This Argentine award was donated in memory of Mr. Adolfo Gabarret and is the equivalent of the ACBL McKenny Trophy.
Slang: a convention designed to cover a specific bidding situation rather than an entire class of auctions; an artificial bidding device which can be added on to standard bidding methods, but which is not an integral part of any bidding system. Such gadgets can consist of bidding tools such as Michaels Cuebid, Puppet Stayman, Unusual 2 No Trump, and so on. They can consist of either conventional agreements, defensive methods, and most of all artificial bids.
This particular coup arises when the contract is in a suit in which the declaring side is missing both the Ace and King of trump. If executed successfully by the declarer, then the defenders end up being forced to play the Ace and King of trumps to the same trick, thus telescoping their two trump tricks into one.
The taking of a risk, such as the deliberate sacrifice of a trick, in the hope of gaining a large reward through additional tricks.
Gambling Three No Trump - Gambling 3 No Trump - Gambling 3 NT
A 3 No Trump opening based on a long, solid Minor suit. This gamble is used in many bidding system and is also a feature of the Acol System.
Gambling Two No Trump - Gambling 2 No Trump - Gambling 2 NT
A 2 No Trump opening based on a long, solid Minor suit. A modified version of the Gambling 3 No Trump conventional method. The difference being that this method requires only one stopper in a side suit.
In rubber bridge a game equals a score of 100 or more points below the line; 100 or more in trick score. In duplicate bridge the score achieved when successfully making a game contract in 3 No Trump, 4 of a Major suit, 5 of a Minor suit, or any contract on the six or seven level.
A phrase, which means that both sides are vulnerable.
A bid that, if fulfilled, will score a game for the declaring side. In rubber bridge a game bid may consist of a partscore contract to put the partnership over 100 points below the line. In duplicate bridge, the contract must be 3 No Trump, 4 Hearts or 4 Spades in the Major suits, or 5 Clubs or 5 Diamonds in the Minor suits or higher in both Major and Minor suits.
These are extra points awarded for bidding and making a game. In duplicate and Chicago, the award is 500 if vulnerable, 300 if not vulnerable. In rubber bridge, the award is 700 for winning a rubber two games to none and 500 for winning a rubber two games to one.
The undertaking of a contract which will earn sufficient points in trick score to make or complete the 100 points required for a game. With partscore, lower contracts become game contracts in rubber bridge.
Game Demand Bid
A bid which imposes an obligation on the partnership to continue bidding until a game contract has been reached or a satisfactory penalty has been inflicted on the opponents.
Game Forcing Bid
A bid that requests partner to continue bidding until game or slam has been reached.
Game Forcing Sequences/Situations
A sequence of bidding during the auction period, even with competitive calls or bids from the opposing side, which has committed both members of a partnership to reach a game contract.
A term used to describe any hand or bidding situation which promises to develop a game for the partnership.
A game hog is a player who continually misrepresents his holding in the expectation that all hands should be played in a game contract.
A colloquial term meaning vulnerable.
A bid or call that requests partner to bid game if holding maximum values, and which is based on previous bids and/or calls.
A game try exists whenever one partner makes a bid or call, which constitutes an invitation to continue bidding.
Gamma Opening Bids
These opening bids were devised and developed by Mr. Édouard Lachand of France in 1971. They employ the opening of a 5-card Major suit, a weak No Trump range. Since they are based on the Roman and Super Precision bidding systems, the bidding sequences are controlled by relays and canapé bids to show length and range. These opening bids are from his publication Le Gamma (La Longue á Relais ou Le Gamma), published in 1971, with a preface by Mr. Jean-Paul Meyer. Publisher: Éditions de presse spécialisée, Paris, France, LC: 75585447, LCCN: 75585447.
These responses to a Strong, Artificial 2 Clubs opening were developed by Dr. Édouard Lachand of France. He also devised the Gamma System, which features a 2 Clubs opening bid being employed with two different holdings.
Gamma Trump Asking Bid
Asking bids in the Roman and Super Precision systems concerned with the quality of the responders suit, which is inferentially agreed to be the trump suit. The Roman responses are:
First Step: Queen or worse Second Step: King Third Step: Ace Fourth Step: 2 top honors Fifth Step: 3 top honors
A colloquial phrase referring to a holding with two singletons.
Slang: poor values; a poor hand; a poor holding where the majority of the values are in Queens and Jacks.
A variation of the Stayman conventional method, which allows the responder to initiate the Stayman convention with 0-7 points and a unique distributional shape. Also known as Drop Dead Stayman.
Gardener No Trump Overcall
Developed by Mr. Nico Gardener (nee Nico Goldinger), born January 27, 1906 and died December 10, 1989in Riga, Latvia. which was then part of Imperial Russia. He later became a resident of England and devised a competitive method, whereby an immediate overcall of 1 No Trump forced the advancer, if possible, to a relay of 2 Clubs. After the relay the holding of the overcaller would be clarified. The foundation of the conventional defense method is to show a one-suited holding. If the overcall is always weak, the French refer to it as the Sans Atout Comique. See also Comic No Trump Overcall.
The Gates Adjunct is a supplemental defense method and is employed by partnership agreement together with any defense method opposite an opponent's opening of 1 No Trump, generally with a 14 to 18 point range, showing a one-suited or two-suited holding. The intervenor must also be a passed hand. The initiation of the Gates Adjunct is triggered by a call of double.
The action of taking or arranging tricks won by a side, so that their order, place, and sequence are apparent and can be checked, if an irregularity occurs. See Law 65.
LAW 65 - ARRANGEMENT OF TRICKS A.Completed Trick When four cards have been played to a trick, each player turns his own card face down near him on the table. B.Keeping Track of the Ownership of Tricks 1. Tricks Won If the player's side has won the trick, the card is pointed lengthwise toward his partner. 2. Tricks Lost If the opponents have won the trick, the card is pointed lengthwise toward the opponents. C. Orderliness Each player arranges his own cards in an orderly overlapping row in the sequence played, so as to permit review of the play after its completion, if necessary to determine the number of tricks won by each side or the order in which the cards were played. D. Agreement on Results of Play A player should not disturb the order of his played cards until agreement has been reached on the number of tricks won. A player who fails to comply with the provisions of this Law jeopardises his right to claim ownership of doubtful tricks or to claim a revoke.
Gawrys Defense to 1 No Trump
The origin of this conventional method is credited to the international bridge player Mr. Piotr Gawrys of Poland. This defense mechanism is also known by the designation Meckwell. It is generally a defense mechanism against strong(er) No Trump openings or with a range higher than 13 points, but can also be employed by weaker No Trump openings per partnership agreement.
