The following is a list of opening bids devised over the years by bridge theoreticians, bridge authors, bridge publicists, and bridge players. There are many publications, many published books, pamphlets, and other journals, which contain this information. We feel obliged to include these sources at the bottom of the list and also on the web page containing the opening bids.

In the evolution of the game of bridge, opening bids played an important part in laying the foundation stone for many complete bidding systems, bidding systems having all necessary or normal parts, components, or steps fulfilling the requirements of and for all continuances. These opening bids were developed in different countries and have gained some popularity nationally and/or within the bridge community and some have been practically forgotten. However, the developers spent many hours of research, many hours of their time to develop some sort of standard for the opening bids, which allowed a practical if not standard bidding system to become established.

Many of these opening bids are included in this Glossary for the research of the visitor and are as close to the original as possible and are taken from published works by different authors. It was the intent of all developers of such opening bids to create a more uniform and established foundation for an evolving game and to assist the individual player to assess the validity and effectiveness of their work. Over time, these opening bids have become an integral part of various bidding systems and are still in effect to this day.

Also over time, each of these foundation stones have included the development of other conventions, methods and treatments, which have been devised to assist the individual player and have therefore been enhanced and revised to accommodate such conventions, methods and treatments. The establishment of such opening bids have greatly enhanced the game of bridge and some have become definite and popular bidding systems, which was the ultimate goal of such developers.

The reader may not expect the inclusion of any responses or continuances following the opening bids. Generally, owing to the time passed, these are neither included nor can they be re-discovered at this time. We wish the reader an interesting journey into the history of the game.

Aces Club Opening Bids
The Aces Club opening bidding system was played by Mr. Bob Hamman and Mr. Bobby Wolff in the American Aces Team. The similarity to the bidding system of Blue Team Club is evident and the differences are only slight.

Acol Opening Bids
The Acol Bidding System found its origin in the country of England, from where it spread to the United Kingdom. The bidding system has seen many evolutions and changes since its inception. The opening bids of this bidding system are especially important to the bridge player since they form the foundation, upon which all continuances are based.

Alpha Opening Bids
These opening bids were devised and developed by Mr. Bertrand Romanet of France around 1968. The subsequent responses and rebids follow the pattern of relay bids and canapé bidding sequences. The bidding system employs the use of opening a 5-card Major suit as opposed to a 4-card Major suit, and the weak No Trump opening, the use of the 2 No Trump bid as a transfer to the next higher suit Clubs.

Amsterdam Club Bidding System
The Amsterdam Club System has undergone many changes, multiple variations have been added, and the system has been modified over the years. Additional information would be greatly appreciated. Only the opening bids are presented.

Australian Standard Opening Bids
There are many versions of bidding systems in Australia, even Goren and Acol, which have evolved over time with the introduction of new and newer bridge concepts. The general consensus is that there is no one definite standard bidding system and the presented information represents, in approximation only, perhaps the most common version of the opening bids with the most desired requirements. For additional information, visit the Australian Bridge Federation.

Austrian Blue Club Opening Bids
This is a variation and modified form of the original Blue Club bidding system, or Blue Team Club, devised by Mr. Benito Garozzo, which was employed by the famous Blue Team and had great popularity in the 1960s and 1970s.

Bernier Big Club Opening Bids
These opening bids were devised by Mr. Jerry Bernier and Mr. Mike Schmenk in the 1960s and is based on the Kaplan-Sheinwold and Schenken Club. This opening system was devised by Mr. Jerry Bernier and Mr. Mike Schmenk in the 1960s and is based on the Kaplan-Sheinwold and Schenken Club. Source: A Bridge System Collection as presented by Mr. Jan Eric Larsson.

Beta Opening Bids
In the early stages of developing the game of bridge, a need arose for opening a weak Club as opposed to a strong, artificial 1 Club, which was employed mainly to obstruct the bidding of the opponents. Beta opening bids were devised around the year 1958 and then compiled, organized and published by Mr. Pierre Collet of Belgium in his original publication Introduction au bridge scientifique, published 1958 in Bruxelles, V.S.G., Belgium.

Bissell Opening Bids
As early as the year 1936 Mr. Harold Winthrop Bissell of New York, United States, had a developed bidding system based on his Bissell Points, which he brought to publication. This presentation only presents the opening bids of this bidding system.

Bludgeon Opening Bids
These opening bids were devised and developed by Mr. Ian Wilson of Irvine, California, United States. The concept is that the opening bids constitute a bidding system based wholly on limit bidding only with no bid being a forcing bid, neither one round forcing nor game forcing.

