Kabel Three No Trump - Kabel 3 No Trump
The origin of this conventional method is unknown. The concept is to determine the location of specific Aces and Kings with an opening of 3 No Trump. The opening bid is forcing and implies a very strong holding with fewer than three Losing Tricks. After determining whether partner holds any specific values and the location thereof, the opener is then able to set the correct contract at the correct level.

Kalamazoo Tray
The designation for the first Duplicate Whist Tray with pockets for the cards. A picture of the Kalamazoo Tray is shown below in an advertisement, printed in the North American Review of July 1893, stating that the Kalamazoo Tray has done as much for Duplicate Whist as the invention of the telescope did for astronomy. This product was manufactured by Ihling Bros. & Everard of Kalamazoo, Michigan, who were Stationers, Printers, and Publishers during the Civil War and afterwards. One source is: Kalamazoo Method. This product is not described as a board. The tray itself consisted of a fiber-board or paper-board-like substance; reports are of a paper mache type of touch. The construction itself demanded that the cards be inserted under a wire. The pocket of the slot or insert for the dealer was normally outlined in the color red to off-set it from the other slots. The original version of the Kalamazoo Duplicate Whist Tray was manufactured to also accommodate different sizes of cards, and was not cut to only fit the exact size of the rather narrow Whist and newly printed Bridge cards. The developers also included in the center of each tray a rectangular block with a hand pointing to the player, who is to lead the first card. The number of the tray was imprinted on the reverse side of the tray and well as other pertinent information such as the patent number.

It is to be assumed that the specific designation for this tray, this predecessor of the Duplicate Bridge Board, is owing to the fact that the first manufacturers of such a tray had their factory in Kalamazoo, Michigan. It remains unknown as to who designed this tray. The trays were normally sold to the general Whist and Bridge playing community in a 12-Tray Set, which were shipped to the purchaser in a box.

North American Review

Kamikaze No Trump
The Kamikaze No Trump is a bidding system devised by Mr. John Kierein. The concept was to open a holding in First or Second Seat with a total of 9 to 12 high card points. After the ACBL regulated that any No Trump opening with less than 10 high card points could not apply the usual conventions such as Stayman, Mr. John Kierein altered his Kamikaze No Trump opening to show values between 10 and 13 high card points.

Kantar Cuebids - Kantar Cue Bids
This cuebid was devised by Mr. Edwin Bruce Kantar (aka Eddie Kantar). The designation can also be written as Kantar's Cuebid or Kantar Cue Bid. The cuebid can be employed in several bidding sequences, but the cuebid always shows one of two possible shapes and is limited in its employment.

Kantar-Kleinman Slam Force - Mr. Eddie Kantar and Mr. Danny Kleinman, during their play as bridge champions, devised separately a method of reaching slam. Since their method reached the bridge community about the same time, this method became known as the Kantar-Kleinman Slam Force.

Kantar Lone Ranger Sequences
This designation cannot be verified and the origin is unknown. This is a particular bidding sequence, generally without competition, in which one partner bids a Minor suit several times, even by-passing a bid of 3 No Trump, whereby the Minor suit rebid is not Keycard Blackwood but it is still a slam try. If the partner is interested, then a cuebid becomes the slam try. If the partner has no interest in slam, then the partner bids 4 No Trump, which is then the sign-off. The guidelines are shown below.

If 3 No Trump has not been bid in the bidding sequence, then the following guidelines apply:

