IBPA
An acronym for the International Bridge Press Association

IBU
The Irish Bridge Union is a confederation of the Contract Bridge Association of Ireland and the Northern Ireland Bridge Union. All members of the constituent bodies are automatically members of the IBU. The IBU organizes participation in European and World Championships on behalf of all Ireland.

IBM Number
The IBM number is the same as the Player Number. This is a 7-digit number assigned by the ACBL to a member of ACBL. The last digit is a self-checking device by which the computer throws out incorrect numbers. The method by which the checking digit is computed is to multiply the first six digits by 7,6,5,4,3, and 2 respectively. Then add these results. Divide the total of the results by 11, and note the remainder. This remainder is then subtracted from the divisor, 11, and the resulting difference is the check digit. If the net result of this work is a remainder of 1, then the number is not used. When a player achieves Life Master status, this is indicated by a change in his/her player number by the substitution of a letter for the first digit, alphabetically from J for 1 to R for 9. Player Numbers or IBM Numbers were first instituted by the ACBL in July 1961.

ICC
See: Inter Club Championship

Iceland Bridge Union or Bridgesamband Islands

Ice Relay - Gauksrelay or Gauks Relay
This is a revised approach to the Ice Relay Opening Bids and the continuances. This information has been translated by Mr. Daniell Neill or he has seen to the translation. However, not all of the text has been translated-accomplished and portions of the text remain in Icelandic text. To a large degree they are self-explanatory, but the reader should be aware of the fact that any assumptions are self-assumptions.

Ice Relay Opening Bids
These opening bids were developed by Mr. Jon Baldursson of Iceland. World Bridge Federation code: WBF Code: ISL&500011. The visitor can also review the Convention Card (,pdf file) of Mr. Jon Baldursson and Thorlakur Jonsson, which they employed for the 2008 European Championships. Their General Approach and Style is listed as Ice Relay Precision. Source: Mr. Daniell Neill via Mr. Bjorgvin Runar Leifsson.

Icy
Slang: a laydown; cold; makeable.

IDAK and IDAC and Wonder Bids
The origin of this concept is based upon ideas of the family Crossley, namely Mr. Clarence F. Crossley Jr., born in the year 1924 of Henderson, Nevada, United States, and sons Mr. David M. Crossley, born in the year 1948 of Las Vegas, Nevada, United States, and Mr. Robert (Bob) E. Crossley (website), born in the year 1951 of Corte Madera, California, United States. The development of the concept is attributed by the family more to Mr. Robert (Bob) E. Crossley.

Idiot Coup
This is the creation of a situation in which an opponent is given an opportunity to do something foolish. A defensive play which only works if the declarer has the reputation of being naïve.

Idle Bids
These are bids, which have little or no natural function in a standard method of bidding. They are, however, reserved for specialized use. Bids, metaphorically, constitute a language, however limited, and an expansion of this language is always being sought by bridge players. For example, the bidding sequence1 Club - 1 Spade by a partnership does not mean that the bids 1 Diamond and 1 Heart are now idle bids. They are simply consumed bids. But for example, after one partner has opened with 1 No Trump, or 2 No Trump, and the other partner is not a passed hand, many partnerships use the Texas Transfer Convention to show a long Heart suit or a long Spade suit by bidding the lower-ranking suit to transfer the 1 No Trump bidder. Using this convention, many partnerships discovered that the bid of 4 Spades was idle and had no significance. Mr. Eddie Kantar and Mr. Danny Kleinman devised a way to apply the use of this 4 Spades bid. See: Kantar-Kleinman Slam Force.

Illegal
Something not in accordance with the Laws of Duplicate Contract Bridge.

Illegal Call
A call out of rotation, insufficient, or otherwise improper, during the auction. For example, if the call is insufficient, then Law 27 applies:

LAW 27 - INSUFFICIENT BID

A. Insufficient Bid Accepted

Any insufficient bid may be accepted (treated as legal) at the option of offender's LHO. It is accepted if that player calls.

B.  Insufficient Bid Not Accepted

If an insufficient bid made in rotation is not accepted, it must be corrected by the substitution of either a sufficient bid or a pass.

1. Not Conventional and Corrected by Lowest Sufficient Bid in Same Denomination

(a) No Penalty

If both the insufficient bid and the bid substituted are incontrovertibly not conventional and if the bid is corrected by the lowest sufficient bid in the same denomination, the auction proceeds as though the irregularity had not occurred (Law 16C2 does not apply to this situation, but see (b) following).