Blue Team Club Openings
Blue Team became the popular name for the Italian International Bridge Team, which had many international successes from 1956 to 1975. The captain and the members of the Blue Team devised a bidding system, which is still played today. The Blue Team Club was the result of the efforts of the Italian Bridge Federation, Mr. Carl Alberto Perroux, the team captain, and the team members, who dedicated themselves to the study of the game of bridge.

Bocchi-Duboin Opening Bids
These opening bids are the principle features of the bidding system developed by Mr. Norberto Bocchi and Mr. Giorgio Duboin, both of Italy.

Bowman-Hancock Opening Bids
These opening bids were devised and developed by Mr. John H. Hancock of Los Alamos, New Mexico, and additionally by Mr. Allen Bowman of Green Valley, Arizona. Incorporated are the opening of 5-card Majors, the 1 No Trump Forcing convention after a Major suit opening, and the use of Stayman and Transfers after a 1 No Trump opening. Following a strong opening of 2 Clubs and / or 2 Diamonds, relays are used as artificial negatives.

Breakthrough Opening Bids
These opening bids were devised and developed by Mr. Robert D. Sundby of Wisconsin, United States. Generally all first responses are considered to be natural although any one level response can represent a canapé bid. After a Major suit opening, which allowed for a 4-card suit, the responder could use the 1 No Trump Forcing convention.

Bridge World Standard Opening Bids
This system was created by consensus of the readers of the Bridge World Magazine, when Mr. Edgar Kaplan was editor of the magazine. The year of the first release and publication is unknown. An update has been released for the year 2001 and can be found on the Internet at the address of The Bridge World. Presented is the Complete System for Bridge World Standard 2001.

Cable Car Opening Bids
These opening bids were devised by Mr. Steve Altus of Stanford, California, United States; originally of Tampa, Florida, United States. World Bridge Federation Code: WBF Code: USA&500003. Mr. Steve Altus won The Red Ribbon Pairs national bridge championship in 1994, which is held at the Spring American Contract Bridge League's (ACBL) North American Bridge Championship (NABC). His partner was Mr. T. C. Petty.

Cambridge Standard Opening Bids
These opening bids were formed, modified, and redefined by the students and bridge players of the University of Cambridge, located in Cambridge, England. The University of Cambridge was founded, as early records report, in the year 1209 and is the second-oldest university in England. The game of bridge was vigorously played and the opening bids employed were the foundation of the bidding system. These opening bids continue to form the foundation of the partnership agreement in national and international competitions.

Clement Oliver Opening Bids
This opening bids structure was developed by Mr. Bruce Clement and Mrs. Pam Oliver of Wellington, New Zealand.

Clone Opening Bids
These are the opening bids of the Clone bidding system. The continuances are not presented.

Cloudberry Club Opening Bids
These opening bids were devised and developed by Mr. Max Odlund from Sweden in the late 1970s. After an opening of 1 Club, a first response of 1 Diamond is considered to be negative, whereas a Major suit response shows at least a 5-card suit. A first response of 2 Clubs is game-forcing if the opening is weak, and slam-forcing if the opening is strong, which the opener must decide and direct to the correct contract.

Cobra Opening Bids
As a base for the entered data into the software application, Mr. E.T. Lindelof used the following opening bids, similar to the Schenken Club opening bids. They establish precise limits for each opening bid but the system was so set up that the software could establish and adjust the point value of a certain holding according to its individual hand evaluation method.

Coffin Natural Big Club Opening Bids
Mr. George Sturgis Coffin was born on September 8, 1903 and died March 12, 1994. He was born in Waltham, Massachusetts, United States. He was an American author and also publisher of bridge-related books as well as other games. He was also a co-founder of the American Bridge Teachers Association. The opening bids or his bidding system are presented on this web page.

Cranberry Club Opening Bids
These opening bids constitute a simplified version of the Tangerine Club system and was developed by Mr. Jan Eric Larsson of Sweden, who developed the Tangerine Club system. Only the opening bids are shown.

Crazy Diamond Opening Bids
These opening bids are from a bidding system used in The Netherlands and was developed by Mr. and Mrs. Arie van Heusden, (aka Willie), Mr. Jaap Kokkes, Mr. Kees Kaiser (WBF Code: NED&500602), Mr. Bob Kaiser, and co-bridge players and has been published in the book by Mr. Gerrit Jan R. Forch with the title Bieden voor Gevorderden.

Crimson Death Opening Bids
Developed by Mr. Brad Coles (aka: Redgrover) and Mr. David Appleton. Dated: April 19, 1999. As described by the authors: This is a red system, which is based around a Marston-style Forcing Pass System and uses the Green-Appleton-Coles-Kalnins version of symmetric relays. For the complete bidding system please visit the website of Mr. Brad Coles.

Crowhurst Acol Opening Bids
These opening bids are generally employed in southern England and are part of the Acol bidding system. Mr. Eric Crowhurst was born in 1935 in Reading, England, and who was a contributing editor for many bridge-related publications and also the author of several bridge books.

