Macau Contract Bridge Association
A member of the Asia Pacific Bridge Federation (APBF)
Games which celebrate athletic achievement and held quadrennially in Israel. These games had their start in 1932, and since 1977, bridge has been added as a competitive sport. The first Gold Medallists were 1977: David Birman, Michael Hochzeit, Captain Kaufman, Yeshayahu Levit, Adrian Schwarz, Mori Stampf, Reubin Kunin (npc). The Games were named after Judah Maccabaeus, a Hebrew religious zealot who fought against the encroaching Hellenization of the Jewish life symbolized by the Greek Olympic-style games and the cult of the physical. The Games are open to amateur Jewish participants, all of whom must have Jewish mothers.
MACE vs. a Strong Club Opening - Presently Off Line
The significance of the designation is not explained. This is an alternative defense method after a strong Club opening by the opponents as presented by Mr. Tony Melucci and developed in association with Mr. Neill Currie in his description of the Currified Precision system (archived reference). The method is shown as follows:
Overcall Meaning Double: Shows at least 4-4 in the Minor suits. 1 : Shows 3-3 or 4-3 in the Major suits. 1 : Natural, 5+ (or good 4-) card Heart suit. 1 : Natural, 5+ (or good 4-) card Spade suit. 1 NT: Clubs and Hearts or Diamonds and Spades (4-4 or better). 2 NT: Both Major suits or both Minor suits (5-5 or better).
Bids at the two level, three level, etc., are natural.
Note: This system tends to have more of a destructive nature than other forcing club systems.
MacFarlane Two No Trump or MacFarlane 2 NT
The origin of this conventional method is unknown. The opening bid is 2 No Trump and promises either 5 to 9 high cards points and a semi-distributional holding or a distributional holding of 5-5 in either Clubs and Hearts (Rounded suits) or Diamonds and Spades (Pointed suits). The opening of 2 No Trump does not show one specific suit. The first response is generally 3 Clubs and serves as a relay so that the opener can clarify the holding. A rebid by the opener of 3 Diamonds promises Diamonds and Spades and a rebid of 3 Hearts promises Clubs and Spades. The partnership may vary this guideline to an individual agreement and may reverse the meaning of the two rebids as shown above.
As a designation in the game of bridge, the term refers to a card that is dangerous to possess but too valuable to discard. The term for this particular card was coined by Mr. Don Kersey, and is, of course, derived from the film trick perfected by Mr. Alfred Hitchcock.
The competition for the presentation of The Atholl Cup is conducted by the East District of the Scottish Bridge Union. The MacLaren Cup is the East District's Teams of Eight Knock-out championship. Presented by Mr. John MacLaren. The event was first contested in the year 1970.
The Machlin Trophy was donated by the Machlin family in memory of Sadie Machlin, who was a longtime ACBL employee. She was the sister of ACBL Chief Tournament Director Mr. Al Sobel and the mother of Mr. Jerry Machlin, National Tournament Director. The trophy is awarded to the winners of the North American Women's Swiss Teams.
MacKay System, The
This is the designation for a bidding system in the early days of the evolution of the game of bridge. This system is explained and clarified in the publication titled The MacKay System: Presenting An Honor Count System In Contract, authored by Mr. Donald Mackay, and which made its debut in the yer 1934. The book was published by Frederick A. Stokes, Company, New York, New York, United States, and the Library of Congress code is LC: 34001717. Any additional information will be greatly appreciated.
Mac Nab Trophy
Named for the 1965 ACBL President Mr. Robin Mac Nab, 1915-1985. The trophy is awarded to players in the North American Non-Life Masters Pairs, which is a so-called grassroots event strictly limited to bridge players, who have not attained the rank of Life Masters. The bridge event was officially renamed in 1995 and started at the local bridge club level. All qualified pairs then advance to competitive events held and conducted at the unit level. The pairs, who then qualify, advance to the District Finals and two (or three) pairs from each District qualify for the north American final.
The Mac Nab Trophy was originally presented to the winners of the Grand National Teams Flight B beginning 1987. It was redesignated for the NANLMP (North American Non-Life Masters Pairs) in 1995 by the ACBL Board of Directors. Mr. Robin Mac Nab was also a member of the ACBL Board of Directors from 1956 to 1981 and also a past President of the Western Conference. He also served on the World Bridge Federation Executive Council from 1965 to 1973. As a side note Mr. Robin Mac Nab was also a graduate of Cornell university and a member of the US Olympic Track and Field Squad in 1936.
Year Winners and Runners-Up 1987 1-2. Bill Thomas, David Deaderick
1-2. Bernard Pollack, Leo Austern 1988 1. Brad Moss, Aaron Silverstein 2. Geoffrey O'Connor, Charles Bilick 1989 1. Warren King, Jeffrey Brown 2. Sylvian Descoteaux, Guy Belisle 1990 1. Philip Leung, Moske Harel 2. Deborah Hart, Nate Ward 1991 1. Eric Greco, Philip Greco 2. Bruce Graff, Steve Castellino 1992 1. Gail Joelson, Alan Kasner 2. J. Greg Fowler, Don Herring 1993 1. Mark Michele, Everett Boyer 2. Gabrida Rabiega, Leszek Rabiega 1994 1. Weizhong Bao, Jingdong Guo 2. Duane Tilden, Grace Jeklin 1995 1. Edward Lee, Brett Roby 2. Philip Feng Lu, Xiaodong Zhang 1996 1. Yue Zuo, Ruoyu Fan 2. Carlos Bichara, Rita Bichara
This conventional method is used after an opponent opens the auction with 1 No Trump. The range of the No Trump does not affect the effectiveness of this conventional method. However, it should be kept in mind that this particular conventional method is mostly employed by those partnerships employing No Trump defenses along the line of and similar to Hamilton, Cappelletti, and/or especially Astro in any form.
Mafia Club or 3-D and the MAFIA Club
The Mafia Club was invented by Mr. Kenneth L. Lindsay, 1981. Mafia stands for Majors First Always. The system was developed and devised by Mr. Kenneth L. Lindsay and published by Aiga Publications in 1981.