(b) Award of Adjusted Score

If the Director judges that the insufficient bid conveyed such information as to damage the non-offending side, he shall assign an adjusted score.

2. Conventional, or Corrected by Any Other Sufficient Bid or Pass

If either the insufficient bid or the lowest sufficient bid in the same denomination may have been conventional or if the bid is corrected by any other sufficient bid or by a pass, (penalty) the offender's partner must pass whenever it is his turn to call (apply Law 10C1 and see Law 23 when the pass damages the non-offending side; and the lead penalties of Law 26 may apply).

3. Attempt to Correct by a Double or Redouble

If the offender attempts to substitute a double or redouble for his insufficient bid, the attempted call is cancelled, and (penalty) his partner must pass whenever it is his turn to call (see Law 23 when the pass damages the non-offending side; and the lead penalties of Law 26 may apply).

C. Insufficient Bid out of Rotation

If a player makes an insufficient bid out of rotation, Law 31 applies.

IMP
An acronym for International Match Points; a special unit of scoring used in tournament play. The score is referred to as IMPs. In a team game, a difference in trick and bonus scores of the North-South pair and the East-West pair on the same team is used to determine IMPs from a chart. IMPs are sometimes converted to Victory Points by way of a chart based on either a 20- or 30-point Victory Point Scale. A reproduction of the IMP and VP scales is generally printed inside each ACBL Convention Card.

IMP Bridge Magazine
A magazine published in The Netherlands for bridge players. Founded in 1990 by Mr. Jan van Cleeff.

IMP Pairs
An IMP Pairs event is played like a regular pair event but is scored in a totally different way. A basic score is set for each board, usually an average of all the scores compiled on that board. Sometimes the top and bottom scores are eliminated before the average is taken so that extreme scores will have less impact on the average. Then your score is algebraically compared with the average and translated into International Matchpoints (IMPs) according to the IMP formula. The IMP scale is printed on the ACBL convention card.

Imperfect Pack
A deck of playing cards which is incomplete or in which one or more cards are duplicated.

Impossible Bid
An example is 8 Clubs. It is a bid which is inconsistent with previous bidding by the same player, and which therefore reveals that this player is unaware of the bidding principles or has made a mistake.

Impossible Negative
A method of responding over a Precision Club opening in order to show a 4-4-4-1 distribution. The responder bids first 1 Diamond, then jumps in his short suit to show that he did not have a negative hand after all. This method has been modified to meet modern bidding standards.

IMP Pair Games
After the introduction of scoring by computer, it became more convenient to score pair contests by IMPs. Before the introduction of computer scoring, the process of scoring was cumbersome and involved. There are basically three types of scoring.

A. The datum method, generally called Butler scoring after Mr. Geoffrey Butler. The two extreme scores are put aside and the remainder averaged to produce a datum score, or norm, or mean, against which all results are IMPed. This is unsuitable for a small number of tables, however, but for a larger number of tables, usually more than 12 tables, it is preferable to eliminate two scores at each end of the spectrum.

B. Another method is the full comparison method, used for example in the Cavendish Invitational Charity Pairs. Each pair receives an IMP score by comparing with every other table, but is subject to a 17 IMP maximum.

C. A third method of scoring is that two experts play all the deals against each other. Their results the determine and constitute the datum, or norm, against which the other players are IMPed. This method of scoring results in having two sets of winners: one North-South winner and one East-West winner.

Imprecision Club Opening Bids
These opening bids were devised and developed by Mr. Robin Michaels of Cambridge, England. They employ the use of opening a 5-card Major suit, a weaker No Trump range, and a distributional description of the holding on the two level.

Improper Call
A bid or double during the auction when the caller is under an obligation to pass.

Improper Remark
Any statement or question by a player during the play or auction of a hand which refers to a possible holding or interpretation of an action of the current hand.

Impropriety
A violation or breach of ethical conduct, and also the failure to observe proper etiquette.

Improved Stayman Convention
The presentation is a direct excerpt from the publication by Mr. Easley Blackwood from his publication Blackwood On Bidding, in association with Mr. Stanley Mc Comas, published in the year 1956 by The Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana, and New York, New York, United States, Chapter 17, pages 123 - 127, Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 56-13044.