Culbertson Opening Bids
Mr. Eli Culbertson devised a standard version of opening bids to support his methods. The opening bids of his version is outlined below and pertain only to the opening bids.

Currified Precision Opening Bids
This is the documentation on the Internet of Mr. Neill Currie as presented by Mr. Tony Melucci, who was declared King of Bridge in the year 1995, at the included links. The system has been developed by both Mr. Neill Currie and Mr. Tony Melucci.

Danish Standard Opening Bids
Mr. Flemming Dahl
of Denmark, in a small published booklet issued in the early 1980s, described the system of Danish Standard opening bids. These opening bids may have changed over and with time.
Mr. Flemming Dahl has authored other bridge publications and also an updated version of the Danish Standard Opening Bids in his publication Grundbog: Dansk Bridge Standard (Danish Bridge Standard), published in the year 1994 by the Danmarks Bridgeforbund.

Danish Trend Opening Bids
This version of opening bids is / was favored in Denmark. The designation is not defined and the origin is unknown.

DESY Polish Club Opening Bids
These bids represent only the opening bids with corresponding explanation for the developed DESY Polish Club Bidding System. According to the website of the DESY Bridge Group these bids are attributed to Katherine Wipf, Mr. Bill Murray, Mr. Doug Hasell, and Mr. Henk Uijterwaal. They were employees of a company called High Energy Physics Laboratory located in Hamburg, Germany. DESY is short for the name of the company in German, which is Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron Laboratorium. Source is no longer active and online.
The interested reader may wish to also visit the S.B.C. Dombo Studenten Bridge Club in Holland.

Deuces Scientific Opening Bids
These opening bids were devised and developed by Mr. Donald Varvel of Mountain View, California, United States, and Mr. Eric Taylor of Austin, Texas, United States.

The Diamond Major Opening Bids
This bidding system was devised and developed by Mr. Peter John Oakley, presently the President of The International On-Line Bridge Club, (Bridge Club Live), and which is located in Christchurch, New Zealand. The bidding system is represented as a modern system full of stimulating ideas for the adventurous player. The cornerstone of the philosophy is the 1 Diamond opening which promises precisely 4 cards in one of the Major suits; the 1 Club opening bid is a versatile bid.

DONT System Opening Bids
Devised by Mr. Mark Donovan of Kingston, Ontario, Canada, and posted online in February 2008. Version 2.0. As written by the author this particular system is illegal to play in any ACBL and WBF events since the primary purpose of this system is completely destructive. The system employs a forcing pass feature. The information for the complete outline of the DONT System has also only been preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.

Douche Club Opening Bids
Mr. Mark Abraham, Mr. Griffith Ware, and Mr. Daniel Geromboux published online the Douche Club bidding system May 24, 2007. The following information can be found online at the website of Mr. Mark Abraham. The devised bidding system relies heavily on the opening bids, which communicate particular information about the distribution of the holding. The bridge student will discover that the bidding system is marked by the one parameter of shortage in any given suit, which mandates the opening bid.

Dutch Acol Opening Bids
The Acol bidding system, developed and enhanced in England, has many followers in the bridge community and has gained world-wide acceptance. The guidelines of the Acol bidding system are, however, not static and can be varied to fit the needs and requirements of individual partnership agreements. This is not only the case in England, but also around the world. One version of the Acol bidding system in The Netherlands is called Dutch Acol, and deals mainly with the opening bid. Although this variant has many similarities with the general guidelines of the Acol bidding system, some of the opening bids differ.

Dutch Standard Opening Bids
There are many different bidding systems employed in Holland and are considered standard. Those presented are from the mid 1980s.

Efos Opening Bids
The Economic Forcing System introduced new features, especially after a No Trump opening. One of these features is the Repeated or Extended Stayman convention. The bidding system is similar to a Relay System in that, after an opening by one partner, the next, cheapest suit bid is considered either natural or a generally forcing bid. The publication of Mr. Eric Jannersten, Vi spelar tävlingsbridge: Boken om Efos, (Translation: We Play Tournament Bridge. The Book / Story of Efos.), in the year 1956 contains and outlines additional information about his concept and bidding system.

Estonian Diamond Opening Bids
The origin of these opening bids are unknown and the designation is also vague. For additional information the interested visitor can contact the Estonian Bridge Federation.

Feldspar Opening Bids
These opening bids were devised and developed by Mr. Gordon Bower of Fairbanks, Alaska, United States, as a variation on systems, which employed multiple strong/weak 1 Club openings.

FClub or F-Club or Scanian Strong Club
Only the opening bids are presented. The origin of this artificial 1 Club opening bidding system plus complete continuances is unknown. This information was found on the website of Mr. Daniel Neill. The designations refer to the same information and bidding sequences.