Mafia Club Opening Bids
Only the opening bids are presented. The Mafia Club bidding system was invented by Mr. Kenneth L. Lindsay and published under the title of 3-D and the Mafia Club by Aiga Publications in the year 1981. The designation MAFIA stands for Majors First Always.
Magic 10 1/2 System Of Contract Bridge: A Complete Bidding System, The
This is a bidding system devised, developed and published by Mr. Lon P. Flanigan, and which is described in his publication titled The Magic 10 1/2 System Of Contract Bridge: A Complete Bidding System in the year 1941, published in Geneva, New York, United States, LC: 41010738. Additional information is not available and any information would be greatly appreciated.
Magic Contest - Magic Team
The designation given to a Bridge Scoring software, which has been used by several Bridge Federations in Europe and for scoring the World Championships of Bridge. Created by Mr. Tomas Brenning, born 1967 in Stockholm, Sweden. The development of Magic Contest was started in 1996 and was successfully finished in 2001 thanks to the support of the Swedish Bridge Federation during the final stage of the development. In 2006 the software was used to score bridge events by Federations in Sweden, Denmark, Austria, Italy and France.
Magic Team is a program for managing teams tournaments. The program has been used by the WBF (World Bridge Federation) to score the World Championships in Estoril Portugal in 2005 and the scoring of the World Championships in Shanghai, China in 2007. Magic Contest and Magic Team were used for scoring the Open World Championships in Verona, Italy, in 2006 and the Open European Championships in Tenerife 2005. Mr. Tomas Brenning is also involved in programming projects with the WBF (World Bridge Federation) and the EBL (European Bridge League)
A phrase to describe a bidder's or a declarer's longest suit, especially a suit that can be used as a primary source of winning tricks.
Magic Club and Sparkling Diamond
Contributed by Mr. Terry Jacobs of the United Kingdom, December 2003, and which represents a concept, whereby the opening of 1 Club has three possible and different meanings - natural, artificial and balanced/semi-balanced or 4-4-4-1. This is in a .pdf file format, and, depending on your browser, will be automatically downloaded to your computer and opened with Adobe Acrobat or opened by your browser automatically.
Majeure Cinquieme Opening Bids
This is the general designation given by the bridge players in France to the bidding system mostly employed by partnerships, and which is considered standard. The designation is translated as Five Card Majors (or Fifth Card). They have been revised over time to some degree, but the general basics continue to be applicable.
Note: The Majeure Cinquiéme bidding system is very similar to and, in many instances, identical to the Forum D bidding system, which is mainly employed in the country of Germany.
Major Penalty Card
Any card of honor rank prematurely exposed, or any card prematurely and deliberately exposed. If more than one card is exposed, then each card becomes a major penalty card according to Law 50C.
LAW 50 - DISPOSITION OF PENALTY CARD
A card prematurely exposed (but not led, see Law 57) by a defender is a penalty card unless the Director designates otherwise. The Director shall award an adjusted score, in lieu of the rectifications below, when he deems that Law 72B1 applies.
C. Disposition of Minor Penalty Card
When a defender has a minor penalty card, he may not play any other card of the same suit below the rank of an honour until he has first played the penalty card (however, he is entitled to play an honour card instead). Offender's partner is not subject to lead penalty, but information gained through seeing the penalty card is extraneous and unauthorised (see Law 16A).
Either of the two Major suits: Spades or Hearts.
Major Suit Weak Two Bids
This variation has been provided by Mr. Dirk Waerenborgh of Belgium. This conventional method is a variation of the general guidelines for opening Weak TwobBids combined with the Muiderberg convention and includes a preemptive opening on the three level. The exception is that the Weak Two Bids are confined to only the two Major suits. This is a .pdf file format and will automatically be opened by your browser.
A holding of Ace-Queen, without the King, of a suit. After one or more rounds of a suit have been played, the highest and third highest remaining cards of the suit in the hand of one player are called a major tenace.
The principle by which any bid outranks any other bid at a lower level, regardless of scoring value. The opposite principle, Numerical Calling, was standard in Auction Bridge, and was abandoned in the USA in 1913. In this procedure, a bid of 4 Hearts could follow a bid of 5 Clubs, because its scoring value was higher.
1. to fulfill or to succeed in a contract;
2. to capture a trick, or a number of tricks.
3. to shuffle the deck of cards.
1. to join a game so as to complete a foursome.
2. to shuffle the cards.
Malaysia Contract Bridge Association - Founded in 1961.
Malowan Six Club Convention
Some partnerships use the Malowan Six Club Convention as the Grand Slam Force. After a conventional response to Blackwood, these partnerships bid 6 Clubs, with the proviso that Clubs is not an agreed trump suit.
Malta Bridge Association
This conventional method was devised and developed by Mr. Raoul Maltais of Kenogami, Quebec, Canada. The concept is also known as and designated as Stayman After Overcall. The partnership agreement is such that if the immediate opponent does not interfere or compete following a No Trump opening by partner, then the Stayman conventional method is employed in order to discover whether the No Trump bidder holds a 4-card Major suit and the responses are identical to the Stayman convention. If the immediate opponent, however, interferes or overcalls, then the partnership initiates the Maltais conventional method to counter this interference.
Slang: a term for Keep It Simple, Stupid or just simple and straightforward. It calls for a low-level system with no conventions, and is also called K.I.S.S.
MamiC Opening Bids
The concept of the MamiC Opening Bid system was devised by Mr. Richard Lighton of New Jersey, United States, around 1990. The concept is based on the Major-Minor-Canapé opening bidding system. This means that a 4-card Major suit is opened first before a 5-card Minor suit, and that a 4-card Minor suit is opened first before a 5-card Major suit. Source
Manfield-Miles Principle of Limited Hands
This is a guideline devised by Mr. Ed Manfield and Mr. Marshall Miles, which states that when a sufficient fit is found, a limited hand cannot compete further, unless invied by partner.
This is a bridge event conceived by bridge clubs, bridge friends, bridge players. These bridge events are neither overseen by the American Bridge Contract League nor sponsored by any sponsoring organization. The guidelines are established and determined by the organizing person or persons. The beginnings of such bridge events, generally charitable in nature, are not clear and no record has actually been kept, nor have the events been monitored. Rumor has it that these groups began forming around the early 1980s as a form of raising funds for charitable causes, etc.