1. If there is no unbid suit, then the 4th bid suit is Roman Keycard Blackwood.
2. If there is one unbid suit, then bidding this suit initiates Roman Keycard Blackwood.
3. If there are two unbid suits, then the lower-ranking suit (or the cheaper) is Roman Keycard Blackwood, the higher-ranking suit is a cuebid, and 4 No Trump becomes a replacement cuebid of the lower-ranking suit.
4. If Diamonds is the agreed suit and Clubs is the unbid or 4th suit, use partner's second suit if there is one. This means only that if one partner has bid either Major suit or if one partner has bid Diamonds and then a Major suit, then employ this second suit as initiating Roman Keycard Blackwood. If this is not the case, then 4 No Trump becomes Roman Keycard Blackwood. (Side note: Presumably when a Major suit initiates the Roman Keycard Blackwood convention, then 4 No Trump becomes the replacement cuebid for that particular Major suit.
5. When Diamonds becomes the agreed trump suit and a cuebid of 4 No Trump is bid, then a bid of 5 initiates Roman Keycard Blackwood. (Side note: Presumably if a cuebid of a suit below 4 No Trump is bid and it by-passes the bid that would have normally become Roman Keycard Blackwood, then a bid of 4 No Trump later initiates Roman Keycard Blackwood.
6. When Clubs becomes the agreed trump suit and a cuebid of 4 No Trump is bid or 5 becomes the cuebid when the agreed trump suit is Diamonds, then the Roman Keycard Blackwood convention is not available.
7. The bidding sequence is played with the understanding that a bid of 4 No Trump is never a natural bid.

If 3 No Trump has been bid in the bidding sequence, then the following guidelines apply:

1. If there is no unbid suit, then the fourth suit initiates Roman Keycard Blackwood.
2. If there is one unbid suit, then this suit initiates Roman Keycard Blackwood.
3. If there are two unbid suits, then there is no Roman Keycard Blackwood asking bid since both unbid suits become cuebids.
4. The bidding sequence is played with the understanding that a bid of 4 No Trump is always a natural bid.
5. When Diamonds becomes the agreed trump suit and Clubs is the unbid suit or the fourth suit, then the second suit of one partner, as in the above guidelines, becomes and initiates Roman Keycard Blackwood.

Kantar 3 No Trump - Kantar 3NT
The Kantar 3NT works about the same way as the Gambling 3 No Trump. However, the opener's solid suit is always a Major suit. It is much rarer for responder to pass 3 No Trump instead of playing four of a Major, but still possible.

Kantar Six Ace Roman Keycard Blackwood
This conventional variation of the Six Ace Roman Keycard Blackwood convention was devised by Mr. Edwin Bruce Kantar, and was published in his book Roman Keycard Blackwood. Mr. Edwin Bruce Kantar has written four books devoted to the subject of Roman Keycard Blackwood conventional method. This is a revised, updated, and improved version of a conventional method called 6 Ace Blackwood, the origin of which remains unknown.

Kaplan, Adam - Adam Kaplan - Youngest Life Master
At the age of five years old Adam Kaplan became interested in the game of bridge and played with family members, but became intrigued with the game while on a cruise when the bridge director jokingly asked whether he would like to play. Adam Kaplan learned the basics of the game during this cruise and at the tender age of 10 years and 43 days he became the youngest USA Life Master as a member of the ACBL. This occurred at the St. George Duplicate Bridge Club in Port Richey, Florida, in 2006. Source: ACBL Bridge Bulletin, May 2006, Page 23. Photograph courtesy of: Jonathan Steinberg.

Adam Kaplan

The previous Record Holder for USA Life Master is Danny Hirschman of Ann Arbor, Michigan, who became an ACBL Life Master at the age of 10 years and 81 days during the 1994 Fall North American Bridge Championships in Minneapolis, Minnesota.

The present Record Holder for Canada Life Master is Keith Veale of Ottawa, Ontario, who earned his Gold Card in March at the age of 12 years and 10 months. The Title was previously held by David Sabourin, also of Ottawa, Ontario, who earned his Gold Card, becoming a Life Master, at the age of 14 years and 11 days in 1998.

Edgar Kaplan Control Showing Responses
The original concept is designated as Control Showing Responses (also Step Responses) to a Strong, Artificial 2 Clubs opening. These original responses should be viewed first and then the variation and/or version as suggested by Mr. Edgar Kaplan.

Kaplan Interchange - Granville Convention
Although the origin is unknown, the general consensus is that this conventional method was developed in England. It is mainly referred to as the Granville Convention, although it has little to do with the Kaplan-Sheinwold bidding system. The problem arose owing to a particular problem presented mostly in the Two-Over-One bidding system.

