional response method can be employed with any No Trump range. The partnership must make adjustments. For the purpose of this presentation the No Trump range is 15-17 points and balanced distribution.

Becker Convention
Invented by Mr. Benjamin Jay Becker, (aka B. Jay Becker) in the early stages of the game of sanctioned bridge this defense method shows a certain two-suited holding with varying strength, which is generally in the two suits indicated below.

Carrot Club 1 No Trump Opening
The opening of 1 No Trump shows a range between 14 and 16 high card points. Any holding with fewer or more high card points may not be opened with 1 No Trump. This limiting bid does not exclude the No Trump bidder from remaining an active participant in any continuing bidding sequences.

Club Bust - Diamond Bust
A colloquialism to describe a holding with a long Club suit, generally a 6-card suit, and insufficient values for game after a No Trump opening by partner. The second designation, a Diamond bust referring to the other Minor, is also a colloquialism used in the bridge community. This particular method, origin unknown, has several variations, which have been included.

Four Suit Transfer Bids - 4 Suit Transfer Bids
This is an extended version of the Jacoby Transfer conventional method following an opening of 1 No Trump by partner and allowing the responder to transfer to all four suits.

Heeman Response Method
This online write-up is in a .pdf file format presented by Jack Bridge in English and in Dutch. This conventional defense method was devised by Mr. Wim Heemskerk of Bodegraven, The Netherlands, with the help of Mr. Magnus Lindkvist, Mr. Mats Nilsland, Mr. Anders Wirgren, and Mr. Leandro Burgay of Italy. It is possible with this response method to discover whether there exists any weaknesses, which may cause a final contract of No Trump to fail. The article will be automatically opened by your browser. This information has also only been preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.

Jacoby Transfers Bids - Jacoby Transfers
A conventional response method to show length in one of the Major suits.

Jacoby Super Accepts
Compiled by Mr. Chris Hasney and Mr. Jerry Pottier. This is a discussion about the possibility of super accepting a Jacoby Transfer bid by partner. Pros and cons are weighed and considered. The feature of the Ogust super accept is also discussed and explained. Mr. Chris Hasney and Mr. Jerry Pottier are co-authors of The American Bridge Series of bridge books. The link is to a .pdf file and will be automatically opened by your browser. This file has also only been preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for purposed of future reference.

Jacoby Transfers For The Minor Suits
This convention, originally devised by Mr. Oswald Jacoby, is used by the responder whose partner has opened the bidding with 1 No Trump, and is an extension of the Jacoby Transfer convention. The concept of this convention was created for the responder, whose holding includes a long Minor suit and, generally, very little values.

Joppen No Trump - Joppe's No Trump Continuances
Devised by Mr. Jukka Mattila of Finland. According to a rough translation this concept was devised based on the Jacoby-esque transfer bids, but which include a more enhanced method than the Two-Way Stayman conventional method. This presentation is the original as found on the website (presently off line) of Mr. Jukka Mattila. This information has also only been preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.

The first link is to the website and the second link is to Joppe's NT, which has been translated to English by Mr. Jari Böling (website presently off line). The original Finnish version, published online in the year 2004, can also be found online, which has also only been preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.

Kiri Convention
The origin of this conventional method is unknown. The concept allows the partnership, following a No Trump opening bid by partner to determine the strength of the No Trump opening as minimum, average, or maximum.

KIVI Convention - Tarp 4 Diamonds
This conventional method was originated by Mr. Kaj Tarp, (also written Kai), of Denmark. This conventional method is also known under the designation of Tarp 4 Diamonds after the name of the person, who devised it. This method was published in the Dansk Bridge magazine, (The Danish Bridge magazine) in the year 1958, written by the author.

McKendrick Convention
The origin of this conventional method is unknown. The concept of the McKendrick conventional method is defined by its requirements for the responder following a No Trump opening bid by partner. The multiple two-response method, which is the basic principle behind the concept, is the basic definition of the concept.

Miles Responses to Two No Trump Openings
A method of responding to opening bids of 2 No Trump devised by Mr. Marshall Lauren Miles to assist in the safe exploration for slams, games, or partscores in any suit.

Non Trump Conventions
This is an outline authored by Mr. Oleksandr Zhukovskyy from Ukraine from 2008 to 2009. This outline has not been altered in any manner, which would deviate from the original to convey any other content. The conventional methods of Terno Transfers (named for a small town, in which the author lived), Leszek Wesoiowski transfers, and Ukra-Check (meaning Urainian check-back) are also included. This information has also only been preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.

Smolen Convention
A convention allowing the weaker hand to force the No Trump bidder to become the declarer. This conventional method was originated by Mr. Michael Smolen. The responder holds a 4-5 distribution in both Major suits, but employs first the Stayman conventional method, and by a 2 Diamonds denial bid, employs Smolen to find a Major suit fit.

Texas Convention
This conventional method was devised by Mr. David C. Carter of St. Louis, Missouri, United States, born in the year 1906, (Source: OEofB, 1976, page 600), and also independently by Mr. Olle Willner, born in the year 1923, of Stockholm, Sweden, which he described in the Swedish bridge magazine Bridge Tidningen. He published a series of articles beginning at the end of the year 1953 and ending early in the year 1954. In order to understand the origins it must be stated that the two mentioned bridge experts devised the concept to easily accommodate certain bidding sequences with certain bidding guidelines.
This conventional method is also a feature of the optional conventions used in the Acol Bidding System.