Inadmissible Calls
These are calls that are made but are inadmissible or not allowed by the Laws governing Duplicate Contract Bridge. They are covered under Law 36 through Law 39.

LAW 36 - INADMISSIBLE DOUBLE OR REDOUBLE

Any double or redouble not permitted by Law 19 is cancelled. The offender must substitute a legal call, and (penalty) the offender's partner must pass whenever it is his turn to call (see Law 23 when the pass damages the non-offending side); the lead penalties of Law 26 may apply. (If the call is out of turn, see Law 32; if offender's LHO calls, see Law 35A.)

LAW 37 - ACTION VIOLATING OBLIGATION TO PASS

A bid, double or redouble by a player who is required by law to pass is cancelled, and (penalty) each member of the offending side must pass whenever it becomes his turn to call (see Law 23 when the pass damages the non-offending side). The lead penalties of Law 26 may apply. (If offender's LHO calls, see Law 35B.)

LAW 38 - BID OF MORE THAN SEVEN

No play or score at a contract of more than seven is ever permissible. A bid of more than seven is cancelled, and (penalty) each member of the offending side must pass whenever it becomes his turn to call (see Law 23 when the pass damages the non-offending side). The lead penalties of Law 26 may apply. (If offender's LHO calls, see Law 35C.)

LAW 39 - CALL AFTER FINAL PASS

A call made after the final pass of the auction is cancelled, and:

A. Pass, or Call by Declaring Side

If it is a pass by a defender or any call by the future declarer or dummy, there is no penalty.

B. Other Action by Defender

If it is a bid, double or redouble by a defender, the lead penalties of Law 26 may apply. (If offender's LHO calls, see Law 35D.)

Inadvertent Infringement Of Law
This is a violation of the proper procedure without the deliberate attempt to do so. It is first assumed that all infringements of laws are inadvertent, and the penalties prescribed for such infringements are designed to indemnify the non-offenders against potential loss as a result of such an advertence.

IN
An abbreviation to designate an Intermediate-Newcomer Program.

Incomplete Hand
An original holding or fewer than 13 cards with the other three hands correct. The missing card or cards are deemed part of the original hand providing attention is drawn to the irregularity during the bidding and play. The Law of 14 applies.

LAW 14 - MISSING CARD

A. Hand Found Deficient before Play Commences

When three hands are correct and the fourth is found to be deficient before the play period begins, the Director makes a search for any missing card, and:

1. Card Is Found

If a card is found, it is restored to the deficient hand.

2. Card Cannot Be Found

If a card cannot be found, the Director reconstructs the deal, as near to its original form as he can determine, by substituting another pack.

B. Hand Found Deficient Afterwards

When three hands are correct and the fourth is found to be deficient after the play period begins, the Director makes a search for any missing card, and:

1. Card Is Found

(a) If a card is found among the played cards, Law 67 applies.
(b) If a card is found elsewhere, it is restored to the deficient hand, and penalties may apply (see 3., following).

2. Card Cannot Be Found

If a card cannot be found, the deal is reconstructed as nearly as can be determined in its original form by substituting another pack, and penalties may apply (see 3., following).

3. Possible Penalties

A card restored to a hand under the provisions of Section B of this Law is deemed to have belonged continuously to the deficient hand. It may become a penalty card (Law 50), and failure to have played it may constitute a revoke.

In Back Of
A term describing the relationship of a player to the opponent on his right, meaning that this player is in back of, behind, or over of the player to his right.

In-Card
This is an expression to describe an entry.

Incomplete Pack
A deck of cards from which one or more cards are missing. If a deal is made from an incomplete deck, the deal is void, if discovered within the legal time limits, and a new deck is substituted.

Incomplete Rubber
This pertains to a game of Rubber Bridge, which has not been finished, but for which a bonus score can be added to one pair of players. In case a rubber is not completed, bonuses are awarded of 300 points for a game already scored and 100 points for a partscore already scored.

Incomplete Table
1. In club play, this is a table of four or five players in which there is room for a newcomer to cut it. Some clubs designate five players, some six, as a full complement of players;
2. In home play, two or three players in search of one or two additional players;
3. In duplicate play, an incomplete table is deemed to be a half table and the director makes adjustment for such circumstances.

Incorrect Card
Any card played which is improper constituting perhaps a revoke, or is played out of rotation.

Indemnify
This is the act of giving redress to a side that has been injured by an infraction of the laws by the other side. In duplicate bridge it is the obligation of the tournament director to impose such penalties for infractions. Law 10 applies.