For example, certain guidelines may include that each member is assigned to a team, which is made up of eight couples. All participants receive a schedule of play and score sheets that are to be completed and submitted after each game. All teams pledge to play the required number of games, generally between 20 or 24. Each team must play the required number of hands. Any games, which are not played results in a forfeit of 2500 points to the opposing team.
Note: The purpose of such Marathon Bridge events is social and the group can determine whether the proceeds are donated, invested, or used for other purposes supporting the event, the game, or for payment of expenses. The participation can last for the duration of the Marathon Bridge event or it can be an annual fee, which is to be established by the organizers.
Note: The form of bridge is determined by the organizers, by the group, by a democratic vote. The general form is Contract Bridge, better known as social bridge or rubber bridge. The scoring methods can differ in that the group may decide to base the score on the scoring method for duplicate bridge, whereas other organizers will base the scoring method on Contract Bridge, which includes bonus points for honors, etc.
Note: The organizing group or members can also designate the event by assigning their personal note to the event, such as The Ladies Marathon Bridge Club of ....... Generally such personal designations imply that all proceeds become donations.
Note: It is of particular noteworthiness to remember that when the Olympic games were inaugurated in 1896 in Greece, the legend of Pheidippides was revived by a 24.85 mile (40,000 meters) run from Marathon Bridge to Olympic stadium in Athens. Traditionally the final event in the Olympics, the first organized marathon on April 10, 1896 was especially important to the Greeks. Greece was hosting the first Olympics, had yet to win a medal, and had one final chance to bring glory to their nation. Twenty-five runners assembled on Marathon Bridge, the starter mumbled a few words and fired the gun, and the race was on.
This is the awarded trophy donated in 1953 by friends of Mr. Edward N. Marcus of Boston, Massachusetts. The event was conducted as a Board-A-Match Open Team event, and was contested at the Summer Nationals. This award replaced the Faber Cup.
A colloquiam designation for a shapely hand in remembrance or named for the famous American actress Marily Monroe. With a 5-6-1-1 or 6-5-1-1 distribution any opening bid would be based on partnership agreement even with any evaluation method such as the Losing (Winning) Trick Count. Such a hand would be, for example:
A10865 5 3 AQ9854
1. a transfer, after which the partner will usually make the cheapest bid, but is permitted to bid higher with special hands.
2. to use or apply a marionette.
Marit Sveaas Cup
Marit Sveaas was a Norwegian Bridge player who lived well into her ninetees. Her son Christensen Sveaas, a stock broker from Oslo, decided to honour his mother by donating to the Norwegian Bridge Federation 350,000 NOK per year (provided they find the same amount from other sponsors). Starting in the year 2016, and for at least five years afterwards, the Norwegian Bridge Federation will organize a tournament with a substantial prize list. The first such tournament will be held in Frederikstad in the beginning of August 2016. Note that the Swiss Pairs tournament in Oslo is also named after Marit Sveaas. (Source: Daily Bulletin 15 for the 7th European Open Bridge Championships. Website. Biographical date is listed below:
Marit Sveaas was one of the leading women bridge players in Oslo and Norway in the late 60's and 70's. Major placings: Won the Oslo District Elite women pairs championship in 1968, 1971 and 1972, partnering Anne Cathrine Swartling. Won the1974 Nordic Women Teams Championships - Norways first victory. Played on the Norwegian womens team in the 1974 European Teams Championships (13th). Runner-up in the 1976 European Women Pairs Championships - partnering Cecilie Irgens. Runner-up in the Oslo District Mixed Pairs Championships (year unknown) - partnering Tommy Sandsmark. Participated eleven times for Oslo in the intercity team matches (Oslo-Aarhus-Gothenburg).
1. a card that is known, from the previous play, to be located in a particular hand;
2. a damaged card, recognizable from the back.
A finesse against a marked card. A finesse that is certain to take the trick because the previous play has supplied the information needed to locate the crucial opposing card.
An Italian system, the name of which is derived from the first letters of the first names of its inventors Mr. Mario Franco and Mr. Michelle Giovine, hence Mar-Mic. This system is no longer played today.
A colloquial term for the King-Queen in one suit.
Marshall Miles Version of Natural Responses
Mr. Marshall Miles of California proposed an altered version of the original concept of Natural Responses by reversing the bids so that they also reflect a certain amount of values, thereby communicating to partner a minimum amount of points in the suit bid plus the required length of the suit bid.
The basic concept is designated as control showing responses (also step responses) to a strong, artificial 2 Clubs opening. These original responses should be viewed first and then the variation and/or version as suggested by Mr. Charles U. Martel, (aka Chip), of Davis, California, United States, and Mr. Lewis Stansby, (aka Lew), of Castro Valley, California, United States. Their version combines not only the opportunity to show the number of controls held by partner after a strong, artificial 2 Clubs opening, but also the actual suit, in which the controls are located.
This is a variation of the Polish Club System used by many well-known bridge experts and especially promoted by the partnership of Mr. Krzysztof Martens and Mr. Marek Szymanowski of Poland. No information available about this variation at this time.
Martha, Meet Frank, Daniel and Laurence - Movie
A film distributed in 1998 under this title in the United Kingdom and under the title The Very Thought Of You in the United States, 1999. Director: Nick Hamm, Writer: Peter Morgan, starring Monica Potter and Joseph Fiennes among other notable actors.
The story is a romantic comedy set in London, England. The female lead Martha is played by Monica Potter. She is an American who arrives in London by chance, practically penniless and seeking a new direction in her life. The story unfolds and she meets three Englishmen, who are indeed best friends, and who, strangely, all fall in love with her, without knowing about the others, which is stranger still.
The male lead, Laurence played by Joseph Fiennes, is the favorite of the audience, who obviously deserves to win Martha's heart. However, most of the film is a flashback of him seeking therapy, because he has problems. The reason for the therapy is the fact that he believes that he has lost and/or is undeserving of her love.