Finnish Junior Standard Opening Bids
These opening bids were developed in the late 1980s and has gained some amount of popularity among bridge players. Officially the standard is defined for the bidding panel of the Finnish Bridge magazine (See Finnish Bridge Federation), but it is often regarded as a more general standard. Finnish bridge players quite often base their bidding system on this standard, usually omitting some conventions or adding their own. Review also: Bridgetietoutta.

Finnish Panel Standard Opening Bids
These opening bids were developed in the year 1995 and were introduced by Jikka Korpela of Finland as Finnish Panel Standard opening bids and as published in the Bridge Magazine of the Finnish Bridge Federation). Source is: Bridgetietoutta and are published online by Jikka Korpela.

Gamma Opening Bids
These opening bids were devised and developed by Mr. Édouard Lachand of France in 1971. They employ the opening of a 5-card Major suit, a weak No Trump range. Since they are based on the Roman and Super Precision bidding systems, the bidding sequences are controlled by relays and canapé bids to show length and range. These opening bids are from his publication Le Gamma (La Longue á Relais ou Le Gamma), published in 1971, with a preface by Mr. Jean-Paul Meyer. Publisher: Éditions de presse spécialisée, Paris, France, LC: 75585447, LCCN: 75585447.

Goren Opening Bids
These opening bids are also based on the Acol bidding system, whereby a 4-card Major could be opened. The bridge student should be aware that Mr. Charles Goren proposed many such opening bid structures, which varied slightly, but which also maintained a certain fundamental identity.

Hexagon Multisix Opening Bids
These opening bids were developed by Bijan Assaee of Australia. Source. They are designed to cover a range of possibilities. Each two-level opening bids covers six possible holdings. The responder generally bids the next higher-ranking suit. The link is to the website of Bijan Assaee. See also: Myxomatosis Two Bids.
This information has also been only preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.

Hybrid Club Opening Bids
These opening bids were first described by Mr. Ronald W. Vicker in his book titled The Hybrid Club: An Action System, published in the year 1981, and which was published privately by the author, ASIN: B0006E58BQ.

Ice Relay Opening Bids
These opening bids were developed by Mr. Jon Baldursson of Iceland. World Bridge Federation code: WBF Code: ISL&500011. The visitor can also review the Convention Card (,pdf file) of Mr. Jon Baldursson and Thorlakur Jonsson, which they employed for the 2008 European Championships. Their General Approach and Style is listed as Ice Relay Precision. Source: Mr. Daniell Neill via Mr. Bjorgvin Runar Leifsson.

Imprecision Club Opening Bids
These opening bids were devised and developed by Mr. Robin Michaels of Cambridge, England. They employ the use of opening a 5-card Major suit, a weaker No Trump range, and a distributional description of the holding on the two level.

Jacoby Modern Opening Bids
Mr. Oswald Jacoby, together with his son Mr. James Jacoby, devised these opening bids during his bridge career with certain established requirements for the bridge player, intended to become standard. However, the concept of opening a 4-card Major suit was eventually replaced with the concept of a 5-card Major suit.

J-Moscito Opening Bids - 2002
J-Moscito is a variation of Moscito (Major Oriented Strong Club), originally invented by Paul Marston and Stephen Burgess. These opening bids of this version, dated October 22, 2002, was developed by Mr. Jari Böling (Jari Boeling). This variation is based on Honeymoon Moscito authored by Mr. Peter Buchen as described by Mr. Richard Willey and discussions with Mr. Kurt Häggblom.

J-Moscito Concept and Opening Bids - 2003
This is a .pdf file and will be automatically opened by your browse in a new window. It represents the revised version dated April 25, 2003, with distinctively different attached meanings especially to the opening bids. This variation is based on Honeymoon Moscito authored by Mr. Peter Buchen as described by Mr. Richard Willey and discussions with Mr. Kurt Häggblom.

J-Moscito Concept and Opening Bids - 2004
This is a .pdf file and will be automatically opened by your browser in a new window. It represents the revised version dated October 8, 2004, with different attached meanings especially to the opening bids. This variation is based on Honeymoon Moscito authored by Mr. Peter Buchen as described by Mr. Richard Willey and discussions with Mr. Kurt Häggblom.

Little Roman Club System Opening Bids
These opening bids are also referred to as Arno. The bidding system (Italian: Fiori Romano) is an artificial bridge bidding system devised in the 1950s by Mr. Giorgio Belladonna and Mr. Walter Avarelli of Italy's Blue Team. They used it to win twelve World Bidge Federation World Teams Championships, three Olympiads and numerous European and National titles. A variant, Little Roman or Arno, was played by their Blue team mates Mr. Massimo D'Alelio and Mr. Camillo Pabis Ticci.