LAW 10 - ASSESSMENT OF A PENALTY

A. Right to Assess Penalty

The Director alone has the right to assess penalties when applicable. Players do not have the right to assess (or waive) penalties on their own initiative.

B. Cancellation of Payment or Waiver of Penalty

The Director may allow or cancel any payment or waiver of penalties made by the players without his instructions.

C. Choice after Irregularity

1. Explanation of Options

When these Laws provide an option after an irregularity, the Director shall explain all the options available.

2. Choice among Options

If a player has an option after an irregularity, he must make his selection without consulting partner.

Indian Bridge Federation
The Federation in India was founded in 1958 by four state bridge associations: Andhra Pradesh, Maharushtra, South India and West Bengal. The founder and president of the Federation was Mr. Ramnwas Ramnarain Ruia of Bombay, who held the office of President until 1970. Although the link will not lead the visitor to the Website of the Indian Bridge Federation, the Website contains pertinent information.

Individual
This is a form of duplicate bridge contest, in which each player's score is kept separately from those of all the other players, and in which each contestant plays with a different partner each deal or set of deals.

Individual Movements for 5, 7, 11 Tables
The individual movement is practically the only form of duplicate bridge whereby each player generally plays with every other player and not with an established or regular partner. This movement has been constructed in such a manner that each player is a so-called separate contestant. It is possible that the one-time partnership plays only one board with each partner and other times two or three boards. Four or more boards are not recommended. Since an odd number results in a prime number, odd tables are played according to the following schematic, which has proven to be mathematically the most ideal movement, which is referred to as the Rainbow Movement. Since the player participates in play at each table with a new partner each round, guide cards are generally supplied by the director in order that the player knows in advance to which table he/she must move and to occupy which compass direction. The recommended partnership agreement, since the players are not an established partnership, is the Standard American Yellow Card. In international events the sponsoring organization may establish that the most common method of bidding be employed.

All the table numbers are prime.
The following movement will not work otherwise.

The Rainbow movement accomplishes this movement.

There are 5 components: Boards, N, E, S, and W.

One component must be stationary. If the stationary is the boards, it is easier.
So from round to round, the boards remain fixed.

At the end of each round, the players use the following structure:

North:   moves up one table
East:   moves up one table
South:   moves up two tables
West:   moves down two tables

In order to achieve a satisfactory balance, it is recommended to seed the field.
There should be an equal mixture of strengths in each direction.

Numbers: for a 7-table movement:

Norths are:   1-7
Easts are:   8-14
Souths are:   15-21
Wests are:   22-28

You can play 3-boards per round, and with North fixed, the other three players
rotate around North playing 1-board in each partnership at the table. At the end
of the round, however, allow the player to return to their starting positions as they
arrived at the table, then call the move.

This means that Easts move as East always from table to table.

Individual Movement for 9 Players
This is in a .pdf file format and can be printed.

Individual Tournament
A form of duplicate bridge contest in which each player's score is kept separately from those of all the others. Each contestant plays with many different partners.

Indonesia Contract Bridge Association or Gagungan Bridge Seluruh Indonesia
This association was founded in 1953.

Inference
Inference is defined as the logical process of deriving from assumed premises either the strict logical conclusion or one that is to some degree probable. It is a conclusion drawn from a call or play made by either the partner or an opponent. It is this ability to gather, induce, infer and assimilate these clues provided by the auction and the play and to act upon them which constitutes an excellent bridge player. This ability can be the result of experience and practice, but must be honed in order to perceive the clues necessary to act to one's advantage.

Inferential Problem
A problem which requires the deduction of the lie of the hidden cards through the use of information of a form not found in ordinary play.

INFO - 1 Notrump FOrcing
This is the designation, or acronym, for a bidding system, which focuses on an opening at the one level. This concept was designed by Mr. Bert Beentjes and can be found on his website. To find the documents, click on Files and Documents in the menu. The bidding system is designed around some basic concepts, one of which is that the first bid by the responder is employed for differentiating three different situations, which are destructive, competitive, and constructive. There is an English version and a Dutch version, which is more comprehensive. Both the shorter English version in .pdf file format and the Dutch version in .pdf file format have only been archived and preserved on this site for future reference.

Informatory
1. Takeout
2. Showing values.