This conventional method addresses a common systemic feature by introducing an artificial 2 Clubs rebid by the opener after an opening in a Major suit and a first response of 1 Spade or 1 No Trump. The conventional method has been extended to also include openings in the Minor suits and adjustments have been made to accommodate these opening bids.
Gazzilli - BBOIta's Standard BBOItalia
If the above link does not function owing to the fact that it is a .pdf file, then try the following link: Associazione Sportiva Dilettantistica Pescara Bridge and click on Sistema da giocare al circolo da BBO.ITA Convenzioni. This is a list of the Convenzioni facoltative in Italian for BBO players from Italy and includes several conventional methods used for this particular online bridge medium. Among the several methods is also Gazzilli. This information is also only preserved and archived in .pdf file format on this site.
General Purpose Cuebid
A bid of 4 No Trump used as a general purpose slam try when a cuebid is not available or convenient. The bid is generally not applied by partnerships since it clouds the issue of how to distinguish this bid from the Blackwood convention.
This conventional defense method was devised by Dr. William Konigsberger and Mr. Derrick Deane, both of Geneva, Switzerland, approximately in the years 1938 and 1939. These two bridge personalities and game theorists were involved in the evolution of the game of bridge in Europe, especially in devising methods to communicate information by bids and calls to partner, upon which logical and reasonable deductions could be more easily made.
George Burns Trophy
This trophy, inaugurated in 1993, is given to the ACBL Senior Player of the Year, named after the famous comedian Mr. George Burns, who also played bridge, reportedly on a daily base at his country club into his late nineties. The George Burns Senior trophy was established in 1993 and is awarded to the ACBL Senior member winning the highest number of masterpoints in senior events during the year. The first winner was Liane Slack of Kansas City, Missouri.
George Rosenkranz Control Showing Responses
The original concept is designated as control showing responses (also step responses) to a strong, artificial 2 Clubs opening bid. These original responses should be viewed first and then the variation and/or version as suggested by Mr. George Rosenkranz of Mexico City, Mexico, which not only show the number of controls but also possible stoppers in suits for a suitable No Trump contract.
Gerber and Variations
This is a compiled list of many Gerber-related and Gerber-based variations of the original concept.
Gerber Black and Red Convention
Black and Red Gerber, a modification of the Gerber convention, devised by Mr. Irving Cowan, allows the partnership to deal with this situation when the designated suit is Clubs, a Black Suit. This modification also allows the partnership more flexibility when the agreed trump suit is a Red Suit, and the asking bid is different.
A conventional 4 Clubs bid asking partner to show a count of Aces. This bid is normally applied only after partner has opened 1 No Trump.
German Bridge League - Deutscher Bridge - Verband E.V.
The German Bridge League was founded in 1932.
German Bridge-Verbandssatzung 2000
German Contract Bridge Laws - Deutsche Turnier-Bridge-Regeln 1997
Die ersten Turnierbridgeregeln wurden 1928 veröffentlicht. Nachfolgende Versionen erschienen 1933, 1935, 1943, 1949, 1963, 1975, 1987 und 1997. Gemäß ihrer Satzung verabschiedete die World Bridge Federation die hier vorliegende Version im Jahre 2007.
Note: For files regarding other determining documents, forms, and other governing parameters in German the bridge student will find them on the website of the Deutscher Bridge-Verband e.V.
Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4
Turnier Bridge Regeln - 1997
Erlassen und veröffentlicht durch den Weltbridgeverband (WBF) - Herausgegeben durch den Deutschen Bridge-Verband e.V. - Übersetzt von Mallory Völker. This is a .pdf file and will be automatically opened in a new window by the browser.
Turnier Bridge Regeln - 2007
Zweite Ausbgabe. Erlassen und veröffentlicht durch den Weltbridgeverband (WBF) - Herausgegeben durch den Deutschen Bridge-Verband e.V. - Übersetzt von Peter Eidt und Matthias Schüller. This is a .pdf file and will be automatically opened in a new window by the browser.
Bridge Kurs 2007
This information is in German only and is a bridge course for beginners. The name of the author is Mr. Jürgen Cleve and he compiled / presented the information in the year 2007. He is presently a Professor Dr. rer. nat. of the Hochschule Wismar, University of Technology, Business, and Design, and member of the first bridge club, March 22, 2001, founded in the German State of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (formerly a state in East German). This information is in a .pdf file format, which will be opened automatically by your browser. This information is only archived and preserved on this site for future reference.
German Doctors Scandal
This incident came to light owing to a complaint made to the officers of the WBF during the match of the final of the d"orsi Senior Trophy, played by the German Team against the USA 2 Team, in the World Championships held in Bali, Indonesia, in September 2013. This investigation by the presiding authorities was to determine any alleged improper conduct by Mr. Michael Elinescu and Mr. Entscho Wladow, who were playing on the German Team. Presented is only the Extract of the Ruling of the Hearing of the WBF Disciplinary Commission. This Extract has only been archived and preserved on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.
Note: A video, published April 16, 2014, of the two players, filmed during the final match,, can be viewed on YouTube.com.
German Sport-, Schieds- und Disziplinargerichtsordnung 1991
German Variations of Moscito Byte
The German Bridge Federation, at first, did not permit the use of the Moscito Byte bidding system as developed by Mr. Paul Marston and Mr. Stephen Burgess. However, an agreement was reached for the employment of a variation of the concept at German tournaments. Also, a variation with the name German Moscito was developed by Mr. Nikolas Bausback (Luxembourg), Mr. Jürgen Dueball (born 1943 - died 2002, of Solingen, Germany), Mr. Björn Janson (Dortmund, Germany), and Mr. Rene Steiner (Germany), and is based on a Moscito version devised by Mr. Martin Buchen of Australia.
Note: In the year 2002 Mr. René Steiner and Mr. Nikolas Bausback published online Moscito 2002, Version 2.0 of March 2002. This publication has been only preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference. This online publication is only in the German language available.
German Playing Cards
Pictures of Old German Playing Cards. Only the Aces of all four suits are presented.
A mannerism that might suggest a call, lead, play, or plan of play, and governed by the Laws of Contract Bridge. See Law 16.
LAW 16 - UNAUTHORISED INFORMATION
Players are authorised to base their calls and plays on information from legal calls and plays and from mannerisms of opponents. To base a call or play on other extraneous information may be an infraction of law.