Dutch Texas Transfer or Dutch Texas Transfer Bids
The
designations Dutch Texas Transfer and Dutch Texas Transfer Bids refer to the original Texas Convention, and is a variation thereof. Although unsubstantiated the origin is most likely The Netherlands.

Extended Texas Convention
The origin of this conventional method is unknown. This is a variation of the Texas Convention combined with the Smolen conventional method to show a particular holding in both Major suits.

Roth Texas Convention
This variation of the Texas convention was developed by Mr. Alvin Leon Roth, and was described in his publication Picture Bidding, published in 1991 by Granovetter Books, ISBN: 0940257114. The idea of the concept is the realization that a Texas transfer bid may result in a game contract, which may catch the No Trump bidder with a very weak 2-card suit.

South African Texas Convention
A variation of the Texas Convention developed by Mr. Max Sapire with the sole purpose in the early stages of the evolution of the game of bridge
that neither partner should not forget, but rather be reminded of the transfer bids.

Texas At The Two Level
Although quite similar to the Jacoby Transfer conventional method, this approach is different is several aspects. One main difference is that the responder is able to transfer partner to a Minor suit. A second feature of this conventional approach is that the partnership can use the two level, the three level, and the four level to communicate certain distributions.

Three-Level Response Methods To A 1 No Trump Opening
Following an opening bid of 1 No Trump of practically any range the three level has been idle, unused, unemployed, and in general inactive as a possible response bid by the responder. Over time and during the evolution of the game of bridge many bridge players within the bridge community have devised and developed methods for bids on the three level, thereby unlocking many new creative and innovative means to describe the holding to partner.

Tolleson Transfer Bids
Tolleson Transfer bids, a new way of 4-way transfers after 1 No Trump opening. They have been devised and invented in the year 2004 by American-born German player Jeanine Greifswald-Tolleson, and contributed by Mr. Frank Göbel to this website on May 19, 2004. The following bids are all based on the assumption that partner opened with 1 No Trump, the range being between 15-18 high card points and a possible 5-card Major suit.

Two No Trump Response as a Relay to Three Clubs
This treatment is used by many partnerships, which utilize the response of 2 Spades as a slam try in a Minor suit. The concept is easy since, after a 1 No Trump opening by the partner, a 2 No Trump first response is a Relay to Clubs.

Venezuelan Transfers
This style of responding to a No Trump opening by partner was developed by and originated with Mr. Roberto Beniam of Venezuela. The systemized method was employed when responding to and also continuances (rebidding) following a strong No Trump opening. This response method was first approved for official application by the Venezuelan Team participating in the Bermuda Bowl in the year 1966. This method has become obsolete and is no longer practiced. No additional information is presently available and any assistance would be greatly appreciated.

Note: Mr. Roberto Benaim was born in the year 1924 and is of Caracas, Venezuela, and was officially ranked among the most expert bridge players during the 1960s. He was a South American Champion in the years 1965 and 1966. He represented the country of Venezuela in the World Team Olympiad in the year 1968, placed third in the Bermuda Bowl in the year 1966 with team mates Mr. David Berah, Mr. Robbie de Leeuw, Mr. Mario Onorati, Mr. Roger Rossignol, and Mr. Françis Vernon. He also participated in the Bermuda Bowl in the year 1967. He won the South American Championships seven times and he accumulated eleven victories in national tournaments including wins in Open Teams.

Note: Mr. Alan Truscott, in his bridge column for The New York Times relates, as published in his column dated April 15, 2000, a board played In the 1964 South American Championships, played in Punta del Este, Uruguay. The player sitting East and who defeated the No Trump game contract by six tricks was Mr. Roberto Benaim partnering with Mr. David Berah, also of Venezuela.

Walsh Relays
This is a method devised and developed by Mr. Richard R. Walsh to describe the appropriate responses by the responder, who is seeking slam after partner has opened the auction with 1 No Trump. Whether or not the partnership can employ these responses also for an opening bid of 2 No Trump is solely partnership agreement.

Walsh Transfers - Walsh Transfer Bids - Transfer Walsh
Note: The original source is no longer online. The concept of Walsh Transfers (aka Transfer Walsh) has been expanded to include additional features by Mr. Micha Keijzers - archived website. The reasoning is that the method is effective in discovering a 5-3 or 4-4 fit in either Major suit following a preparatory 1 Club opening bid. This information has only been preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.

Weissberger Convention
The Weissberger method is a conventional variation of the Stayman convention. The concept behind this variation evolved within the Acol bidding system and was devised by Mr. Alan Truscott, Mr. John Pressburger, and Mr. Maurice Weissberger, after whom the conventional variation was named.

Woodson Two-Way No Trump
This convention, named after Mr. William Woodson, permits an opening bid of 1 No Trump with any balanced hand and can contain 10-12 high card points or 16-18 high card points. Mr. William Woodson reasoned that the opponents would have a more difficult time entering the auction if confronted by a 1 No Trump. If you select to use the Woodson Convention, include it in your Partnership Agreement, and ascertain whether you may play it at certain tournaments.

 

 

If you wish to include this feature, or any other feature, of the game of bridge in your partnership agreement, then please make certain that the concept is understood by both partners. Be aware whether or not the feature is alertable or not and whether an announcement should or must be made. Check with the governing body and/or the bridge district and/or the bridge unit prior to the game to establish the guidelines applied. Please include the particular feature on your convention card in order that your opponents are also aware of this feature during the bidding process, since this information must be made known to them according to the Laws of Duplicate Contract Bridge. We do not always include the procedure regarding Alerts and/or Announcements, since these regulations are changed and revised during time by the governing body. It is our intention only to present the information as concisely and as accurately as possible.

 


     
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