Informatory Double
Once used to describe what is now the Takeout Double. This term was first applied to a Takeout Double and was employed as such. The designation lost its significance over time as the game evolved.

Informatory Pass
This term was first applied to a Penalty Pass and described the principle behind the penalty pass as that of the partner holding considerable length and strength in the suit bid by the opponent and that a pass would result in a better score.

In Front Of
A term describing the relationship of a player and his left hand opponent.

Ingberman Convention
This is not a variation of the reverse bid, but rather a concept devised by Mr. Monroe J. Ingberman to be used by the responder of a Reverse bidder to show minimum values through a Relay bid of 2 No Trump.

Ingram One Club (or Simplified Bridge)
The designation for a bidding system developed in the early 1930s by Mr. John St. H. Ingram and published with the same title in 1935. The specifics of this bidding system are unknown at this time.

Inhibitory Double
A psychic maneuver in a competitive auction, and the goal is to intimidate the opponents. The Inhibitory Double can also take the form of a double of a forcing bid after one partner has already overcalled as in the following example: 1 Heart-2 Clubs-2 Spades-double. Normally, the 2 Spades bid by the partner of the opener is forcing in standard style. The doubler should indeed have a very poor hand but with moderate support for his partner who overcalled with 2 Clubs. The double can also show length in the fourth unbid suit Hearts, as in the Snapdragon convention.

Initial Bid
The first bid of any deal.

Initial Lead
The first lead of any deal.

Inner Sequence
A sequence of which the top card is not the top card of the suit holding. For example: by AQJ10xx, the Queen is the top of an inner sequence.

Inspection of Tricks
1. a trick may be inspected by any player until such player has turned his play to the trick face down;
2. until the play has been completed, quitted tricks may not be inspected except at the specific instruction of the director;
3. after the completion of play, the played and unplayed cards may be inspected to settle a claim, a revoke, or of the number of tricks won or lost. However, no player shall handle any cards other than his own cards, not those of other players, since this constitutes a violation of Law 66.

LAW 66 - INSPECTION OF TRICKS

A. Current Trick

So long as his side has not led or played to the next trick, declarer or either defender may, until he has turned his own card face down on the table, require that all cards just played to the trick be faced for his inspection.

B. Own Last Card

Until a card is led to the next trick, declarer or either defender may inspect, but not expose, his own last card played.

C. Quitted Tricks

Thereafter, until play ceases, quitted tricks may not be inspected (except at the Director's specific instruction; for example, to verify a claim of a revoke).

D. After the Conclusion of Play

After play ceases, the played and unplayed cards may be inspected to settle a claim of a revoke, or of the number of tricks won or lost; but no player should handle cards other than his own. If, after such a claim has been made, a player mixes his cards in such a manner that the Director can no longer ascertain the facts, the Director shall rule in favor of the other side.

Instant Matchpoint Game
This is a type of bridge game in which players are given their matchpoint score on each board immediately after playing each deal. ACBL hosts an annual ACBL-wide Instant-Matchpoint Game at bridge clubs generally each September and a School-Wide Instant-Matchpoint Game for participants in the School Bridge Lesson Series program generally each May on an annual base.

Instant Matchpoint Pairs
A very special method of scoring is used for the Instant Matchpoint Pairs, a rare event. It is run only three times annually by the ACBL. Identical hands are played throughout the ACBL (throughout the world in the World-wide Pairs). As soon as the hand is played, the players can learn their Instant Matchpoint result by looking at the traveling score. All hands are scored IN ADVANCE. A good-looking program book is distributed to all players at the conclusion of the game in which each and every hand is thoroughly analyzed by an expert.

Instant Matchpoints
These are game such as the Epson, in which the matchpoints are predetermined, based on the results of a previous competition using the same deals. The players are made aware of their matchpoint score immediately after completing the play of a deal.

Insufficient Bid
A bid which is lower in rank and number than a bid previously made in the same auction. Law 27 governs this irregularity.

LAW 27 - INSUFFICIENT BID

A. Insufficient Bid Accepted

Any insufficient bid may be accepted (treated as legal) at the option of offender's LHO. It is accepted if that player calls.

B.  Insufficient Bid Not Accepted

If an insufficient bid made in rotation is not accepted, it must be corrected by the substitution of either a sufficient bid or a pass.