A. Extraneous Information from Partner
After a player makes available to his partner extraneous information that may suggest a call or play, as by means of a remark, a question, a reply to a question, or by unmistakable hesitation, unwonted speed, special emphasis, tone, gesture, movement, mannerism or the like, the partner may not choose from among logical alternative actions one that could demonstrably have been suggested over another by the extraneous information.
1. When Such Information Is Given
When a player considers that an opponent has made such information available and that damage could well result, he may, unless the regulations of the sponsoring organisation prohibit, immediately announce that he reserves the right to summon the Director later (the opponents should summon the Director immediately if they dispute the fact that unauthorised information might have been conveyed).
2. When Illegal Alternative Is Chosen
When a player has substantial reason to believe that an opponent who had a logical alternative has chosen an action that could have been suggested by such information, he should summon the Director forthwith. The Director shall require the auction and play to continue, standing ready to assign an adjusted score if he considers that an infraction of law has resulted in damage.
Get A Count
To determine during the play the number of cards held in one or more suits by one of the hidden hands. In addition, the designation also refers to deducting a count on the location (placement) of certain high cards held by the opposing side.
Contributed by Mr. Robert Hanly of Canada. This is a conventional method for responses to a Forcing Raise in a Major suit, compiled by Mr. Fred Gitelman, with a few variations. This is a .pdf file and will automatically be opened by your browser.
The Ghestem conventional method is a concept to show a strong two-suited holding after an opening by the opponents. This concept was devised by Mr. Pierre Ghestem of France. He was born on February 14, 1922, and died on April 11, 2000.
Note: A variation carries the designation of Ghestem Modified and is similar to the original Ghestem conventional method, but with one exception. If the opening suit of the opponent is 1, then the overcall to show both Major suits is no longer 3, but rather 3. With this variation, the 3 is left available to be used for other purposes such as an intermediate jump overcall or even a weak jump overcall.
Inverted Ghestem - Questem
The origin of this concept is unknown. The foundation is that the cuebids and the 3 Clubs bids of the concept Ghestem are inverted. This variation supposedly offers the partnership a better advantage in the bidding, and which does not lose the 3 Clubs response as a weak jump overcall. The information is provided by the Pattaya Bridge Club in a .pdf file format, which will automatically be opened. This information has also only been preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.
Modified Ghestem or Upside-Down Ghestem
1. A double is for penalties of at least one of their known suits. 2. Bidding one of their known suits shows a tolerance for the suit of the partner, and values in that bid suit. Bidding one of their known suits also asks partner to bid No Trump, if partner has the other known suit covered. 3. Bidding the 4th suit is forcing and shows support in the suit of partner and no interest in penalty. 4. A Raise of the suit of partner is a Limited Raise. 5. A Jump Raise of the suit of the partner is preemptive. 6. A Jump Raise in one of the suits of the opponents is preemptive and is intended as obstructive. 7. A Jump in one of the known suits of the opponents is a Splinter bid. 8. A Jump in the 4th suit promises a bid hand and is a slam attempt.
A form of bridge that does not play out non-game-going partscores and uses Goulash dealing methods after unplayed outcomes. Note: the definition of a ghoul is 1. a legendary evil being that robs graves and feeds on corpses; and 2. one suggestive of a ghoul; especially one, who shows morbid interest in things considered shocking or repulsive.
GiB Moscito Byte
GiB is an abbreviation for Ginsberg intelligent Bridge arrangmentplayer, which is a computer software program designed to play bridge as a robot-style bride player. Additional information can be obtained from the website. The developer of the software is Mr. Matthew L. Ginsberg. The software is a sophisticated artificial intelligence search algorithms using Monte Carlo techniques for card play and Borel simulations for bidding. This information is dated around 1998-2000. This information has only been preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.
Gibson, Susie Potts
Los Angeles Times - February 18, 2005
Susie Potts Gibson, 115; One of Oldest U.S. Women Attributed Longevity to Vinegar and Pickles
By Mary Rourke, Times Staff Writer
Susie Potts Gibson, the youngest of three U.S. women verified to be 115, died Thursday, according to Nancy Paetz, a granddaughter.
Susie Potts Gibson died of natural causes at an assisted living facility in Tuscumbia, Alabama, where she was a resident from about 106, Paetz said. For many years before that, Susie Potts Gibson lived alone in the house that had been her home for about 80 years.
She died three days after another 115-year-old woman, Bettie Wilson, died in New Albany, Mississippi. Both women were born in Mississippi, but Wilson was one month older than Gibson. A third woman, Elizabeth Bolden of Memphis, Tenn., the oldest of the three by one month, survives her younger peers.
With Susie Potts Gibson's death, Bolden becomes the second-oldest person in the world with documentation, according the Gerontology Research Group of Los Angeles. The oldest living person, also a woman, is 116-year-old Maria Capovilla of Ecuador.
Born Susan Potts, Oct. 31, 1890, in Corinth, Mississippi, Susie Potts Gibson was the child of a banker, Nancy Paetz said. Among her memorable experiences as a young woman was a cross-country trip she vividly recalled winning in 1912. She said she was in a movie theater in California when an announcer interrupted the show to tell the audience that the Titanic was sinking off the coast of Newfoundland.
She married James Gibson, a pharmacist, and the couple moved to Sheffield, Alabama. Susie Potts Gibson outlived her husband as well as their son, James.
When Susie Potts Gibson was 90, she still took her boat out alone to go fishing, Nancy Paetz said.
She also enjoyed hosting bridge parties at her home and did all the cooking.
She gardened and stayed active with the women's group at her church.
Asked the secret to a long life, Susie Potts Gibson recommended frequent doses of vinegar. She put it on turnip greens and nearly everything else, Nancy Paetz said. She also advised eating pickles.
Nancy Paetz, however, said Susie Potts Gibson's longevity had to do with her basic rule about spending time. "My grandmother put things in two pots: what she had to do and what she wanted to do," Nancy Paetz said. "Most of the time, what she wanted to do took priority. As a result she was happy." Susie Potts Gibson is survived by two grandchildren and four great-grandchildren.
1. Slang: I claim the rest of the tricks. (Example: I was gin as soon as the Club finesse was successful.)
2. Slang: a contract, which is certain to be made.
Giraudoux, Hippolyte Jean
Born October 29, 1882, and died January 31, 1944, Mr. Jean Geraudoux was a French dramatist who wrote 15 plays, most initially staged by the actor-director Mr. Louis Jouvet and later internationally acclaimed. Mr. Jean Giraudoux was also a prose writer and served France as a diplomat and government official. His dramatic and narrative style is a rich and inimitable blend of allusive prose, allegory, fantasy, and political and psychological perceptions. He tempered tragic themes with rueful comedy, as though he wished to unite the contrasting qualities of Jean Racine, Jean-Baptiste Poquelin (aka Moliere), Maurice Polydore Marie Bernard Maeterlinck, and Charles Pierre Baudelaire.
