The origin of this conventional method is unknown. The concept belongs in the category of a preemptive bid in order to shut out the opponents. This action is initiated following the discovery of an immediate fit and/or a fit without competitive interference.
Note: The designation can also be written numerically as 123 Stop or 1-2-3 Stop. Any additional information about the origin of this conventional method would be greatly appreciated.
Foundation of the Concept
Although the idea behind this conventional method is that it is employed following an opening bid of a Major suit by partner, it can also be used by partnership agreement by any suit opening by partner.
The foundation of the concept is that the responder raises the suit of partner by one level. If the opening bidder believes that game is not possible, then the opening bidder raises the bidding by one level, thus producing a preemptive bid by the opening bidder. This is done in order to prevent the opposing side to enter the auction on the three level.
There are three options open to the opening partner as shown below. Source.
Pass: The contract is optimum without any additional values. The contract is makeable if the opponents remain silent. The pass becomes the preferable action. Raise: The opener can preempt to the three level to obstruct the opposing side from entering the auction. This preemptive strike must be based on a solid re-evaluation of the holding, which allows the partnership at least a more than positive opportunity to actually make the partscore. 2 NT: In order to inquire as to the range of values held by the responder, the opening partner must bid 2 No Trump, which is the only forcing rebid. The responder can then either establish the contract at the three level with minimum values or bid game with near-maximum values.
AK754 KJ8 J103 76
Q83 AQ74 1075 953 North East South West Meaning 1 Pass 2 Pass The raise to the two level by South is limited to 5/6-9 points. Pass The preferable action for North is to pass in the expectation that the opposing side does not enter the auction. (Note: the student will also note that the holding contains the maximum number of 8 losing tricks.)
AK10954 KJ8 103 Q6
Q83 AQ74 975 953 North East South West Meaning 1 Pass 2 Pass The raise to the two level by South is limited to 5/6-9 points. 3 The preferable action for North is to pass in the expectation that the opposing side does not enter the auction. With this holding the opening bidder will preempt to the three level, which the responder must pass. (Note: this decision to exclude, by preempting, the opposing side is also based by the opener on the fact that the holding contains 7 losing tricks, one fewer than in the first example.)
AKQ105 KJ8 103 Q6
Q83 AQ74 975 953 North East South West Meaning 1 Pass 2 Pass The raise to the two level by South is limited to 5/6-9 points. 3 The opener reevaluates the holding and counts 6 losing tricks, which allows the opener to attempt a game-try by bidding, if possible, a second natural suit. This suit may be either a 3-card or 4-card suit. (Note: if the opener holds stronger values and the total number of losing tricks is five, then the opener automatically bids game in a Major suit.) 3/4 The responder will either bid the partscore with minimum values, and partner must pass. Holding maximum values the responder will bid game in a Major suit.
If you wish to include this feature, or any other feature, of the game of bridge in your partnership agreement, then please make certain that the concept is understood by both partners. Be aware whether or not the feature is alertable or not and whether an announcement should or must be made. Check with the governing body and/or the bridge district and/or the bridge unit prior to the game to establish the guidelines applied. Please include the particular feature on your convention card in order that your opponents are also aware of this feature during the bidding process, since this information must be made known to them according to the Laws of Duplicate Contract Bridge. We do not always include the procedure regarding Alerts and/or Announcements, since these regulations are changed and revised during time by the governing body. It is our intention only to present the information as concisely and as accurately as possible.
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