1. Not Conventional and Corrected by Lowest Sufficient Bid in Same Denomination

(a) No Penalty

If both the insufficient bid and the bid substituted are incontrovertibly not conventional and if the bid is corrected by the lowest sufficient bid in the same denomination, the auction proceeds as though the irregularity had not occurred (Law 16C2 does not apply to this situation, but see (b) following).

(b) Award of Adjusted Score

If the Director judges that the insufficient bid conveyed such information as to damage the non-offending side, he shall assign an adjusted score.

2. Conventional, or Corrected by Any Other Sufficient Bid or Pass

If either the insufficient bid or the lowest sufficient bid in the same denomination may have been conventional or if the bid is corrected by any other sufficient bid or by a pass, (penalty) the offender's partner must pass whenever it is his turn to call (apply Law 10C1 and see Law 23 when the pass damages the non-offending side; and the lead penalties of Law 26 may apply).

3. Attempt to Correct by a Double or Redouble

If the offender attempts to substitute a double or redouble for his insufficient bid, the attempted call is cancelled, and (penalty) his partner must pass whenever it is his turn to call (see Law 23 when the pass damages the non-offending side; and the lead penalties of Law 26 may apply).

C. Insufficient Bid out of Rotation

If a player makes an insufficient bid out of rotation, Law 31 applies.

Insult
The 50 point penalty score that the doubling side pays for doubling a contract that the declaring side makes. The insult bonus is 100 points if the contract is redoubled and made.

Insurance Bid
A high level save made despite some expectation of defeating the opposing contract. The insurance bidder accepts the lesser penalty score as opposed to a larger penalty score.

Inter Club Championship
The ICC is an event which combines face-to-face play with the added perk of across-the-field scoring through the Internet to determine overall rankings.

Intermediate Newcomer Program
ACBL has developed a program of games and activities designed to make duplicate experiences fun and comfortable for new players and new members. The concept was introduced by Edith McMullin at the Summer NABC in 1984. All NABCs now offer an IN Program and so do many regionals and sectionals in North America.

International Bidding System, The
The developer of this bidding system is unknown. It was described and explained in the publication The International Contract Bridge System: A New and Accurate Bidding System - Easily Learned and Applied, published c1934, by International, Worcester, Massachusetts, United States, and the Library of Congress Code is: LC: ca 35000123. This publication is, however, unfortunately unsigned and the author remains unknown. It is possible that the developer and the author are two individual bridge pioneers, but this is not known.

First Internet Open Pairs World Championship
In its first operational year 2001, e-bridge has launched a special event, the very first Internet Open Pairs World Championship (IOPWC). In this knockout-type event over 600 players participated in its early stages. Some of the best world players attended this event, including Paul Soloway, Sam Lev, George Jacobs, Ralph Katz, Eric Kokish, Michael Rosenberg, Jacek Pszczola, Piotr Gawrys, John Mohan, Karen McCallum, George Mittelman, Barnet Shenkin, Alex Petrunin, Andrei Gromov, Michael Polowan, Marty Fleisher, Pinhas Romik, and many other champions.

Ten pairs of finalists, each attended by live monitors, participated in the 3-session finals competition. The Polish pair of Piotr Gawrys and Jacek Pszczola posted a strong first final session and eventually won the gold medal. Sam Lev and the CEO of e-bridge, Pinhas Romik, had a close second place finish. Cash price and ACBL masterpoints were awarded.

In addition, Peter Glazel and Eunice Louise Towne (USA) won the best North American pair award ($1,000), and Betty Fraume and Karen Pfendler (USA) won the best Women's Pair award ($1,000).

1. Piotr Gawrys - Jacek Pszczola   Poland   $5,000   50.00
2. Pinhas Romik - Samuel Lev   Israel/USA   $3,000   37.50
3. Gabriel Dumitrascius - Larry Wang   Romania/USA   $3,000   28.13
4. Benny Libster - Ilan Cohen   Israel   $1,000   21.09
5. Lars Goldberg - Tommy Bergdahl   Sweden   $750   15.82
6. George Jacobs - Ralph Katz   USA   $500   11.87

Interest Showing Bids
These are bids which can be used as an alternative to cuebids when the opener and the responder have already agreed on a Major suit at the level of three and/or four. Devised in 1948 by bridge players, Mr. E.M.L. Beale, Mr. J.R.A. Beale, Mr. H. Peter F. Swinnerton-Dyer, at the Cambridge University in England, and which have become an optional element of the Acol System. These bids gained little popularity with the bridge community in the United States.