Kaplan Inversion
The use of a 1 No Trump response to a 1 Heart opening, which promises or shows length in Spades, whereas a first response of 1 Spade to a 1 Heart opening becomes a relay bid. The Kaplan Inversion concept is similar to the modern 1 No Trump forcing response. The commentary of Mr. Richard Granville, who devised the same concept as Mr. Edgar Kaplan, can be found on bridgewinners.com. The quoted text follows:

August 23, 2013, message by Mr. Richard Granville: I never actually quit the game completely, but I did retire from serious bridge in 1981 to concentrate on other games, initially Go, but later backgammon. Now that I'm semi-retired, my interest in bridge has been rekindled.

You're right: in 1973 at Cambridge University I did devise the inversion of the 1S and 1NT responses to 1H, since this was a simple solution to the problem of rebidding after 1H - 1NT (forcing) with 4=5=2=2 shape. I had no knowledge of Edgar Kaplan's similar idea and I presume that he also developed his approach independently.

I've played the convention as part of Precision with a number of partner, although (inconsistently) I haven't used it in my few forays into (standard) Two over One.

I've recently taken an interest in the Fantunes system, in which opening bids of one of suit are natural, unlimited and forcing. After a 1H or 1S opening, it's fairly essential to use the Gazzilli convention after a 1S or 1NT response, in order to keep the bidding low when responder has nothing. But the Gazzilli 2C rebid doesn't work very well after 1H - 1NT (natural) and the description of rebids on page 75 of
Fantunes Relealed doesn't make sense.

The solution is to use the Kaplan Interchange after a 1H opening. After a 1S response (showing 0-10 points with less than 5 spades) a 1NT rebid is Gazzilli, showing either spades or extra values. After a 1NT response (showing 0+ points with 5+ spades), a 2C rebid is Gazzilli, showing either clubs or extra values. This latter bid works well because opener can raise spades (either immediately or later) with 3+ card support.

This approach is part of a new bidding system:
SWIFT - Standard WIth Fantunes. A 2-page summary is available on the home page of my local club: http://www.bridgewebs.com/walton/. (somewhere on the right-hand side).

Returning to the original question, I too had likened the situation to Jack Marx's independent invention of Stayman and I'm perfectly happy for the convention to be known as the Kaplan Interchange.

Kaplan Point Count
Mr. Edgar Kaplan
was a bridge teacher, bridge writer of several publications regarding the game of bridge, Editor and Publisher of the magazine The Bridge World, and a bridge theorist in addition to being one of the pioneers of the game of bridge. In his studies and research he devoted much of his time to the values assigned to cards and devised the following after realizing that the standard, of his day, point count did not reflect several features such as the upgrading of Aces and Kings, the downgrading of Queens and Jacks, counting the semi-honors Tens and Nines and accounting for these particular cards, the honors in suits of length plus the honors in combinations.

Kaplan-Sheinwold Bidding System
A bidding system developed by Mr. Edgar Kaplan and Mr. Alfred Scheinwold based on five-card Major suits and weak No Trump openings. The system has the purpose of precisely limiting the strength shown by all bids during the auction.

Kaplan-Sheinwold Updated 1991
This is the updated version of the Kaplan-Sheinwold bidding system written by Mr. Edgar Kaplan, which was published on the Internet in 1991. This is a .pdf file and will be opened automatically by your browser in a new window.



Kaplan-Sheinwold Modification
This is a modified version of the Kaplan-Sheinwold bidding system written by Mr. Moty Katzman and Internet-published in September 16, 1998. This is a .pdf file and will be opened automatically by your browser in a new window.

Karate System of Bidding
This is the designation given for a system of bidding in competition, based on some of the pioneering ideas in the publication 3D and the MAFIA Club by Mr. Kenneth L. Lindsay. According to the author, the dominant theme in Karate is that showing two suits with a single bid is likely to be more effective than traditional methods that show only one suit, or three suits, or no suits. This information is only archived on this site in .pdf file format and the source can be found at the link above. This system of bidding also includes:

The Tri Structure - Any non-jump bid in a new suit shows that suit and the next higher unbid suit, Thus, over a 1 Heart opening, 1 Spade shows Spades and Clubs. Two biddable four-card suits are permissible, so long as overall strength is adequate.