Hippolyte Jean Giraudoux was born in the village of Bellac and studied at the École Normale Supérieure. In his youth he traveled extensively - to Germany, Italy, the Balkans, Canada, and the United States, where he spent a year (1906-07) as an instructor at Harvard. Returning to France, he served in World War I, was twice wounded, and became the first writer ever to be awarded the wartime Legion of Honor.
In the book Jean Giraudoux: The Legend and the Secret, published in France, authored by Mr. Jacques Body, translated by Mr. James Norwood, on page 67 there is the following excerpt. The picture is from the front cover.
As a bridge player, Hippolyte Jean Giraudoux had perforce to practice combinative analysis. In his theater, the ordering of the scenes and the arrangement of the entrances and exits are governed by a science of the same order. To succeed as a bridge player, he needed not only to see the game unfold in his hand and in the context of the game from his own perspective, but also to imagine it from the point of view of his partner and from the points of view of his opponents. Action and dramatic dialogue are constructed according to the same principle, the responses of one actor fitting those of another as two cogwheels meshing with one another, neither one leaving its own axle or leaving between them any more empty space than is strictly necessary.
Slang: to hypothesize as a basis for planning the play or defense as in a situation of discussing the post mortem of a certain hand: "Give North the Queen of Spades, then .."
In the tactic of defending against the declarer the defender on lead has the opportunity to provide his partner with a length signal. Various carding options are open to the players.
A method of responding to 1 No Trump based on a 2 Clubs puppet to 2 Diamonds. Developed in New Zealand and used in modified form in the Roman and CAB systems. (See also CAB Bidding System).
This conventional method first found a public format in The Bridge World magazine authored by Mr. Barry J. Rigal of New York, New York, in October 1996, page 27. This conventional method was developed by Mr. Tom G. Townsend in order to permit and allow the partnership to describe, define, delimit, and determine one-suited and two-suited holdings, and also balanced and unbalanced holdings.
Failure to make the contract.
Going For or Going For A Number
1. Slang: to suffer a heavy penalty, usually with four digits;
2. Slang: meaning to be tricked by as in: An inexperienced declarer might go for for a defensive swindle:
3. Slang: the act of trying or attempt to, as in: go for a higher-level contract.
Go In or Go Up
A defender in second position, who plays the Ace when the declarer leads low towards dummy goes in or goes up with the Ace.
Go In With
To play a high card; go up with; rise with.
The Knockout Team Championship of Great Britain contested under the supervision of the British Bridge League. The British Bridge League was the official British Bridge League Website and contained entry forms and general information about the BBL and the major European and World Championships, results of BBL Tournaments and Championships together with any other details. Much of the information from this Website appears now on Ecats Bridge.
Golden Age Life Master
A Golden Age Life Master is a player over the age of 80 who has earned at least 300 masterpoints, but because they do not travel to tournaments, they do not have the required color points.
Golden Age Master
The designation for a member who is age 70 or older and has at least 300 masterpoints of any color recorded by ACBL, or a member who is at least 80 years old and has at least 100 masterpoints of any color recorded by ACBL. On application to ACBL an eligible member will be designated Golden Age Master and sent an appropriate certificate.
This particular bidding rule was postulated by Mr. Alan Truscott. This golden rule dominates as a fundamental principle and feature of most bidding systems, which state that any suit bid and rebid must be a 6-card suit.
Gold Life Master
An ACBL Life Master who has acquired at least 2,500 masterpoints.
Gold points are awarded for overall placings and section tops in regional and NABC events of at least two sessions. The upper masterpoint limit must be at least 750 masterpoints and applies only to the top two stratifications of stratified or stratiflighted events. In open-bracketed events (such as a bracketed knockout team), each bracket will award some percentage of the overall award as gold, irrespective of the masterpoint holding of the teams in that bracket. Gold points may be awarded for special games, such as the ACBL-wide Instant Matchpoint Game.
Mr. Alan Truscott postulated first the Golden Rule Principle. It states that a suit should not be bid twice unless the suit has at least six cards. This applies not only to the opener and responder, but also to the opponents of the opening bidder.
Goldilocks Two Bid - Goldilocks 2 Bids
This concept was devised by Mr. Glen Ashton of Ontario, Canada. The link is to his website on the Internet. The foundation of this conventional method is that all bidding auctions begin on the two level. This conventional method has also been archived and preserved only on this site in a .pdf file format which will be automatically opened by your browser.
The satirical recommendation by Tournament Director Mr. Harry A. Goldwater that an opening lead out of turn should generally be accepted, since the player who does not know whose turn it is to lead usually does not know the correct lead either.
Note: Mr. Harry A. Goldwater was born in the year 1901 and is of Yonkers, New York, United States. As of the year 1957 he was an accredited national tournament director of the American Contract Bridge League. He became known as a legend owing to his immense knowledge of the Laws governing the rules of the game, for being patient, easy-going, outward-going, personable, and always friendly to all players of all levels.
This term describes a holding, which is better than the general point count would first suggest. The determining elements may include distributional factors and the specific location of certain honors in long suits, and therefore the cards are good, or established, or consisting of all winners.
Goodall and Son
Born in 1785 and died in 1851 Mr. Charles Goodall was born in Northampton and became an apprentice to Mr. J.W. Hunt in London, England in 1801 at the age of 16 years. The company of J.W. Hunt was itself an old and well-established playing card manufacturer with a solid reputation. Playing cards for leisure and pleasure and especially for gambling purposes among the rich, the noble, and the elite, including members of the royal families, was the pastime of that era and social environment. Demand for cards was extremely high since there were many hustlers, professional gamblers, card tricksters, and cheats abounding in England and they all needed cards. Fortunes were won and lost sometimes in one single game.
Charles Goodall decided in 1820 to become independent and established his card manufacturing company in Soho, London. The first products were playing cards and message cards. Around the middle of the 1830s the company expanded into premises known as the Great College Street, and where the main factory was located behind the terrace in a building, which has formerly been a gun factory and which was later used for the production of steam engines. It was after this expansion that Charles Goodall could begin designing more modern cards of all sorts, especially for the game of Whist. But the innovative concepts did not only affect the backs of the playing cards themselves, but rather it was the idea of Mr. Charles Goodall to conceive of accessories, many of which are still bought, sold, and traded today. See the Marlborough Games Set, made of wood and leather and introduced in 1898.