Mafia Club Opening Bids
Only the opening bids are presented. The Mafia Club bidding system was invented by Mr. Kenneth L. Lindsay and published under the title of 3-D and the Mafia Club by Aiga Publications in the year 1981. The designation MAFIA stands for Majors First Always.

MamiC Opening Bids
The concept of the MamiC Opening Bid system was devised by Mr. Richard Lighton of New Jersey, United States, around 1990. The concept is based on the Major-Minor-Canapé opening bidding system. This means that a 4-card Major suit is opened first before a 5-card Minor suit, and that a 4-card Minor suit is opened first before a 5-card Major suit. Source

Majeure Cinquieme Opening Bids
This is the general designation given by the bridge players in France to the bidding system mostly employed by partnerships, and which is considered standard. The designation is translated as Five Card Majors (or Fifth Card). They have been revised over time to some degree, but the general basics continue to be applicable.

Note: The Majeure Cinquiéme bidding system is very similar to and, in many instances, identical to the Forum D bidding system, which is mainly employed in the country of Germany.

Match Point Precision Opening Bids
These opening bids are a continuing evolution of the Precision Bidding System and have been used by expert players. This version allowed the player to open the auction more frequently due to the various shapes being included in the 1 Diamonds opening bid. Match Point Precision is a publication authored by Mr. Chung Ching Wei (aka Charles or C.C. Wei) and Mr. Ron Andersen with an introduction by Mr. Richard L. Frey. The First Edition was published by Baron Barclay Bridge Supplies in the year 1978. ISBN-10: 087643037X / ISBN-13: 978-0876430378.

Medium Club Relay Club Opening Bids
These opening bids were devised and developed by Mr. Johan Alex Fransz from Indonesia and Mr. Ronald Denny Klinger, aka Ron Klinger, from Australia, which was published in the book Medium Club Relay of 1988, and played by them in international competitions.

MG Precision Opening Bids
These are the opening bids of the Precision bidding system handbook, published privately March 24, 2009, devised by Mr. Greg Earnest together with bridge partner Meaghin Burke of Oxford, Mississippi, United States. The designation MG is from the first initials of both names. Mr. Greg Earnest has published this information privately and offers it for downloading on his web blog Walking the Dog.

Mock Swedish Opening Bids
This is a opening bidding system devised in 1993 by Mr. Richard Lighton of New Jersey, United States, who was fascinated by the Muppet Show created by Mr. Jim Henson. Especially one character captured his imagination, and that was the Swedish Chef who spoke in babbled sounds and made absolutely no sense, but who was comical and chaotic at the same time.

Modern Polish Club Opening Bids
This is a variation of the Polish Club bidding system and was devised by Mr. Greg Matula of Poland. The opening of 1 Club could describe one of four different shapes and distributions, which would be clarified in the ensuing auction. This bidding system also includes a strong 1 No Trump opening, whereas the 2 No Trump opening describes a two-suited opening in both Minor suits. Weak Two openings describe distributional holdings, one of which is the suit mentioned.

Modern Standard Club Opening Bids
These opening bids are based on the Swedish Standard bidding system and is very similar to the concept behind the Precision bidding system. The visitor can obtain additional information about standard opening bids at the website of Swedish Bridge Federation or Sveriges Bridgeförbund.

Moscito System
This bidding system was developed and devised first by Mr. Paul Marston and Mr. Stephen Burgess. The designation is an acronym of Major Oriented Strong Club. For its foundation, Mr. Paul Marston and Mr. Stephen Burgess used to a considerable extent the Symmetric Relay system and applied their version especially in auctions where the opening side has the balance of power.

Myxomatosis Two Bids
This system of Weak Two bids, or bids beginning on the two level, with optional and various features was devised and developed by Mr. Robert Sebesfi (aka: Bob Sebesfi) of Sydney Australia.

Myxomatosis Two Bids Variation
A variation of the fundamental concept was devised by Mr. Sean Bentley and Mr. Yiannis John Sfinias, and is included on the identical web page.

Myxomatosis Two Bids Variation
An alternative variation of the fundamental concept was devised by Mr. Tony Rolfe of Australia, and is included on the identical web page.

Myxomatosis Two Bids Variation
An alternative variation of the fundamental concept was devised by Mr. Paul Soloway, although this cannot be positively substantiated. Any contribution of additional information would be greatly appreciated.

New South Wales Opening Bids
This is a variation of the Vienna System formerly used by Mr. Richard John Cummings, (aka Dick Cummings, born in the year 1932 and died in the year 1999), and Mr. Thomas Peter Seres, (aka Tim Seres, pictured below, born April 1, 1925 and died September 27, 2007), in collaboration with other Australian bridge experts. The system and the opening bids were amended and expanded by Mr. William K. A. Schaufelberger (aka Wil Schaufelberger, born 1902 and died 1972), and by Mr. Ronald D. Klinger, (aka Ron Klinger).