The Hex Structure - This structure covers all six two-suit combinations. Each non-jump suit bid denies that suit and shows the next two suits. Double and a No Trump overcall show the two non-touching suit combinations (Clubs plus Hearts and Diamonds plus Spades) with No Trump showing the combination that includes Oener's semi-suit.

Karn Trophy - Karn Trophy Winners
This trophy for the independent tournament for Masters Individuals was donated by Mr. Willard S. Karn, who was an original member of the Four Horsemen, which was a group of expert bridge players founded by Mr. P. Hal Sims. The trophy was in effect in the years 1931, 1932, and 1933. Following the event in the year 1933 the trophy was withdrawn by Mr. Willard S. Karn owing to the accusations of cheating made by several members of the Crockford bridge club, better known as the Culbertson bridge club in New York, New York, United States. Mr. Willard S. Karn's reputation had been targeted and tarnished, and he spent many subsequent years in attempting to clear his name, his reputation, and his blemished image within the elite of the New York society. The brothers Mr. Albert Steiner and Mr. Philip Steiner of Cincinnati, Ohio, United States, donated the Steiner Trophy for the event.

Karosel 2 Diamonds - Karosel Two Diamonds
This conventional method, published by Mr. Charles L. L. Dalmas, specifically addresses the holding of a semi-balanced holding with 18-19 high card points.
This presentation has been contributed by the author, to whom we express our appreciation.

Karpin Count
The Karpin Count was named after Mr. Fred Karpin, and his distributional count method was highly successful. Mr. Karpin applied distributional points for suit lengths over four. Therefore, for any 5-card suit, 1 distributional point would be added. For any 6-card suit, 2 distributional points would be added.

Kastro Convention
This concept was devised by Mr. Daniel (Danny) Kleinman in the early 1960s. We thank Mr. Danny Kleinman for his contribution and also for his email explanation as for the necessity of modifying the Astro conventional method. His contribution is presented verbatim below for the benefit of the reader.

Katz-Cohen Scandal
The link is to a .pdf file, which will be opened automatically by your browser. During the Bermuda Bowl Team Trials in Houston, Texas, United States, in the year 1977 Dr. Richard Katz and Mr. Larry Cohen of the George Rosenkranz team withdrew from the Team Trials for unexplained reasons, which forced the team / squad to force a default since the team / squad, after this withdrawal, constituted only three players. It was soon after this withdrawal that Dr. Richard Katz and Mr. Larry Cohen resigned from the American Contract Bridge League, also for unexplained reasons.

The incidence was laid to rest, but became soon thereafter reignited by a cross-section of the expert bridge community, which was convinced of cheating at the bridge table, which is the most libelous and most serious charge any player can make against another player. The presented evidence consisted of cheating in the form of a system of coughs and sneezes. Rumors spread, but Dr. Richard Katz and Mr. Larry Cohen launched a serious lawsuit against the American Contract Bridge League for antitrust violation, interference with business prospects, coercion, defamatory statements, infliction of emotion distress, and sought US4 to US$100 million damages and demanded reinstatement in the ACBL.

The lawsuit was finally settled privately between the complaintants and the ACBL out of court. The result was that ACBL would cover some US75,000 of the legal fees of Dr. Richard Katz and Mr. Larry Cohen and that they wouldbe reinstated into the ACBL under the condition that the two individuals not be permitted to play together for two years.

See: Key Card Blackwood

K-Club Precision
In .pdf file format. A form of the Precision bidding system as devised and developed by Mr. Ken Allan of Kingston, Ontario, Canada. According to the developer the K-Club version is for the most part it is a collection of published treatments and conventions. There are two major differences between the K-Club and most of the other versions of Precision. This article has only been preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.

KD-Club Precision
In .pdf file format. A form of the Precision bidding system as devised and developed by Mr. Ken Allan of Kingston, Ontario, Canada. According to the developer the K-Club version is It is based on the KD-Club but employs the full panoply of Italian bids and, in addition, has a number of unique conventional agreements. This article has only been preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.

Trident - A Forcing Pass System
A Forcing Pass System developed by Mr. Ken Allan of Kingston, Ontario, Canada. According to the developer the Trident method is a basic approach is to have the forcing pass (1st or 2nd seat) show 0-7 high card points or 16 plus high card points. This article has only been preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.