It was this move away from the traditional direction that established him and his sons as the main company, at which to order such cards and to also have personalized cards printed and engraved. Some purchasers belonged also the the royal families. Around 1885 Charles Goodall set up London Playing Card Co., a subsidiary outlet for lower grade cards. Special Aces of Spades were used, and Charles Goodall also produced many special Aces or Jokers just for advertising purposes, which were a source of income for the company. in 1922 Charles Goodall and Son was merged with De La Rue, a competitor in the industry owned by Mr. Thomas De La Rue. The Camden Works were kept open until around 1929 and the Goodall name and brand names were still used until much later. Source: Charles Goodall & Sons.
Good Bad 2 No Trump
The presentation of this concept appears in the book authored by Mr. Larry Cohen in his publication entitled To Bid or Not to Bid - The Law of Total Tricks beginning with page 119. The content of this web page is an excerpt from this book and posted to the Internet with the direct permission of the author.
Good Two No Trump
This is the title of an article authored by Mr. John Ross and published in The Bridge World, issue February 1999, page 12. Note: additional information required.
In his publication Contract Bridge Complete, printed September 1936, Mr. Ely Culbertson described a Good 2 No Trump opening in the following manner:
The Opening Bid of Two No-trumps (22-24 Points)
Make a bid of an opening two no-trumps in any position, vulnerable or not vulnerable, holding:
5+ to 5^+ honour-tricks Balanced distribution No suit weaker than Kx or Q10x A hand with 5+ bare honour-tricks mil not do. It must contain at least 8 honour-cards, and preferably 9 or 10. Ideal distributions are 4-3-3-3 and 4-4-3-2. A hand distributed 5-3-3-2 or 6-3-2-2 is a good two no-trump bid only if the long suit is a minor and is solid or quickly established (as A K J x x or K Q J x x).
These are cards, which have become established as winners during the play.
The ACBL Goodwill Committee was organized in 1955 with Mr. John E. Simon as chair and Louise Durham as co-chair. Aileen Osofsky became chair in 1985 and has expanded the committee’s endeavors taking on promotion of active ethics, awareness of those with disabilities such as hearing loss, support for junior programs and naming of a goodwill member of the year. At the Summer 2010 NABC in New Orleans, Louisiana, United States, the committee was renamed the Aileen Osofsky ACBL Goodwill Committee in her memory and in appreciation of her 25 years of service as chair.
To make fewer tricks than the amount of tricks contracted for, which may either be a partscore, a game contract, or a slam contract.
This award was endowed by Mr. Charles H. Goren until the year 1989, shortly before his death. It was awarded for the Bridge Personality of the Year and is presented annually by the International Bridge Press Association. The recipient has been selected as the most worthy of recognition as an outstanding bridge personality. The award is also presented to recipients who, throughout their bridge career, have met all the requirements. In 1990 the Goren Award was renamed the International Bridge Press Association Awards.
Goren's Bidding System
The development of this particular bidding system dates back to the early mid-1930s when Mr. Charles Henry Goren became professional involved with the not only the bridge community, but also with the members of the evolving sponsoring organization in North America under the leadership of Mr. Ely Culbertson. The main features and principles of his bidding system are presently as closely as possible to the original version, but the visitor should not lose conclude that this presentation is the last word on the Goren bidding system since the developer continually revised and updated his bidding system to accommodate new and innovative conventional bidding methods.
Goren Bidding Wheel
In the early development of the game of bridge the bridge experts and the authoritative and sponsoring bodies attempted to simplify and reduce the elements of the game to its most fundamental parts by devising, creating, and manufacturing wheels, which, by turning in certain directions, would provide the bridge player with the most advantageous bid and the best informative advice. The Bidding Wheel of Mr. Charles H. Goren, for example, exceeded the expectations. However, it is an unknown fact that Mr. Charles H. Goren did not invent or devise this bidding wheel. The inventor was Mr. Edward Goren according to the publication titled Reinventing the Wheel by Jessica Helfand. (Note: it has not been confirmed whether or not this statement is based on false information.) This publication was re-published in 2002 by Princeton Architectural Press, ISBN-10: 1568983387 / ISBN-13: 978-1568983387. On page 38 it states and quoted: ...... while bridge celebrity Edward Goren pioneered the Goren Bidding Wheel, which came packaged with a suite of his books featuring bridge rules and game tips.
The physical concept of the wheel was pervasive during that time and was employed for many fields such as cosmology, astrolabes, planisphers, mathematics, calendars, navigation, etc. Below is a depiction of a horoscope wheel with the description in the publication of Jessica Helfand, quoted:
This lively horoscope wheel provides "Information, Entertainment, Pleasure" and is "Used for Bridge or other card parties, Party Favors, Gifts," Like punch cards, wheels such as this one were manufactured typically for leisure-time entertainment (read "party tricks") in the 1920s and 1940s. In this particularly colorful example, twelve signs of the zodiac are shown on one side, with famous people (Julius Caesar, Joan of Arc) born under each sign displayed on the other. Also offered are tips on enhancing one's understanding of love and marriage.
The Goren Count was devised by Mr. William Anderson of Toronto, Canada, and adopted and developed by Mr. Charles Goren. The first chart is used by the opener and the distributional points are added only to his high card points.
The Goren Kiss, as rumor has it, was a designation employed by Mr. Charles H. Goren in one of many and various publications during his leadership to promote the game of bridge around the globe. It was indeed an outline for the novice and intermediate bridge players, who wanted an established set of opening constructive bids in addition to preemptive opening bids.
Goren Opening Bids
These opening bids are also based on the Acol bidding system, whereby a 4-card Major could be opened. The bridge student should be aware that Mr. Charles Goren proposed many such opening bid structures, which varied slightly, but which also maintained a certain fundamental identity.
Goren Opening Bids
In the original version Mr. Charles Goren proposed that any raise to the three level are absolutely game forcing and that all two level openings should also be game forcing and contain at least a 5-card suit of that denomination. (See: Goren System)
Go to Bed With
Slang: failure to win a trick with a certain card.