The bridge player will be rewarded by learning the reason Laurence, or Joseph Fiennes, is looking so despondent, sorrowful, sad and woeful. It is the fact that he is a bridge teacher, which is truly one of the extremely rare instances of this profession being portrayed on screen.
Martha, as the story-line goes, presumably is not a player herself and is totally unimpressed by Laurence in the beginning. The major scene for bridge players is when she brutally and perhaps even callously and viciously asks Laurence if he has stopped playing at bridge tournaments because he wasn't good enough, and the best moment in the film is when he movingly and poignantly answers Yes with that masterful inflection and voice modulation, which rips at the heart strings of the viewer, and which is so rare in films and by actors.
Martinique: Comite de Bridge de la Martinique
Marx Two Clubs
An alternate name employed in the United Kingdom for the Stayman convention. The concept was co-originated by Mr. John C. H. Marx, aka Jack, 1907-1991, at the same time as the American counterpart devised by Mr. George Rapee. It has been proposed that Mr. John C. H. Marx, of England was unable to publish his version of this conventional method until 1946 because all bridge publications were suspended due to a paper shortage in England at the time when the war demanded all resources. Source: Bridge's Strangest Hands written by Mr. Andrew Ward, page 217.
Note: The Stayman convention was known for many years in the United Kingdom as Marx Two Clubs in the late 1940s and early 1950s since Mr. John C. H. Marx also developed the concept. However, this designation was dropped in favor of the designation of Stayman, under which name it is now universally known.
1. the highest outstanding card of a suit;
2. an expert player.
The hand which controls the situation. The hand which controls mainly the trump suit, and/or leading high trumps to prevent adverse ruffs, and retaining at least one trump card to prevent the adverse run of a long side suit. The master hand can be either the hand of the declarer or the dummy.
Master Mixed Teams
The Master Mixed Teams, later renamed the Mixed Board-A-Match Teams, is a bridge event contested for the Lebhar Trophy, beginning in the year 1946, but which was played for the Barclay Trophy until the year 1945. The bridge event is a four-session Board-A-Match event with two qualifying rounds and two final rounds. It is restricted to players, who have won at least 100 masterpoints. In 1969 this bridge event was played in three session.
This is the unit which measures bridge achievement in duplicate play. Masterpoints come in black, silver, red, gold, platinum and unpigmented, and they are awarded for different levels of play:
Black points at club and unit games.
Silver points at sectionals, progressive sectionals and STaCs.
Red points in all events at regionals and the three NABCs.
Gold points for section tops and placing overall in regional events and in events of two or more sessions with either no MP restriction or a minimum MP limit of 750 points or more (not Strat C). Partial gold points are awarded in some special events.
Platinum points for all NABC+ championship events.
Unpigmented points for online play on the Internet.
A unit of measurement of achievement in tournament play. The term was first used when eligible bridge players for the ABL's 1934 von Zedtwitz Master Pairs, later Life Master Pairs, were chosen from a list of players credited with masterpoints for winning tournaments run by the ABL and the AWL, as well as the Vanderbilt and Eastern Championships, which at that time were independent events.
The European Master Point Scheme
The English Bridge Union Master Point Scheme came into operation in September 1956.
Since then, many thousands of players have enjoyed the benefits of of the scheme which enables recognition of their achievements from Club Master right through to Premier Grand Master.
Clubs have also appreciated the value of the scheme with its unique incentives in helping to promote and retain club membership.
Any player can obtain points from success in duplicate bridge competition, on a scale which varies according to the success itself, the size of the competition and its status. About the top one-third of players in a competition will be entitled to a Master Points. The register of Master Points is kept at the offices of the English Bridge Union. Only members of the EBU may register their points and have their records maintained. A lapsed member may have valid Master Points registered on renewal of membership of the EBU.
Members may register their points and request a copy of their record at any time, they can also see their record via the EBU website. Submissions must include details of name, address and EBU number.
Lists of promotions between Master Point ranks are published in every issue of English Bridge and also here on the website - click here to find the links to them - and County ranking lists are sent annually to the secretaries of affiliated clubs. Rank and category prizes are awarded every year based upon the total number of Master Points earned during the competition year, which runs from 1 July to 30 June.
The Australian Bridge Federation Master Point Scheme
The Central American & Caribbean Bridge Federation
The Gauteng Bridge Union Master Point Rating
Master Points Awards
The masterpoint plan is the means by which ACBL ranks each member's accomplishments in sanctioned bridge play. The winners of sanctioned events receive masterpoints in amounts consistent with the importance and size of the events. Members who achieve rankings lower than first place, both overall and within their designated comparison group, receive proportionately fewer masterpoints.
Master Points Scheme
Any player can obtain points from success in duplicate bridge competition, on a scale which varies according to the success itself, the size of the competition and its status. The register of Master Points is kept at the offices of the English Bridge Union. Only members of the EBU may register their points and have their records maintained.
The method of awarding masterpoints in bridge tournaments at club, local, sectional, regional, and national levels. Credit for creating the masterpoint plan in 1936 is given to Mr. William McKenny and Mr. Ray Eisenlord, and many others who contributed to the advanced development.
The ACBL recognizes the players who win the most masterpoints in their categories during the calendar year. The categories include Life Master, Bronze LM, Silver LM, Gold LM, Diamond LM, Grand LM, Youth, Junior, Senior and Richmond Trophy. These are the various categories and the requirements for each category at the beginning of a calendar year:
Rookie: 0-5 masterpoints Junior Master: 5-20 points Club Master: 20-50 points Sectional Master: At least 50 points, including 5 silver Regional Master: At least 100 points, including 15 silver plus 5 red or gold NABC Master: At least 200 points, including 50 pigmented points of which 5 must be gold, 15 must be red or gold and 25 must be silver Life Master: 300-500 points Bronze Life Master: 2500-5000 points Silver Life Master: 1000-2500 points Gold Life Master: 2500-5000 points Diamond Life Master: 5000-10,000 points Grand Life Master: 10,000 points and a North American Bridge Championship or its equivalent Youth: age 19 and younger Junior: age 25 and younger Sectional: points won only at sectional tournaments Senior: 55+ years, points won only in Senior events Richmond Trophy: awarded to the Canadian player who wins the most points in a calendar year
These rules apply to every player if the player joined the American Contract Bridge League prior to January 1, 2010, and maintained continuous membership after that date. If the player joined the American Contract Bridge League after January 1, 2010, or let the player has allowed the membership to lapse after that date, then other rules apply, which are listed below.