Keen's Two Bids
The concept and conventional method was devised by Mr. Dave Keen of Mercyside, United Kingdom. This concept presents a full system of Two Bids, which can be played either as weak or strong.

Keeping The Bidding Open
The act of refusing to pass, and to allow partner another turn to call.

Keller Convention
This is a designation denoting a form of behavior at the bridge table, that of foregoing any and all post mortems, observations, comments negative or positive, any and all criticisms plus any abusive language. It was Mr. Adam Wildavsky who coined the phrase based upon an article in The Bridge World by Mr. Steve Neillissen. Our researched material can be found by clicking on the following .pdf file.

Kelly Solid Suit Signal
The origin is unknown. This conventional method of signaling partner is the play of the second highest or highest card of a suit, which was originally led, to the second trick of the suit to show that the balance of the suit (five cards originally or longer at No Trump) is now established and will run. A variation for the original leader is the selection of which of touching honors shall be led against a No Trump contract. From KQJ4, the lead of the King followed by the Queen shows a 4-card suit. If the holding is KQJ105, the lead of the Jack would show a 5-card suit. If the holding is KQJ1032, then the Ten would be chosen as the second lead based on the principle that the lower the second lead, the longer the suit.

Kennedy System of Bridge, The
This system was devised and developed by Mr. George Kennedy, of Manhatten, New York, United States. His home bridge club was the Gotham Club at 25 West 72nd Street in Brooklyn, New York.

Kennedy System of Bridge, The
This is the designation for a bidding system devised and published by Mr. George Kennedy in his book titled The Kennedy System of Bridge, published in the year 1965, by Arco Publishing, New York, New York, United States, Library of Congress code LC: 65018481. Any addition information will be greatly appreciated.

Kentucky Club Bidding System
The origin of the Kentucky Club bidding system is unknown. The concept behind this bidding system is that the system employs a forcing 1 Club opening for only two distinctly types of holdings.

Kenya Bridge Association
The Kenya Bridge Association (KBA) was established in the year 1963. In the year 2001 members of the KBA Executive formed a private corporation named Kenya Bridge Africa Ltd. and attempted to dissolve the KBA while assuming its assets and functions. As of January 1, 2012, the Keny Bridge Association is the organization, which will be recognized as the National Bridge Organization (NBO) for Kenya by Zone 8 and the World Bridge Federation (WBF).

Keohane Trophy
Mrs. William H. Keohane, or Ethel Keohane, was born 1901 and died 1995 and was of Wellesley Hills, Massachusetts. She served as Secretary of Eastern Massachusetts Bridge Association for eighteen years and as the Assistant Chairperson of the Goodwill Committee for many years. She was on the Executive Board of the New Gengland B.C. She was also named ACBL Honorary Member in 1982 and was honored in 1991 at the Spring NABC on her 90th birthday. She was Life Master #151 and a Grand Life Master. The Keohane Trophy, which was donated by Ethel Keohane in 1973 in memory of her husband, Mr. William H. Keohane, one of the leading New England bridge personalities.

Kerlan Convention or Querlan Convention
Contributed by Mr. Andrei Varlan, to whom we owe a debt of gratitude. *MS March 2003*. This is a defense mechanism against a 1 No Trump opening by an opponent, which was proposed and expounded by bridge experts and bridge teachers Mr. Gilles Quéran from Angers, France, and Mr. Andrei Varlan, who lives in Gréoux-Les-Bains, south of France, but originally from Romania.

Key Card Blackwood
A variation of the Blackwood convention, which shows the four Aces and the King of trump. Also known as Five-Ace Convention.

Key Card Gerber
A modified version of the original Gerber convention to show show all four Aces and the King of the established and/or implied trump suit. This conventional method does not include the possiblity of asking for Queens.