Interference Bid
A call that disrupts the flow of the opponents' bidding sequence. Any defensive overcall which is not attacking or showing strength but has the purpose of obstructing the opponent’s bidding process.

Interim Response
Any Waiting Bid that keeps the auction continuous and expects additional information. The response may be artificial, but in general offers no descriptive information.

Interior Sequence
A sequence that does not include the highest card held in a suit. For example: King-Jack-Ten is an interior sequence; the Jack-Ten are in sequence, but are not in sequence with the King.

Intermediate Card
A card roughly of the rank of ten or nine.

Intermediate Jump Overcall
A jump overcall promising a good six-card suit showing fair values, and better than an opening bid.

Intermediate Two Bid
An opening bid of two in a suit to show a strong hand somewhat short of game strength. Introduced in 1930 and part of the Acol System.

International Bridge Academy
Founded in 1965 by Mr. Jean Besse and Mr. Pierre Collet with the purpose of fostering the study of bridge as a science. The Academy has been inactive since 1985.

International Bridge League
The predecessor of the World Bridge Federation, and founded on June 10, 1932 at Scheveningen, The Netherlands.

International Bridge Press Association
A worldwide organization of bridge writers, whose reports and articles appear in the various media in most countries where tournament bridge is played. The IBPA was founded in 1958.

The International Bridge Press Association (IBPA) is a world-wide web. IBPA has more than 500 members in all corners of the world. Its main objective is to assist bridge-journalists in their bridge-related professional activities, see further the Constitution.

IBPA liaise with the World Bridge Federation, its zonal organizations, national contract bridge organizations, and other bodies, in order to achieve good working conditions for members. Bridge writers can apply for full membership, others can join as an associate member.

Full membership is a must for every professional bridge journalist. At major tournaments IBPA membership is the key to the press-room and a number of other benefits. And between venues the IBPA Bulletin and IBPA's news services are a never ceasing source of column material.

International Bridge Press Association Awards
These awards are presented annually at the World Championships for:

1. Personality of the Year, (Charles H. Goren Award until 1989)
2. Sportsman of the Year, (John E. Simon Award now in abeyance)
3. Best Article of Series on a System or Convention, (C.C. Wei "Precision" Award), and subsequently awarded for Best Defense
4. Best Played Hand of the Year, (Charles J. Solomon Award)
5. Best Bid Hand of the Year, (George Rosenkranz "Romex" Award)

International Code
The Laws of Rubber Bridge or of Duplicate Bridge.

International Fund Games
ACBL offers an International Fund Game at each of the NABCs and ADBL-wide in January, May and July to raise funds to defray the expense of North American participation in international or WBF competition. Each weekly sanctioned game held at a club may hold an annual one-session club championship game for the benefit of the ACBL International Fund.

International Match
A bridge contest between two or more countries.

International Match Points
A method of scoring. Used primarily in team and pair events. This method of scoring appears to have been developed in Vienna and was first applied on an international level in 1938 at the European Championship in Oslo. IMPs were first used in the Bermuda Bowl in 1951.

Internet Acronyms and Text Messaging and Shorthand
These acronyms and abbreviations, sometimes also designated as shorthand, are employed and used by computer users, or whenever people are online in order to accelerate the means of communication. They can also be employed for instant messaging, cell phone texting, newsgroups, blogs, which are then generally user- and group-specific.

Internet Bridge Websites - Bridge Related Websites on the Internet
This is a compilation of websites gathered throughout the history of BridgeGuys.com and which have been alphabetically listed. These links may not be active or may have changed. Updates to this list are not planned owing to the Internet historical value. The evolution of bridge-related websites can be semi-traced via this list as other data. Please report any inactive links.

Intervene
To double, overcall or cuebid after an opposing opening bid.

Intervening Bid
An overcall.

Intervenor
The player who intervenes; a doubler, an overcaller or a cuebidder; also advancer's partner.

Intervention
A double, overcall or cuebid after an opposing opening bid.

Interwoven Howell
Two Howell bridge games of equal size, so arranged that each participant plays, at each round, the boards which are not in play in the other game.

In the Money
This expression is applied when the sponsoring organization donates a monetary prize and a player and/or a pair or team of players qualify to play and/or participate in the event, but have not yet actually won the event.