Rookie: Fewer than 5 masterpoints Junior Master: 5 masterpoints Club Master: 20 masterpoints Sectional Master: At least 50 points, including 5 silver Regional Master: 100 masterpoints (at least 15 silver, and 5 red, gold or platinum) NABC Master: 200 masterpoints (at least 25 silver, 20 red or gold/platinum, of which at least 5 must be gold or platinum) Life Master: 300 masterpoints (at least 50 black*, 50 silver, 50 red or gold/platinum,** of which at least 25 must be gold or platinum) Bronze Life Master: A Life Master with 500 masterpoints Silver Life Master: A Life Master with 1,000 masterpoints (at least 200 silver, red, gold or platinum)*** Gold Life Master: A Life Master with ,2500 masterpoints (at least 500 silver, red, gold or platinum)*** Diamond Life Master: A Life Master with 5,000 masterpoints (at least 1000 silver, red or gold/platinum, of which at least 250 must be gold or platinum)*** Emerald Life Master: A Life Master with 7,500 (at least 1500 silver, red or gold/platinum, of which at least 500 must be gold or platinum)*** Platinum Life Master: A Life Master with 10,000 (at least 2000 silver, red or gold/platinum, of which at least 750 must be gold/platinum, with a minimum of 100 platinum)*** Grand Life Master: A Life Master with 10,000 masterpoints (at least 2000 silver, red or gold/platinum, of which at least 750 must be gold/platinum, with a minimum of 100 platinum)***
* Any new Member or player in an unpaid status for six months or more after January 1, 1999, will be required to earn 50 black points to become a Life Master. ** A Member who had red masterpoints or a fraction thereof prior to January 1, 1969, is required to possess at least 50 red or gold/platinum masterpoints in any combination to become a Life Master. *** A Member who became a Life Master prior to January 1, 1990 will be exempt from the pigmented point requirements for this rank. **** This is the highest rank in the ACBL. It requires 10,000 Masterpoints and one victory in a North American Bridge Championship with no upper Masterpoint restriction or an Open Team Trials or its equivalent or a Women's Team Trials or its equivalent or any of the following WBF events: Bermuda Bowl, Venice Cup, Rosenblum Cup, McConnell Cup, Open Pairs, Women's Pairs, Olympiad, Women's Team Olympiad, WBF Senior Pairs event, WBF World Swiss Teams, WBF World Mixed Teams, and WBF Senior Teams. ***** Each player who has attained the rank of Life Master as of December 31, 2011, will not have to fulfill the pigmented point requirements for their next rank advancement. After attaining their first rank after January 1, 2012, all players will be required to fulfill the pigmented point requirements for subsequent rank advancement. For example, a Diamond Life Master on 12/31/2011 will not have to fulfill the pigmented point requirements to attain the rank of Emerald Life Master. They would have to satisfy the pigmented point requirements for Platinum Life Master.
Masterpoint Ranks - Effective January 1, 2010 Rookie: Fewer than 5 masterpoints Junior Master: 5 masterpoints Club Master: 20 (at least 5 black) Sectional Master: 50 (at least 10 black and 5 silver) Regional Master: 100 masterpoints (at least 15 black, 15 silver, and 5 red or gold/platinum) NABC Master: 200 masterpoints (at least 20 black, 25 silver, and 20 red or gold/platinum, of which at least 5 must be gold/platinum) Advanced NABC Master: 500 masterpoints (at least 75 black, 75 silver, 100 red or gold/platinum, of which at least 50 must be gold/platinum) Life Master: 300 masterpoints (at least 50 black*, 50 silver, 50 red or gold/platinum,** of which at least 25 must be gold or platinum) Silver Life Master: A Life Master with 1,000 (at least 200 silver, red, gold or platinum)** Gold Life Master: A Life Master with 2,500 (at least 500 silver, red, gold or platinum)** Diamond Life Master: A Life Master with 5,000 (at least 1,000 silver, red, gold or platinum, of which at least 250 must be gold or platinum)** Emerald Life Master: A Life Master with 7,500 (at least 1500 silver, red, gold or platinum, of which at least 500 must be gold or platinum)** Platinum Life Master: A Life Master with 10,000 (at least 2000 silver, red, gold or platinum, of which at least 750 must be gold or platinum, with a minimum of 100 platinum)** Grand Life Master: A Life Master with 10000 (at least 2000 silver, red, gold or platinum, of which at least 750 must be gold or platinum, with a minimum of 100 platinum)*
* This is the highest rank in the ACBL. It requires 10,000 masterpoints and one victory in a North American Bridge Championship with no upper masterpoint restriction or an Open Team Trials or its equivalent or a Women's Team Trials or its equivalent or any of the following WBF events: Bermuda Bowl, Venice Cup, Rosenblum Cup, McConnell Cup, Open Pairs, Women's Pairs, Olympiad, Women's Team Olympiad, WBF Senior Pairs event, WBF World Swiss Teams, WBF World Mixed Teams, and WBF Senior Teams. ** Each player who has attained the rank of Life Master as of December 31, 2011, will not have to fulfill the pigmented point requirements for their next rank advancement. After attaining their first rank after January 1, 2012, all players will be required to fulfill the pigmented point requirements for subsequent rank advancement. For example, a Diamond Life Master on 12/31/2011 will not have to fulfill the pigmented point requirements to attain the rank of Emerald Life Master. They would have to satisfy the pigmented point requirements for Platinum Life Master.
Masterpoints won at tournaments and at clubs using ACBL score are sent electronically to ACBL. Other clubs mail in the lists of player and point won for recording. Non-members are given receipts at club games when they win points and can credit their accounts with up to 20 masterpoints won in the 12 months prior to becoming members, when they join the ACBL. The masterpoints record of any ACBL member can be checked and viewed by visiting the website of ACBL and entering the membership number.