Key Lime Precision
These web pages present a modified version of the Precision Forcing 1 Club bidding system. In addition to earlier versions new features such as more transfer overcalls, fragment bidding, and a new proposed run-out scheme over the micro No Trump opening have been implemented. The author is unknown at this time, but the goals of the author have been stated as being:

1. To enable players to accurate bid their games and slams.
2. To give players in my grouping the tools needed to compete and be successful against more experienced opponents.
3. To give intermediate players the tools needed to make Life Master, and to give seasoned players a system that would allow them to compete at higher levels without being at a disadvantage.
4. To have a method that would consistently incorporate new bidding methods and become the pinnacle of all bridge systems in terms of bidding, defense, and play.

These web pages have only been preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format and are listed in Chapters, which follow. This version of the bidding system or Notes is designated as Version 13 with the promise of a forthcoming Version 14.

Chapter 1   Chapter 2   Chapter 3   Chapter 4    
Chapter 5   Chapter 6   Chapter 7   Chapter 8    
Chapter 9   Chapter 10   Chapter 11   Chapter 12   Appendix

Keystone Conference Regional Championships
This was a bridge tournament contested over four days. The tournment was conducted annually in Atlantic City, New Jersey, and also in later years in Pennsylvania, United States, beginning in the year 1952. This event consisted of Open Pairs, Master Pairs, Open Pairs, Men's Pairs, Women's Pairs, and Mixed Pairs.

Keystone Fall - District 4 Regional Championships
See District 4 Regional Championships. This bridge tournment was contested over four days. The tournament was conducted annually in Pennsylvania, United States, beginning in the year 1961. This tournament was conducted between the years 1961 and the year 1964 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, and in the year 1965 the tournament was conducted in Wilmington, Delaware, United States.

An early name for the game of bridge as played on the French Riviera. This term lends support to those who believe that the game of bridge has its origins in Turkey.

Kibitzer - Kibbitzer
A person who watches the play or game at bridge tables from the sidelines. Law 76 of the Laws of Duplicate Contract Bridge governs the conduct of such spectators, which is presented below.

The word itself derives from Yiddish and is spelled kibitsen and also from German and is spelled kiebitzen. The general English definition is: To look on and offer unwanted, usually meddlesome advice to others. To chat and/or converse. This is the reason that the conduct of the spectator, the on-looker, the gawker, the viewer, the watcher had to be governed by the Laws.


A. Conduct during Bidding or Play

1. One Hand Only

A spectator should not look at the hand of more than one player, except by permission.

2. Personal Reaction

A spectator must not display any reaction to the bidding or play while a deal is in progress.

3. Mannerisms or Remarks

During the round, a spectator must refrain from mannerisms or remarks of any kind (including conversation with a player).

4. Consideration for Players

A spectator must not in any way disturb a player.

B. Spectator Participation

A spectator may not call attention to any irregularity or mistake, nor speak on any question of fact or law except by request of the Director.

Note: The Kibitzer was, at one time, considered an important party to the bid and play of the hand. They were sometimes welcomed and sometimes the side chairs were removed so that they were unable to seat themselves and/or to make themselves comfortable. Either tradition or the honor of the players dictated that the death of a dear and beloved Kitbitzer was duly noted and three dollars were sent to purchase flowers for his or her memorial and/or funeral. However, this tradtion changed over time and 'under today's rules, the death of a kibitzer calls for the cessation of play for a full ten seonds, and the next four hands are automatically doubled. Source: The Bridge Player's Bedside Companion by Mr. Albert A. Ostrow, page 104 in some publications. This particular tradition has not been practiced for many years.

Slang: double;
Slang: ruff;
Slang: blunder away.

Kickback Convention
Mr. Jeff Rubens decided that the Blackwood conventional method and most, if not all, of its variations contained within them the disadvantage of actually wasting useful bidding space. This was especially true if the trump suit is not Spades. The concept of Kickback was originated in order to avoid and alleviate this drawback by employing some bid other than the usual and traditional 4 No Trump bid as the Keycard Asking Bid.

Kick It
Slang: a term for "I double". Also a colloquialism for boosting the contract as a preemptive measure.

1. Slang: to make a hand, such as dummy, unusable through lack of an entry;
2. Slang: to overtake, in order to prevent from winning the trick;
3. Slang: to defeat, generally the contract.