Nottingham Club Opening Bids
This is a system which was popular in the English Midlands during the 1930s. Its popularity remained until around the end of the 1960s, and competed strongly in England for favor by bridge players against the Acol bidding system. The origin is reputedly to be by The Nottingham Bridge Club and revised by Mr. L. William Simpson. The system, after gaining popularity, was revised and privately published in the 1950s and titled: The Revised Nottingham Club Bridge Bidding System, authored by Mr. L. William Simpson, born 1909. Margery Burns' original book, The Nottingham System of Contract Bridge, was eventually published in 1954.

Nusine Club Opening Bids
These opening bids were devised and developed by Mr. Knut Blakset and his older brother Mr. Lars Blakset of Denmark. Perhaps in a humorous moment they decided to name these opening bids after Knut's cat, which was / is named Nusine.

O'Carrot Club Opening Bids
The O'Carrot Club opening bids represent the newer version of the Carrot Club opening bids. This version was developed by Mr. Sven-Olof Flodqvist, who played it with Mr. Svante Ryman, Mr. Hans Gothe, and Mr. Lars Andersson in order to satisfy certain sponsoring bridge organizations, which declined to accept the original version (Carrotski Club) under their Rules and Regulations policies.

Octopus Club Opening Bids
This is the designation assigned to a bridge relay system, which was devised and developed by Mr. Giorgio Rivara, whose website can be visited by clicking on the link above. Translation: The basic idea comes from the American system Ultimate Club published by Becker, Granovetter, Ginsberg and Rubin in 1981. This information has been only preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.

Note: Mr. Giorgio Rivara, genovese, istruttore di bridge, si è dedicato all'elaborazione ed alla stesura dell'Octopus Club prendendo spunto dal sistema Ultimate Club pubblicato per la prima volta negli Stati Uniti nel 1981.

Oltbrink Bidding System
This system was devised by and is played by Mr. Sjoert Brink and Mr. Erik Oltmans from The Netherlands. The designation is a combination of the two surnames of the developers.
The system is based on the combination of Precision and the Lorenzo Two Bids.

Power Precision Opening Bids
These opening bids are a variation of the Precision bidding system with a multiple 2 Diamonds opening bid, but with a definitive 1 Club opening showing only any shape and 16 plus points.

Precision Club Opening Bids
These opening bids have gained enormous popularity of the followers of the Precision bidding system, which was devised by Mr. Chung Ching Wei, and which was used to a great advantage by the Chinese National Team. Only the opening bids with their definitions and/or requirements are shown.

Reed-Horn Club Opening Bids
These opening bids were devised by Mr. James D. Horn, (aka Stormy) of El Paso, Texas, United States, and Richard Reed, aka Dick, of Boulder, Colorado, United States. They represent a variation of the Precision bidding system or vice versa, since the similarities are quite evident in part although the Club opening was increased in values and the No Trump values were lowered.

Relay Club Opening Bids
These opening bids were devised by Mr. S. G. Bose Mullick of New Delhi, India, and which were published in his book The Relay Club in the year 1975. They are the result of the study of several other opening bidding sequences and/or requirements such as the French Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Monaco opening bids, all of which employ the use of canapé and relay sequences.

Romex Opening Bids
These opening bids were developed by Mr. George Rosenkranz of Mexico. The following schematic shows the requirements. These bids have been developed over a period of time and published in his books, co-authored with Mr. Phillip Alder, Bid To Win, Play For Pleasure, Godfrey's Bridge Challenge, and Godfrey's Stairway To The Stars.

Roth-Stone Opening Bids
These opening bids were developed by Mr. Alvin Leon Roth and Mr. Tobias Stone. These opening bids constituted the foundation of the Roth-Stone System, first published in 1953 and then revised and re-published in the year 1958.

Rubber Bridge Acol Opening Bids
These opening bids are / were employed in the northern parts of England for many years and are / were considered standard opening bids. Their present popularity or use has diminished and is limited to only a few remaining bridge clubs playing rubber bridge.

Schizo Club Opening Bids
These opening bids are based on the Precision and Symmetric Relay bids and were devised by Mr. Steve Starkey of Pecs, Hungary. The main feature of this method is that most opening bids show various distributional holdings, different possible value ranges and definite card length in at least one suit. The special feature of the Forcing Pass is to be noted, since it communicates information to the partner.

Science Opening Bids - The Science: Simply Scientific Four-Card Majors
These opening bids gained a certain popularity among bridge players on the Cambridge University Bridge Club. They were first devised by Mr. Tom Townsend. Additional information can be viewed at the website of the Cambridge University Bridge Club. This information has only been preserved and archived on this site in a in a .pdf file format for future reference.