1. a unit of play in knockout and related forms of team competition;
2. a sizable number of deals played against the same team, occasionally, against the same pair, with the results combined into one scoring unit.
A team-of-four contest in which two teams are competing for an appreciable number of boards.
Match Point Precision Opening Bids
These opening bids are a continuing evolution of the Precision Bidding System and have been used by expert players. This version allowed the player to open the auction more frequently due to the various shapes being included in the 1 Diamonds opening bid. Match Point Precision is a publication authored by Mr. Chung Ching Wei (aka Charles or C.C. Wei) and Mr. Ron Andersen with an introduction by Mr. Richard L. Frey. The First Edition was published by Baron Barclay Bridge Supplies in the year 1978. ISBN-10: 087643037X / ISBN-13: 978-0876430378.
A matchpoint is a unit used in a method of scoring duplicate contests in which two or more scores are compared. A common form of scoring in duplicate bridge in which a pair scores one unit for every other pair whose score they best and one-half unit for every other pair whose score they tie. A credit awarded to a contestant in pair or individual events for a score superior to that of another contestant in direct competition.
Mathe Bids against Artificial 1 Club Opening Bids/ This conventional defense method was developed by Mr. Lewis L. Mathe, also known as simply Lew, of Canoga Park, California, He was born in 1915 and died in 1986. He is also the originator of Mathe Asking Bids. The Mathe conventional bids are generally to be employed in the immediate seat following the strong, generally artificial 1 Club opening since the partner of the strong 1 Club bidder must respond with zero values. However, the Mathe conventional bids may also be employed in the fourth seat following a weak response by the partner of the opener.
Mathe Asking Bid
An asking bid to locate a short suit and/or singleton, even a possible void, in the hand of a responder who has responded with a direct limit jump Major suit raise or with a cuebid of an immediate overcall to show a limit raise as in the sequence 1 - 2 - 3, which is played as a limit raise of partner's 1 Heart opening. After the responder makes a limit raise in support of a Major suit opening, the opener bids the next higher suit to ask for shortness, such as a singleton or void. The concept behind this method is that the opener has additional values and is making generally a slam try. After 1 - 3, the opener bids 3 to ask for shortness. Responder bids 3 No Trump to show shortness in Spades, bids 4 / 4 to show shortness in these suits, or bids 4 to show no shortness. After 1 - 3, the opener bids 3 No Trump to request shortness. The responder either bids the particular suit to show shortness, or bids 4 to show no shortness, singleton and/or void.
These are the calculations of mathematicians who have calculated the probabilities of certain hand patterns and the distribution of cards, and other mathematical oddities.
This designation refers to a generic layout of the cards, generally describing some form of ending, especially some sort of squeeze play.
Matthew Two Spades
The origin of this concept is unknown. Owing to its lack of an anchor suit this conventional method is classified as a Brown Sticker convention and is only permitted in special bridge tournaments and final rounds of tournaments conducted by the World Bridge Federation. Before employment the player and partnership must submit for authorization by the sponsoring organization.
Mattos 2 No Trump Response or Mattos 2 NT Response
This response method was devised by Mr. Dave Mattos, who informed bridgeguys.com in an email dated September 29, 2009, that I obtained the EBU licence, but the idea was given to me by Pearl and Cecil Gurr.
Quoted from the email message of Mr. Dave Mattos:
The idea behind this sequence is that a response of 2 No Trump (10-12 high card points), or 3 No Trump (13-15 high card points) shows a void in partner's suit. The responder has 13 cards, and a 3- or 4-card suit in opener's hand will provide a fit with the opener being declarer.
The bid is very useful to tell opener there is a miss-fit, and to find a distributional game contract.
Additional Note: I obtained the EBU licence but the idea was given to me by Pearl and Cecil Gurr, who used a derivation of 2/1, whereby only a 2 response to 1 of a suit was forcing to game. This meant that a sequence (1 - 2/) or (1 - 2/) promised 10-12 points and exactly 3 of opener's suit. The view is that the responder should only bid No Trump with a distributional hand unsuitable for a No Trump contract so the stronger hand would be declarer with the lead into strength.
Additional Source: Orange Book EBU, Section 13. This file for the year 2006 has been archived and preserved on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.
Maugham, William Somerset
Born in 1874 and died in 1965, English writer, but was born in Paris, France. He was noted as an expert storyteller and a master of fiction technique. An introverted child afflicted with a stammer, William Somerset Maugham was orphaned at 10 and sent to live with his uncle, a vicar. Although he later studied medicine and completed his internship, he never practiced, having decided at an early age to devote himself to literature.
He lived in grand style, spending much of his life on the French Riviera and traveling widely, particularly to East Asia and the South Pacific. William Somerset Maugham wrote with wit and irony, frequently expressing an aloofly cynical attitude toward life. Famous as a dramatist before he became known for his novels and short stories, he achieved his first success with the sardonically humorous play Lady Frederick (1907). This was followed by a series of commercial successes, the best being The Circle (1921), Our Betters (1923), and The Constant Wife (1927).
He had the following to say about bridge, which he played avidly:
Bridge is the most diverting and intelligent card game that the wit of man has so far devised. I would have children taught it as a matter of course, just as they are taught dancing; in the end it will be more useful to them, for you cannot with seemliness continue to dance when you are bald and potbellied; nor, for that matter, can you with satisfaction to yourself or pleasure to your partner continue to play tennis or golf when you are well past middle age. But you can play bridge so long as you can sit up at a table and tell one card from another. In fact, when all else fails - sport, love, ambition - bridge remains a solace and an entertainment.
Mauritius Bridge League
This is a .pdf file format. Starting a relay against a hand that is very variable in strength (at least 3 high card points difference from minimum to maximum), the first answer to the relay is often according to the MaxFirst principle. This means that the 1st step in the answer is reserved for all the hands with extra values, whereas all the remaining steps shows minimum values and some particular distribution. This feature is used fundamentally in the Ekrens bidding system.