Charles H. Goren Award
This award was endowed by Mr. Charles H. Goren until 1989, or shortly before his demise, and awarded for the Bridge Personality of the Year. It is presented annually by the International Bridge Press Association to the person deemed most worthy of recognition as an outstanding bridge personality. (See IBPA Awards)
A fictional, and sometimes defined as mythical character devised by Mr. George Rosenkranz, whom he created for several abbreviated bridge columns in The Bridge Bulletin and for the Bridge World magazine. The character, however, was expanded in the publication Our Man Godfrey published by Devyn Press Inc. The character is a somewhat British import to Mexico and who enjoys mainly fine food, fine wine, and the company of beautiful senoritas, two of whom frequently visit him for bridge lessons and perhaps also romantic encounters. The book also introduces the friend of Godfrey Rawlins, whose name is Jorge. Translated into English, it is the equivalent of George, or George Rosenkranz.
A derivative of the Culbertson System that described hand valuation in points, whereas Mr. Ely Culbertson had used honor tricks, and replaced the older version as the Standard American System, a position it held for several decades.
The Goren Trophy is awarded to the player who wins the greatest number of masterpoints at the fall North American Bridge Championshipconducgted by the American Contract Bridge League. The Herman trophy, as it was originally introduced, was donated in the year 1951 by Sally Lipton, formerly Mrs. Sally Herman, in memory of her husband Lou Herman (1908–1950), a Houston jeweler who was ACBL Life Master #218. Mrs. Sally Lipton was a member of the ACBL office staff in New York and an ACBL tournament director. In 2008, the trophy was renamed the Goren Trophy to honor one of the game's greatest contributors, namely Charles Goren.
Go To Game
A designation meaning that the partnership bids game in either No Trump, in a Major suit, or in a Minor suit.
Gouba Rescues - Gouba Rescue Bids
This designation has been sent in by a reader and contributed by him. This defense method to a defense method has not been substantiated and is only presented in its most basic form. The assumption is that this concept is geographically regional. The concept behind the Gouba Rescue bids is that if the opponents compete with a double following a No Trump opening, then the partner of the No Trump bidder will bid, with a two-suited holding and sufficient values to compete, the lower-ranking suit of two touching suits or non-touching suits. If the immediate opponent doubles, then the partner of the No Trump bidder can take action, when holding a two-suiter, by bidding the lower-ranking suit. If the left hand opponent passes, then the No Trump bidder can, having meager support for that suit, relay upwards. If the partner holds touching suits, then the partner may pass. If the partner holds non-touching suits, then the partner corrects to the second suit.
The concept of the Gouba Rescue bids is based on the condition that the partnership has agreed to open a weak No Trump with a range between 10 points and 13/14 points, and may be employed only by such an agreement.
In the case that the partner of the No Trump bidder competes by bidding the lower-ranking suit, and the following opponent in rotation also competes, then the No Trump bidder requests partner to name the second suit by passing.
The partner of the No Trump bidder may also pass with insufficient game values and the opponent in fourth seat may double for Takeout. In this case, once the partner of the Takeout Doubler bids a suit, then a later competitive bid by the partner of the No Trump bidder shows also a two-suited holding, but both suits are then among the two or three suits unnamed by the opponents.
The Gouba Rescue bids are only employed when the partner of the No Trump bidder holds a two-suiter. Otherwise transfer bids, Stayman, and other conventional methods remain applicable following the double. The partnership plays 'systems on'.
Generally, if the partner of the No Trump bidder jumps one level over the double by the immediate opponent, then this is to play. The partner has a holding unsuitable for No Trump play. Also, the partner has either sufficient values to bid on the three level, or the partner has insufficient values and the jump bid is preemptive. In either instance the partner does not hold a two-suiter. This is entirely a matter of partnership agreement, and other agreements may be concluded.
Goulash - Goulyash - Ghoulie
1. a deal in which the cards are distributed in large packets such as 5,5,3 or 5,4,4, instead of one at a time;
2. the same, but using the unshuffled remains of a passed out or unplayed deal, which tended to produce freak distributions.
Note: Although there are several variations of the game of Goulash (English spelling), the most commonly employed guidelines can be found at Wikipedia, which contains contributions by the players of the game.
The following is written by Evgeny Gladysh, who was predominant in organizing the First NN-CUP-7 Goulash-Bridge in Moscow, Russia, September 28-30, 2007. (Note: several grammatical corrections have been made to make the text more understandable for our English visitors.)
Quote: Goulash, as a separate part of bridge, appeared in the middle of the last century. But like some other exotic variants such as:
- a trade with zero-bid in a trade situated between Hearts and Spades, it meant an obligation not to take a definite amount of tricks (an analogue of Mizer). The idea was to give a chance to the owners of weak hands.
- five-suits: the fifth suit was marked with the crown 'Royals' and upwards of (ranking above) Spades, accordingly a pack contained 65 cards has not become very popular and nowadays these kinds of the game are known among a narrow circle of bridge players.
A formal difference of Goulash from usual bridge is in its special way of dealing cards. After each dealing hands lay on the suits and without coordination played out according to the definite algorithm. The prime algorithm is: 5-5-5-5, 5-5-5-5, 3-3-3-3. Algorithms 6-4-3, 6-4-3, 6-4-3, 6-4-3 4-4-4-4, 3-3-3-3, 3-3-3-3, 3-3-3-3 etc. can also be used.
Surely, types of received apportionments are dependent on the concrete algorithm, but, in any case, 'dividing' (Russian equivalent of 'Shuffle Result') came out rarely abrupt. It is very likely to meet a hand with 13 cards of the same suit.
As an effect the theoretical computations of usual bridge do not work. (The probability that trumps of the defence will lay into zero is rather higher than their 'dividing' (Russian equivalent of 'Shuffle Result') evenly etc.) Trade systems demand an essential adaptation for being used in Goulash. (There are special Goulash Systems existing including HUM). There are also differences in techniques of Draw and Whist.
Opponents of Goulash contend that it is a little monotonous and simple enough, and so it does not worth any serious attention. There is partially true, as it is easy to calculate apportionments on Whist and Draw. A lot of contracts are played with their presentation, often trade consists of 1-2 bids, but there is the reverse of the medal. Goulash is always action! It is hazardous, emotional, fascinating, dynamic, cheerful and (what misses in usual bridge) it is spectacular! A player of Goulash needs more intuition, also a psychological aspect is very important, not to mention pedagogical aspects for the beginners (quality rating of the suits, strength of an apportionment). That is why I consider that Goulash is worth rather more and was disregarded very wrongly. I have information that Goulash is played from time to time in some rubber clubs of the following countries: Great Britain, France, Poland, Russia, USD and some others. But I have never heard about a tournament of Goulash. I am trying to fill up this gap and I have organized first Goulash Tournaments in 1990s in the USSR. The idea of a serious tournament came later, around the turn of the centuries' boundary and the first NN-Cup tournament was held in 2001. Since that time the tournament has become pretty popular and, what is most pleasant, acquired a lot of admirers of absorbing and thrilling game GOULASH!