Short Club Opening Bids
Authored by Mr. Mark Abraham and Mr. Griff Ware and published online April 20, 2009, the Short Club Variant consists of multiple opening bids for all four suits on the one level. The continuations allow the partnership to discover or reveal the relevant definition. Mr. Mark Abraham and Mr. Griff Ware have presented there bidding system online.

Note: A write-up of the Short Club Variant, dated February 10, 2009, authored by Mr. Mark Abraham, Mr. Griff Ware, and Mr. Daniel Geomboux has only been preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.

Note: A newer write-up of the Short Club Variant, dated April 20, 2009, authored by Mr. Mark Abraham and Mr. Griff Ware has only been preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.

Spread or Strong Pass Relay Ever Avoiding Defending
Authored by Mr. Mark Abraham and published online in its latest updated version in the year 2005. This system is a major advance within the SCRAPE framework (Strong Club Relay Avoiding Passing Ever). An alternative designation is the acronym SPREAD.

Stayman Opening Bids
Mr. Samuel M. Stayman, in the early days of the game of bridge, devised a list of opening bids as the basic foundation for a partnership agreement. In his publication The Complete Stayman System of Contract Bidding, published by Rinehart and Company in the year 1956, he outlined his bidding system and included the opening bids.

Super Mixed Precision Opening Bids
This variation on the opening bids was developed in Sweden and the originator is unknown. These opening bids are based on the original concept of the Precision Club as devised by Mr. Chung Ching Wei, feature the opening of a 5-card Major suit and employ a reduced value for a No Trump opening. The 1 No Trump Forcing convention after an opening of a Major suit is employed.

Super Precision Opening Bids
These opening bids are a result of the Precision bidding system, which was developed by Mr. Benito Garozzo and Mr. Georgio Belladonna, and which were employed by the italian Blue Team for many victories in international events and for many years. This opening bid structure allowed the partnership to open more frequently due to the fact that the 1 Diamond opening could show various shapes.

Svan Opening Bids
These opening bids are versions of the Carrot Club and were developed by Mr. Anders Morath of Stockholm, Sweden. The original version of the Carrot Club was not acceptable to all sponsoring organizations of bridge events and other, acceptable versions had to be developed. This version has gained some popularity with the Swedish Junior Elite and is known by the designation of Skrot, which roughly translated means metal junk.

Swedish Precision Opening Bids
These opening bids are based on the Carrot Club bidding system as formulated by Mr. Anders Morathand and the basic concept of the Precision bidding system as formulated by Mr. Chung Ching Wei. This version employs a variable Weak-and-Strong 1 Club opening system.

Symmetric Club Opening Bids
These opening bids have the Precision bidding system as their foundation and were devised by Professor Roy Patrick Kerr and Mr. Paul Marston of New Zealand. All first responses to a 1 Club opening are considered natural, but otherwise all subsequent rebids are based on a complex system of Relay bids.

Symmetric Relay Opening Bids
The Symmetric Relay bidding system is a relay system developed by a group of bridge players from New Zealand. The system was first described by Mr. Roy Patrick Kerr of Kurow, New Zealand, and Mr. Walt Jones. A modified version, designated as Symmetric Relay, was developed by Mr. Hugh Grosvenor and Mr. Ian Robinson and published in the year 1986.

Tape Relay Opening Bids
The Tape Relay bidding system was devised by Mr. Donald Evans, and uses a Forcing Pass as an opening bid in any seat, after other players in rotation, opponents or partner, have passed. A Forcing Pass is a pass which forces the partner to take an action, even with insufficient values.

Toad Club System
This bidding system was developed by Americans Mr. Ken Schutze and Mr. Jim Griffin. The Toad Club system is a Big Club System in which all good hands (16 plus high card points or equivalent playing strength) are opened with 1 Club. Failure to open 1 Club, therefore, limits the hand to at most 15 points
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Torpedo Pairs Opening Bids
These opening bids are a variant of the Symmetric Club bidding system and employs Symmetric-like relays in generally all subsequent bidding. These bids were devised by Mr. Dean Eidler and Mr. Murat Genc of New Zealand, who intended Third Seat opening requirements of 12 to 16 high card points and Fourth Seat opening requirements of 17 high card points plus. These opening bids were, for all general purposes, the foundation of an individual partnership agreement based on their mutual bidding system, which gained some popularity.

T-Precision Opening Bids
Developed by Mr. Steve McGrahan of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, these opening bids represent his latest version 1.87 dated May 15, 2011, in pdf file format. These opening bids and the continuances have been developed over time and there have been improvements amended to the entire system, thereby creating a newer version. Such amendments can be found on the online blog.