In The Red
1. in rubber bridge or Chicago it means being the loser;
2. in duplicate the term describes a score good enough to earn masterpoints, because rankings that qualify for points used to be indicated in red on the recap sheet before computer scoring.

Intra-Finesse
A term introduced by Mr. Gabriel Chagas in a Bols Tip to describe certain finessing situations that call for successive finesses against both opponents.

Inverted
Opposite in meaning to the natural, usual or traditional, such as inverted raises, where a single raise is stronger than s double raise; sometimes designated as upside-down.

Inverted Majors
A conventional method, devised by Mr. Alan P. Wollman, which is a variation / modification of the concept used for the conventional method called Inverted Minors and otherwise known as Major Suit Responses: An Ultra-Scientific Approach.

Inverted Minors
A method to show that a Minor suit single raise as strong, with a Minor suit double raise as weak.

Inverted Psycho Suction
The concept behind the conventional method designated inverted psycho suction is the development of Mr. Thomas Andrews. Following the orginal concept of psycho suction it was evident from the original version that the player would be able to minimize the number of times of being forced to pass instead of competing.

Invisible Cuebids
A defense mechanism to Two-Suited overcalls, Invisible Cuebids allow the responder to describe more hands after the right hand opponent intervenes with a two-suited overcall, such as Unusual No Trump or Michaels.

Invitation
A request that partner continues to game and/or slam with maximum values.

Invitational Bid
A bid which is offering an encouraging game invitation.

Ireland - The Contract Bridge Association of Ireland
This Association was found in 1932 in Dublin.

Ireland - Northern Ireland Bridge Union

Ireland - The Irish Bridge Union
The IBU is a confederation of the Contract Bridge Association of Ireland and the Northern Ireland Bridge Union. All members of the constituent bodies are automatically members of the IBU.

Iron Duke
Not through the Iron Duke. An expression indicating that the user holds very strong values. Although the expression is perhaps improper, it is usually made when the player splits touching honors of equal value to prevent a finesse.

Irregularity
This is any occurrence not in conformity with the Laws of Duplicate Contract Bridge.

Irregular Lead
A calculated departure from normal and conventional procedure and occurring in the play of the first card to any trick by a defender.

Irregular Rainbow
A form of bridge movement. The regular Rainbow Movement provides for an odd number of bridge tables, but H. Shomate constructed irregular variants for 8 and 9 tables.

Isolate
1. regarding a hand, to remove the last entry to the opposite hand;
2. regarding a menace card, to remove the guard of one opponent.

Isolating the Menace
This is a maneuver during a squeeze play. A menace may be controlled by both opponents and it is to the advantage of the declarer to guide the play so that the burden of guarding this menace by only one opponent. The act of isolating this menace to only one opponent refers to the efforts of the declarer to place that burden on one opponent.

Israel Bridge Federation
The Israel Bridge Federation was founded in 1940 as the Palestine Bridge Federation.

Italian Michaels Cuebid
The Italian version of the Michaels Cuebid which shows an exact distribution of both Major suits.

Italian Systems
This designation is generally applied for those bidding systems, complete with conventional approaches and styles, developed and used initially in Italy by the more experienced bridge players and authors. A few are mentioned below.

Blue Team Club
Leghorn Diamond
Little Roman Club
Marmic System
Roman System
Super Precision

Italian Bridge Federation - Federazione Italiana Bridge
Founded in 1936 by Mr. Paolo Baroni, Mr. Federico Rosa, and Mr. E. Pontremoli. During the WW II, the activities of the Federation were ceased and reactivated after the war by Mr. Carl Alberto Perroux.

Italian Control Bidding
This is an unofficial designation for a response to a control-asking bid, in which there are two possible methods of showing the two posssible dominant forms of control bidding, which are 1. first before second, and 2. first or second. In the method of showing first or second, the partnership shows controls up-the-line, but the partnership, via this method, only by-passes a suit when the partnership holds no control at all in the suit. If one partner denies a suit in this manner, then the other partner will sign off if the other partner does not have a control. Any further positive action implies holding a control in the suit by-passed by the partner. It is necessary to keep the bid of 4 No Trump as Blackwood in this control-bidding style, because no control bid can be assumed to show an Ace.

Italian Discards - A refinement of McKenny is to give different meanings to odd and even cards. This allows the player to combine attitude and suit preference signals. An odd card encourages that suit while an even card is McKenny. Sometimes referred to as Roman Discards or Odd-Even Discards.

 

 


 

 


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