NN-Cup (Goulash from Gladysh) is the first and still unique serious goulyash-bridge tournament. The first tournament was held October 20th, 2001 and was paired on cross-IMP. 28 pairs took part in the final round and the pair of Dobrushina-Gudkov has won. The cards were generated on 6-4-3 algorithm.
A good description of this game can also be found at: BridgeHands.com.
To play a high and possibly winning card when faced with a choice of playable cards.
A play by which the declarer intentionally shortens his trump holding by ruffing a winner in order to achieve a finessing position over an adverse trump holding in an end position.
Grand Life Master
This is the highest rank a bridge player can attain as a member of the ACBL. A Life Master with 10000 (at least 2000 silver, red or gold/platinum, of which at least 1000 must be gold/platinum, with a minimum of 100 platinum).
Additional Qualifications: This is the highest rank in the ACBL. It requires 10,000 Masterpoints and one victory in a North American Bridge Championship (excluding the Super Senior Pairs, the Wagar Women’s KO won after 2013 and the Machlin Women’s Swiss Teams won after 2013) with no upper Masterpoint restriction or an Open Team Trials (includes CNTC) or its equivalent or a Women’s Team Trials (includes CWTC) or its equivalent or any of the following WBF events: Bermuda Bowl, Venice Cup, Rosenblum Cup, McConnell Cup, Open Pairs, Women’s Pairs, Olympiad, Women’s Team Olympiad, WBF Senior Pairs event, WBF World Swiss Teams, WBF World Mixed Teams, and WBF Senior Teams.
These are the bridge players who are listed by the World Bridge Federation and Player Rankings. Note that the official title is known as WBF World Grand Master.
One of the major American national team championships, a qualifying, plus-knockout event in which teams represent geographical areas. Conditions of Contest as of 2016.
Grand National Championships
A series of annual championships first held in 1934 by the United States Bridge Association and continued annually until 1937. The tournaments are held at the summer American Contract Bridge League (ACBL) North American Bridge Championship. In the year 1937 the United States Bridge Association merged with and created the ACBL. These Championships were re-established in the year 1973, and were contested in each of the 25 Districts of the ACBL. This arrangement (the so-called zonal stage) ceased in the year 1985, and became stratified and conducted at the annual Summer NABC. The Championship Flight was added in the year 2001.
Grand National Rookie Pairs
An ACBL established Pair Championship that began in the year 1979 and continued until the year 1991, after which the Champ was renamed the North American Forty-Niner Pairs.
Grand National Teams
These are major ACBL team championships inaugurated in 1973 and which compete for the Morehead Trophy. This is a team event in which each ACBL district names a district champion in each category by means of a fair competition, that is not necessarily the same from district to district. These district champions then may compete in the national final of their respective category. Flight eligibility will be established by ACBL’s September masterpoint cycle. This information will be produced on August 6, 2016 in Horn Lake, MS. Masterpoints won after this cycle will not impact flight eligibility for these events.
A final bid of seven. Or the winning of all 13 tricks by the declarer. It is interesting to note that during a short span between 1932 and 1935, the scoring for a grand slam was different. For a grand slam, not vulnerable, the bonus was 1,500 points, and when vulnerable, the bonus was 2,250 as opposed to 1,000 points and 1,500 points depending on the state of vulnerability.
Grand Slam Force
An artificial bid, usually Five No Trump, asking partner to bid a grand slam with two of the top three trump honors. It is a method of locating the top trump honors, devised by Mr. Ely Culbertson in 1936 and first described in an article of The Bridge World magazine written by his wife Josephine, by which name this method is sometimes referred to in Europe.
Modified Grand Slam Force
A conventional method by an unknown developer, which states that after the trump suit has either been established or strongly implied a bid of 5 No Trump, which by-passes the normal Blackwood 4 No Trump bid, enquires about the Grand Slam, not the small slam. There are various modifications of this conventional method during the evolution of the game, but the most common variations are as follows, whereby 1 and 3 form an agreement, and 2 and 3 form another agreement:
1. A bid of 6 Clubs promises none of the top three honors, whereas a bid of 6 of the agreed suit promises one of the top three honors. 2. A bid of 6 Clubs shows one of the top three honors, whereas a bid of 6 of the agreed suit promises none of the top three honors. 3. With two of the top honors the responding partner bids the Grand Slam.
Exclusionary Grand Slam Force
This is a feature of the Blue Team Club bidding system and of the Ultimate Club bidding system. It is generally initiated after a strong, artificial 1 Club opening by one partner. A jump to 5 No Trump by the opener is Exclusionary Grand Slam Force. Also over 5-level bids where no other meaning makes sense. The responder bids:
6 : Without 2/3 honors in Clubs. 6 : With 2/3 honors in Clubs, but not 2/3 honors in Diamonds. 6 : Wtth 2/3 honors in Clubs and Diamonds, but not in Hearts. 6 : With 2/3 honors in Clubs, Diamonds and Hearts, but not Spades. 6 NT: With 2/3 honors in all suits.
Over any 6-level bid, the opener bids a suit which is to be passed unless the responder has 2/3 honors, in which case the opener should raise to the 7-level. Where the singleton is known, the responder should bypass that suit with a singleton Ace/King/Queen. Also, accept 7 if partner signs off in a suit that you have a singleton honor.
For additional information about this particular bidding system feature, review the .pdf files especially for the 1 Club opening employed in the Ultimate Club bidding system.
Grano-Astro Defense Method
This variation of the Astro conventional defense method following a 1 No Trump opening bid by the opposing side is credited to Mr. Matthew Granovetter. This variation expands also upon the original version not only with the employment of the double but also with the expansion of the number of possible overcalls.
The realization that some holdings contain value-ranges, by which there is no alternative bid other than to make a preemptive jump raise led to the question as to how best to determine the value of the preemptive jump raise. The conclusion was that a jump raise can be indeed rather fairly wide-ranged. As this conclusion raised questions, which required further investigation and analysis of the situation, it was Mr. Grant Sheridan Baze, who indeed devised a solution, which was henceforth designated as the Grant's Hack.