Transfer Precision Opening Bids
These opening bids are based on and is a variation of the Precision bidding system and was developed by Mr. Ian Wilson of Irvine, California, United States. One feature of priority of these opening bids was to, by relay bids after a 1 Club opening, make the opener the declarer. The similarity between these opening bids and the Truscott Symmetric Opening Bids is obvious, but the subsequent bidding process, however, differs significantly as does the opening No Trump range.

Truscott Symmetric Relay Opening Bids
These opening bids are a variation on the Precision bidding system and the Symmetric Relay. They were developed by Mr. Alan Fraser Truscott of New York City, New York, United States. These opening bids are a variation on the Precision bidding system and the Symmetric Relay bidding system.

Ultimate Club Opening Bids
This relay system was developed by Mr. David Leigh Cliff of New Jersey, United States, and later enhanced by Mr. Matthew Ganovetter, Mr. Ron Rubin, Mr. Matthew L. Ginsberg and Mr. Mike Becker, who published the book: Ultimate Club in the year 1981. The concept of the Ultimate Club is that after a 1 Club opening, which is always strong, the responder can use various responses to inform his partner about the number of Aces, Kings, and Queens, and the locations of these high honors.

Ultimate Five Majors Opening Bids
These opening bids were devised by Mr. Erich Friedman of De Land, Florida, United States, and are based on the Ultimate Club bidding system, and is therefore a variation. Mr. Erich Friedman is a member of the Math and CS Department of the Stetson University in DeLand, Florida, United States.

Universal Club Opening Bids
This bidding system was developed by Mr. Fred R. Thomas, born in the year 1925, and was published in the year 1980 by the Uniclub Press, located in Los Angeles, California, United States. The title of his publication is Universal: The System For Everyone, and in the words of the author, is so named because it is the one system that is natural and also universally suitable for everyone, average players as well as the experts.

Vanderbilt Club Opening Bids
This is a bidding system devised and developed by Mr. Harold Stirling Vanderbilt, born July 6, 1884 and died July 4, 1970, and first published in 1934, these opening bids formed the foundation for all following bidding systems employing a strong, artificial, and one-round forcing 1 Club opening bid.

VeeJay System Opening Bids
These opening bids were developed and devised by Mr. A. D. J. Victor of New Delhi, India. The book Veejay System of Modern Bidding at Contract Bridge was published in 1983 by the publishing house of Devyn Press, Louisville, Kentucky, United States. ASIN: B00071OZTO.

Volmac Precision Opening Bids
These opening bids were devised and developed by Mr. Benito Garozzo in the year 1978. Several of the bridge players, who used this system of opening bids, which was designated as the Volmac Precision bidding system, are Mr. Anton Maas, Elly Schippers and Marijke van der Pas.

Whimsical Club Opening Bids
These opening bids were devised and developed by Mr. Steve Starkey of Pecs, Hungary, and are based on the principles of the Precision bidding system.

Yellow Island Bidding System
Developed by Mr. Paul Collins and Mr. David Appleton. The entire online write-up can be studied by the bridge player, which is dated: April 19, 1999. As described by the authors: Yellow Island was developed one fateful day in the Island coffee shop It is intended to contain both the highly constructive nature of the Crimson Death and Blood Red transfer openings with the moderately destructive fert while allowing some width to avoid some of the more negative aspects of the fert style.

Yovich's Carrot Club Opening Bids
These opening bids represent the devised and developed version by Mr. Dennis Yovich of Perth, Australia and are based on the Carrot Club bidding system. The inclusion of the Weak Two openings, called Optimal Twos, devised by Mr. Avon Wilsmore, also of Perth, Australia, added to the effectiveness of these opening bids since the real suit was concealed from the opponents and/or showed a particular two-suited distribution.

Yui-Bin-Had Club Opening Bids
These opening bids are named after Mr. Yui-Bin Chen, who is a famous Blackjack and Poker player, among other card games. They employ the opening of 4-card Major suits and very weak 1 No Trump opening. Mr. Yui-Bin Chen, or his fans, developed opening bids for favorable and for non-favorable vulnerability.

 

 

If you wish to include this feature, or any other feature, of the game of bridge in your partnership agreement, then please make certain that the concept is understood by both partners. Be aware whether or not the feature is alertable or not and whether an announcement should or must be made. Check with the governing body and/or the bridge district and/or the bridge unit prior to the game to establish the guidelines applied. Please include the particular feature on your convention card in order that your opponents are also aware of this feature during the bidding process, since this information must be made known to them according to the Laws of Duplicate Contract Bridge. We do not always include the procedure regarding Alerts and/or Announcements, since these regulations are changed and revised during time by the governing body. It is our intention only to present the information as concisely and as accurately as possible.

 


     
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