1. Slang: captured as in the King was killed by the Ace;
2. Slang: the fate of the pair playing well but scoring badly;
3. Slang: becoming void of whatever entries any player may have had, such as "The Spade lead killed the dummy."

The second highest ranking card in any suit.

A colloquial term for a singleton King in a holding, especially in a dealt holding. However, the term can also refer to a singleton King during the play beginning with the second trick.

King Conventional Method
This is a variation of the 4 No Trump Convention, which is an opening bid showing a balanced hand which can guarantee ten tricks, and the 5 No Trump Convention, which is an opening bid showing a balanced hand which can guarantee eleven tricks. The partner is invited to raise the bidding one level for each Ace, King, or Queen he holds. Employing the King Conventional Method, the responder, holding two Aces and one King, may sometimes bid the suit in which the King is held.

King of Bridge - Queen of Bridge Scholarship
This is an honorary title accompanied by an award of $1000 presented annually to a graduating high school senior, who is also a Junior ACBL member for outstanding tournament performance plus administrative, recreational and promotional activities related to bridge. The title originally went to the high school senior with the most masterpoints. Established 1973 the award is presented by the ACBL Educational Foundation, which administers the International Palace of Sports Foundation, and includes the $1000 Homer Shoop and International Palace of Sports Scholarship.

King Relay Blackwood
The origin of this variation is unknown. This variation of the original concept of Blackwood pertains only to the method for asking for Kings once the trump suit has been either established or definitely implied. This is accomplished via a Relay Bid. The relay bid is the next higher-ranking suit unless it is the trump suit, and the responses to the King-ask relay bid is given in steps.

Kiri Convention
The origin of this conventional method is unknown. The concept allows the partnership, following a No Trump opening bid by partner to determine the strength of the No Trump opening as minimum, average, or maximum.

An acronym for Keep It Simple, Stupid. It calls for a low-level system with no conventions, and is also called Momma-Poppa.

Kiss Of Death
A penalty of minus 200 at matchpoints when the maximum possible contract is at the partscore level.

Slang: a term used for the dummy.

KIVI Convention - Tarp 4 Diamonds
This conventional method was originated by Mr. Kaj Tarp, (also written Kai), of Denmark. This conventional method is also known under the designation of Tarp 4 Diamonds after the name of the person, who devised it. This method was published in the Dansk Bridge magazine, (The Danish Bridge magazine) in the year 1958, written by the author.

Multi 2 Diamonds Opening - Kleinman Defense Method
This method of defense against a 2 Diamonds opening by the opponents, employing the Multi 2 Diamonds convention, was devised by Mr. Danny Kleinman, an expert bridge player, a bridge author, and a bridge theorist.

Kleinman Points - Little Jack Points
The September 2001 issue of The Bridge World contains a letter from Mr. Doug Bennion of Toronto, Canada, that defines a new point-count, which is designated as Little Jack Points.

Klinger Suit Quality Test
As researched and developed by Mr. Ron Klinger of Australia this is a defensive bidding method employed to determine whether or not to compete. The quality test states that on borderline holdings the player, who is considering competing, should add the number of cards in the proposed suit to the number of honors, even counting the Jack and Ten only if either supports a higher honor card. If the total amounts to seven (7), then the player may bid for a 7-trick contract (or on the one level). If the total amounts to eight (8), then the player may bid for an 8-trick contract (or on the two level). If the total amounts to nine (9), then the player may bid for a 9-trick contract (or on the three level), etc. Source.

The Jack, or the fourth highest ranking card of any suit. The word itself become obsolete due to the use of abbreviated forms to designate the suits. Since the "K" stood for the King, "Kn" would have signified the Knave, but this proved too cumbersome.

1. an action consisting of knocking the table lightly instead of verbally saying pass, which represents an improper way of passing;
2. an informal method of Alerting, albeit ambiguous, since the next player could assume that it means the call pass.

Knockout Squeeze
A knockout squeeze is a squeeze in three suits, one of which is the trump suit.

Knockout Tournament
A bridge event, usually for teams of four, in which one team plays against just one opposing team in a given session. The losers are eliminated, and the winners remain in the contest playing against new opponents at later sessions, until only one winning team remains. In a Double Knockout Event, a team must lose twice before being eliminated.