Granville Convention - Kaplan Interchange
Although the origin is unknown, the general consensus is that this conventional method was developed in England. It is mainly referred to as the Granville Convention, although it has little to do with the Kaplan-Sheinwold bidding system. The problem arose owing to a particular problem presented mostly in the Two-Over-One bidding system.
The Grapevine Newsletter
The Grapevine is a newsletter for Junior players published by the Education Department in January, June and October. This publication began in March 1989 and first edited by Julie Greenberg, ACBL Director of Education.
Grattanista Principle or School
This is the action of possible opponents during an auction, which is for all general purposes the requirement that no questions are posed during the uninterrupted auction of the opposing players, even if these bids are alerted. An example would be when the non-bidding players during a game-forcing relay, by which all bids must be alerted, do not request any information regarding any of the bids. However, the non-bidding player, who is on lead, may request, once the auction period is presumed to have ended, that the bids of one opposing partner, or both, be explained before the initial lead. This action may or may not include the action of reviewing an opponent's Convention Card whenever it is the turn of that player to bid or call. Origin unknown.
Greek Bridge Federation - Hellenic Bridge Federation
The Federation was established in 1965.
This is a term referring to a trick, which is intentionally offered to the opponents. If either one of the opponents accepts the gift, then the declarer has then established sufficient tricks to assure fulfilling the contract. A reference to the Trojan Horse offered as a gift by the Greeks to the Trojans during the war against Troy, which, once accepted, lead to the defeat of Troy.
1. This is one of the traffic-light terms that the Laws and Ethics Committee of the English Bridge Union uses to categorise psychic bids. A green psyche is one, where the partnership's subsequent actions provide no evidence of an unauthorised partnership understanding.
2. This is a colloquial term for describing the vulnerability of both partnerships on a board and meaning that the green partnership is not vulnerable, but their opponents are vulnerable.
Authored by Mr. Ray Green of the Brunton Bridge Club in Gosfoth, Newcastle upon Tyne, England, this is a conventional method to ask for Aces and Kings as soon as the partnership has determined that a slam contract is a plausible possibility.. This Ace and King asking method employs the useful space principle, where the Ace-asking bid is one suit (step) up from the 4 of the trump suit. There are no ambiguous and unresolvable compressed responses. This information has also only been preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.
The fifth suit in the American version of Five-Suit Bridge, commonly referred to as Eagles. Prior to the introduction of Five-Suit Bridge, the green suit was a non-existent fifth suit. Green Points referred to the exchange of money wagered during the play of this game. See Hippogriffs
Grenada Bridge Clubs
The Grenada Bridge Clubs are a part of the Central American and Caribbean Bridge Federation or CACBF.
Grosvenor Gambit - Grosvernor Coup
A comical and psychological trick described by Mr. Frederick Turner in The Bridge World magazine in 1973. A defender deliberately makes a clear error, giving the declarer a clear-cut opportunity, but which the defender refuses to take because the declarer expects rational defense. (Also defined as: When an opponent makes a play that allows the declarer to make the contract, but the declarer does not believe the opponent to make such an obvious mistake, so the declarer goes down anyway.)
The score made by all the pairs in a group on a set of hands constituting a match. The term also refers, in total point pair contests, to the net score on a set of boards, on which two particular pairs are in opposition.
Comite de Bridge de Guadeloupe
Guadeloupe is an insular region of France located in the Leeward Islands, which is part of the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean. Administratively, it is an overseas region consisting of a single overseas department. It is the largest and most populous European Union territory in North America.
1. a holding, generally an honor, that will prevent the opponents from taking a large number of tricks in a given suit; stopper;
2. to prevent the opponents from turning a particular card or cards into winners; the card or cards held to prevent this.
A guard might be several of the following:
Positive: A-K-Q, Q-J-10, J-10-9-8 Probable: K-J-x, K-10-x, Q-J-x Possible: Q-x-x, J-9-x-x Positional: Positional: Partial: K, Q-x, J-x-x, 10-x-x-x
A squeeze in three suits, in which an opponent holds guards in two suits, and his holding in a third suit prevents declarer from taking a winning finesse.
Guatemala: Asociacion Guatemalteca de Bridge
Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala (Spanish: República de Guatemala), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, Honduras to the east, and El Salvador to the southeast. Guatemala is a representative democracy; its capital and largest city is Nueva Guatemala de la Asunción, also known as Guatemala City.
A set of instructions for the movement of a pair from table to table in a duplicate bridge movement, and which boards to play at each round. There are table guidecards and individual guidecards.
The origin of this particular designation is unknown. This is a conventional double used in competitive auctions, and which is also a variant of the Rosenkranz Double and/or Redouble. The meanings of the redouble and the direct raise are reversed. See: Rosenkranz Double.
Note: Rosencrantz (note spelling) and Guildenstern Are Dead is Mr. Tom Stoppard's Tony award-winning comedy, which places two of Hamlet's most intriguing characters in the limelight. This irreverent look at what happened behind the scenes in Shakespeare's play provides an existential view of the human condition through the amusing adventures of Hamlet's college chums.
The idea for the play began 1963 and debuted 1966 and was presented by Oxford students as part of the fringe of the Edinburgh Festival in August of 1966. Mr. Ronald Bryden's review for The Observer called it the most brilliant debut by a young playwright since John Arden's . . . [e]rudite comedy, punning, far-fetched, leaping from depth to dizziness. Because of this glowing review, the National Theatre bought the rights to the play and in April of 1967, the play was presented in a revised version at the Old Vic Theatre.
Slang and origin unknown: a very weak opening bid.
Guinnness Book of Records
The longest continuous bridge marathon occurred in Edinburgh in the year 1972 according to the Guinness Book of Records until April 9, 1989, at the Bridge Battle of the Sexes, which was conducted at the Cavendish Club in Manhattan, New York, United States, and at the Club du Bridgeur in Paris, France. This event was covered and described by Mr. Alan Truscott in his Bridge Column for The New York Times on April 10, 1989. Source. This article by Mr. Alan Truscott is only preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.
Mr. Alan Truscott predicted in The New York Times on May 10, 1987, that the bridge world would attain the world record for the greatest number of participants in a single competitive event at the Epson Worldwide Bridge Contest. The contest will be held and conducted in an expected 81 countries and is intended to be simultaneous worldwide as best as possible. Source. This article by Mr. Alan Truscott is only preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.
Guyana Bridge League
Guyana, officially the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, is a sovereign state on the northern mainland of South America. It is, however, included in the Caribbean Region due to its strong cultural, historical, and political ties with other Anglo Caribbean countries and Caribbean Community
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