The official designation is maximal double as described in The Official Encyclopedia of Bridge authored by the American Bridge Contract League, Edition 6, page 289. The identical concept is also official designated as maximal overcall couble by other authoritative and sponsoring bodies since this type of double only occurs in competition and generally for only two specific bidding sequences. The designation maximal double overcall is also employed to describe this concept.
A bid that leaves the opponents no room below the next level of the suit they have already bid. For example: 1 Spade, 2 Hearts overcall.
Maximal Overcall Double
The double of a maximal overcall, or the raise of a maximal overcall, as a game invitation. A type of competitive double with variations.
1, a relatively strong holding for the previous calls made.
2. the greatest number of tricks which can be made with any holding.
A variation of the card game Goulash.
This is a method whereby the Weak Two Bidder and his partner play in a new suit on the Three Level.
In 1993, the World Bridge Federation established the McConnell Cup, a knockout teams event for women to be played at the World Bridge Championships along side the competition for the Rosenblum Cup, an open event. Named in honor of Mrs. Ruth McConnell, former District 8 representative to the ACBL Board of Directors, and WBF Treasurer from 1985 to 1990.
These awards are presented by the Australian Bridge Federation annually to the player in each master ranking group (the Gold and Silver Grand Masters being combined to form a single category) winning the most masterpoints during the calendar year. Each player's ranking group is determined by his/her master ranking at the start of the calendar year. Registered foreign players are excluded from these awards. Players who have moved to Australia from overseas are not entitled to win McCutcheon awards for the rankings less than Life Master if they have already achieved an equivalent higher ranking in their former country.
This trophy is presented by the Australian Bridge Federation annually to the player winning the most masterpoints during the calendar year.
McDow Over No Trump
Conceived by Mr. Thomas McDow of Rock Hill, South Carolina, United States, in the 1990s when a student at Yale University. Mr. Thomas McDow operates also an online blog appropriately title McDow Over NoTrump.
The Allan Flitch Troply is a tournament conducted under the supervision of the Scottish Bridge Union by the East District Congress. The tournament is conducted as a Mixed Pairs championship. The first event was first contested in the year 1970.
The origin of this conventional method is unknown. The concept of the McKendrick conventional method is defined by its requirements for the responder following a No Trump opening bid by partner. The multiple two-response method, which is the basic principle behind the concept, is the basic definition of the concept.
One of a series of pair movements devised by Mr. William E. McKenny and assisted by Mr. Russell J. Baldwin. The most widely used movement was the two-session pair movements for 16 to 32 pairs, in which each pair played against each of the other pairs in the course of two sessions, with approximately balanced comparisons. One session consisted of a Mitchell Movement using the Appendix Table concept and the other session consisted of an Interwoven Howell movement.
A standard term in England for Suit Preference Signal, named for Mr. William E. McKenny.
Silver points: awarded for sectional and overall placing at sectional tournaments. Also awarded at Sectional Tournaments at Clubs (StaC). Barry Crane Top 500 race: This trophy is presented to the ACBL player who wins the most masterpoints during a calendar year. Originally the McKenney Trophy, it was put into play by Mr. William E. McKenney, ACBL executive secretary. It was known as the McKenney Trophy from 1937 to 1981. The list was expanded to include the top 500 players in 1982 and called the Top 500 from 1982 to 1985. It was renamed the Barry Crane Top 500 in 1986. Mr. Barry Crane, who was first in July 1985, was ACBL's top masterpoint holder at that time and was acknowledged by his peers to be unequaled as a masterpoint winner and a matchpoint player.
McNamara-Sheumaker Bidding System
This is an individual bidding system based on the Precision Bidding System devised by Mr. Brian McNamara and Mr. Brandon Sheumaker in association with other brige players. This individual bidding system has only been preserved and archived in .pdf file format on this site for future reference.
McNamara-Sheumaker or McSheu Bidding System
1/24/2003 Edition which includes modified versions of standard conventional methods, but which have been re-designated as McShmolen, as well as the Brory conventional method when the auction is opened in either the 3rd or 4th seat and an individual agreement is to employ devised conventional responses at the two level.
Defense versus 2 Spades Opening, which is a Weak Preempt in a Minor Suit
Defense versus 2 No Trump Opening, which is a Weak Preempt in a Minor Suit
Defense to Multi 2 Diamonds Opening
The Weak No Trump 2/1 System
McShmolen, which is an altered version of the Smolen conventional method.
Brory, which is a partnership agreement to employ self-developed conventional responses after an opening of a Major suit in either 3rd or 4th seat in a non-competitive auction. The origin of the designation is unknown.
Meadowlark Bridge was developed in North Dakota by Mr. Rodney Ludwig and Mr. David Walker. Meadowlark Bridge won the MSN Gaming Zone World Computer Bridge Championship, the fourth annual World Computer Bridge Championship, and which was conducted by the ACBL. The event was the World Computer Bridge Championships held in Bermuda 2000 in Maastricht, The Netherlands, in the year 2000. Meadowlark Bridge picked up 5 IMPS to take the championship against Q-Plus Bridge. The title was accompanied with the first place prize money of $1,500.
Note: The software method has led also to a conventional method of playing the game, which is presented in .pdf file format. The .pdf file, depending on your browser will be opened by the browser or downloaded to your computer and opened with Adobe Acrobat.
The origin is unknown. A 2 Clubs response to 1 Diamond is a Stayman-type enquiry showing at least game try values. See: Orange Book 2002.
This a term, which is identical to the designation datum. A mean score is a score computed for a board at duplicate play, from which one can determine the IMPs.
MeckWell Escape Bids
The concept behind these so-called escape bids has been developed and devised by Mr. Eric Rodwell and Mr. Jeff Meckstroth. The concept behind this agreement comprises a so-called escape system, which is employed after one pair has opened the auction with a bid of 1 No Trump or one pair has overcalled a suit opening by the opponents with 1 No Trump and the opponents have used the call of double for penalty.
Meckwell Defense Method
As developed by Mr. Jeffrey John Meckwell and Mr. Eric Victor Rodwell both defense methods against strong and weak No Trump openings by opponents provide more opportunities to compete against either a strong or a weak No Trump opening bid by the opponents.