Knockout Team Rules
Sponsoring organizations may, with ACBL approval only, amend these conditions for a specific event.

Kobayashi Maru - Between a Rock and a Hard Place - A No Win Situation
This is a colloquial designation for a bidding sequence, which demands action on the part of a particular player in rotation, from which no escape is possible and all possible actions will result in a measurable loss in score. The term Kobayashi Maru is well-known to any avid Star Trek fan. The link is to a .pdf file, which will be automatically opened by your browser.

Kock-Werner Redouble
A rescue method developed by the Swedish partnership of Mr. Rudolf Kock and Mr. Einar Werner. When partner’s low-level overcall has been doubled, a redouble is for takeout, and strongly indicates a shortness in the suit bid by his partner.

South   West   North   East
1   1   Double   Redouble

With the Kock-Werner Redouble, East is indicating a shortness in Hearts, the suit of his partner. West must then look for another bid. If, however, East had been satisfied to play in 1 Heart doubled, East would have simply passed.

Kokish Rebids
In order to resolve several bidding problems after a 1 Diamond opening and a 2 Clubs response, Mr. Eric Kokish has formulated a series of responses to communicate better information regarding the holding of the partner.
This particular bidding sequence has apparently caused some confusion in partnership agreements, which include different bidding systems such as Kaplan-Sheinwold and Standard American. The conditions of the situation became clear when the partnership is employing different ranges for No Trump openings.

Kokish Relay - Kokish Relay Bids - Birthright
Also known by the designation Birthright as preferred by Mr. Eric Kokish, who devised this method to illustrate how it is possible to show a holding of 25 plus high card points and a balanced hand without having to consume bidding spade on the three level. The Kokish relay can also show a one-suited and/or a two-suited holding.

Eric Kokish's Responses to a Strong, Artificial 2 Clubs Opening
Mr. Eric Kokish believes that most experts are correct in the opinion, that two-suited hands should not be opened with the artificial, strong 2 Clubs bid. Therefore, when the 2 Clubs opener shows a second suit, it is expected to be a 4-card suit. This stipulation affects some of the recommended sequences. In the discussion below, an Ace is two controls, and a King is 1 control.

Konstam and Tarlo - KAT
The development of this defense method is by Mr. Kenneth Konstam and Mr. Joel Tarlo. The designation was shortened to KAT. It is a concept whereby an immediate cuebid of the suit of the opening opponent is forcing for one round only and shows a good take out double. Neither the KAT-cuebidder nor the advancer may have passed previously.

Note: The 1st Bermuda Bowl was conducted in 1950 in Hamilton, Bermuda, with three teams competing for the first official World Team Championship. Source below is from the Five Aces Book.

Representing the American team were John Crawford, Charles Goren, Sidney Silodor, Howard Schenken, George Rapee and Sam Stayman. The team had no fixed partnerships. In general they used weak jump overcalls, weak two-bids and the Stayman convention. Practically no artificial bids were used.

Representing England were Maurice Harrison-Gray and Joel Tarlo, Leslie Dodds and Kenneth Konstam, Louis Tarlo and Nico Gardener. The pairs used different bidding systems, but the differences were not major.

Representing Europe were Einar Werner and Rudolf Kock, Nils-Olof Lilliehook and Jan Wohlin of Sweden, teamed with Einar Thorfinnsson and Gunnar Gudmundsson of Iceland. The differences in bidding practices were major here. Werner/Kock used their own version of Culbertson. Lilliehook/Wohlin used Efos, a new system replete with artificial bids. Thorfinnsson/Gudmundsson employed the Vienna System, with asking bids.

The United States, representing North America, emerged victorious, defeating Europe and England in the four-day round robin at the Castle Harbour Hotel, Bermuda, in November. The Americans defeated England by 3660 points (total point scoring) and Europe (Sweden and Iceland) by 4720. England, the European champions, finished second by toppling Europe by 1940 points.

KQ Frozen
A colloquial term referring to only a King-Queen in only one holding during the play period. The implication is that the two honors will take no tricks, especially by the defense, since they are frozen, blocked.





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