Meckwell after 1 Major - Double
The team of Mr. Jeff Meckstroth and Mr. Eric Rodwell have an individual partnership agreement for practically any bidding sequence and these understandings often carries the designation of Meckwell, which is a combination of their two surnames. The following shows one of their agreements, which covers a bidding sequence when the immediate opponent doubles the opening bid of a Major suit. The letter M stands for either Major suit, the X stands for double, and the XX stands for redouble.
1M-X-XX: Shows values and establishes ownership of the auction, but does not deny a fit. 1M-X-1NT: Transfer to 2. If the opener rebids 2M, then this rebid becomes lead directing. 1M-X-2: Transfer to 2. If the opener rebids 2M, then this rebid becomes lead directing. 1M-X-2: Transfer to 2 if the opening is 1. If the opening is 1, then this response equals a single raise in Hearts. 1M-X-2M: This response promises a weak raise in the bid Major suit. 1M-X-2NT: This response equals a limit raise, the same as the Jordan 2 No Trump conventional method. 1M-X-3: A forcing raise in the opened Major suit. 1M-X-3M: Preemptive raise in the opened Major suit.
The lower honor cards and the higher spot cards.
Medium Club Relay Club Opening Bids
These opening bids were devised and developed by Mr. Johan Alex Fransz from Indonesia and Mr. Ronald Denny Klinger, aka Ron Klinger, from Australia, which was published in the book Medium Club Relay of 1988, and played by them in international competitions.
Authored by Mr. Adam Meyerson and Mr. Noble Shore. This documentation can be found by clicking on the link. The significance of the designation is unknown. As stated by the authors: The Recursive Diamond is a precision-like system, featuring light limited openings, weak notrumps, and an artificial forcing bid (1). See also: The Recursive Diamond.
Note: A short summary of the opening bids is presented on this site, which has been excerpted directly from the documentation. This short summary also includes the pictures of Mr. Adam Meyerson, Mr. Noble Shore, and Mr. Greg Humphreys.
1. one of the players constituting a table at rubber bridge
2. one of the players of a bridge team, whose name has been listed on the official entry blank whether playing actively or not.
3. a person who has joined one of the geographical units chartered by the ACBL.
The expression of this bridge-related term was allegedly first coined by some member(s) of the Stanford Bridge Club and is attributed to Mr. Ravi Romamoorthi. The definition is that the declarer runs off all the winners in his/her hand when declarer has only one loser remaining, hoping the defenders cannot figure out what the last card is. The use of the term generally implies that it should be obvious to the defenders what card to keep. (Another term, moron squeeze, is also employed and there is the neutral pseudosqueeze that is in common use). Archived and preserved only for future reference in a .pdf file format.
A card that an opponent must guard lest it become a winner. This term can be applied for several, following situations:
1. isolated menace: a menace consisting of one card. 2. 2-card menace: a 2-card holding consisting of a winner in the suit accompanied by a menace. 3. split 2-card menace: a 2-card menace in which the winner and the threat card are in opposite hands. 4. double menace: a threat card against both opponents. 5. extended 2-card menace: a 2-card menace accompanied by one or more cards in that suit with the property that if the 2-card menace is established, then the entire suit will produce winners. 6. recessed menace: a menace card is accompanied by two or more winners in the suit. 7. twin entry menace: one hand contains a winner and one or more small cards while the opposite hands holds a winner, a menace, and one or more small cards.
A pairs event in duplicate competition in which all the contestants were male. This event has been renamed Open Pairs II in 1992 and is a four-session event consisting of two qualifying round and two final rounds and is contested for the Wernher Trophy. From 1969 through 1971 it was contested as a three-session championship. The ACBL has ceased holding Men's Events at the North American level since such events are connected to being chosen to participate in open world events. Men's Pairs events continue to be held for regional and lower ratings.
Merrimac Coup - Merrimack Coup
Also known in earlier card games, such as Whist and Auction Bridge, as Hobson's Coup and Hobson's Choice, it is the deliberate sacrifice of a high card with the purpose of knocking out a vital entry in the hand of the opponent, usually the dummy. Named after the Merrimac, an American coal carrying ship sunk in 1898 in Santiago Harbor in an attempt to bottle up the Spanish Fleet. Not the Merrimack which engaged battle with the Monitor.
Methods versus No Trump
This is a compilation of variations for defense mechanisms against a No Trump opening by the opponents developed by Mr. Glen Ashton of Ottowa, Canada. They include the variations: Dont No versus No Trump Defense Mechanism, the Wont versus No Trump Defense Mechanism, and the Cant versus No Trump Defense Mechanism. This information has only been preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.
Method, Definition of - Definition of Method
|1.||A means or manner of procedure, especially a regular and systematic way of accomplishing something.|
|2.||Orderly arrangement of parts or steps to accomplish an end: random efforts that lack method.|
|3.||The procedures and techniques characteristic of a particular discipline or field of knowledge: This field course gives an overview of archaeological method.|
|4.||Method: A technique of acting in which the actor recalls emotions and reactions from past experience and uses them in identifying with and individualizing the character being portrayed.|
|Note:||Middle English, medical procedure, from Latin methodus, method, from Greek methodos, pursuit, method : meta-, beyond, after; see meta- + hodos, way, journey.|
|Synonyms:||system, routine, manner, mode, fashion, way.|
Mexican Two Diamonds - Mexican 2 Diamonds
Developed by Mr. George Rosenkrantz as a feature of the Romex System, and an opening which has become fundamental in the Romex System. The problem was that a hand containing 18/19-20/21 high card points could be opened with a Dynamic 1 No Trump, showing a balanced holding with six controls or a holding just short of the requirements for a strong, aritifical 2 Clubs opening.
Mexico - Federacion Mexicana de Bridge
Mexico Bridge Clubs with ACBL Sanctioned Games
Meyerson Defense Against No Trump Openings
The origin of this conventional method is credited to Mr. Adam Meyerson of Los Angeles, California, United States. The concept was devised as a solution for the requirements of the ACBL in regards to the General Convention Chart, which disallowed the Woolsey conventional method, developed by Mr. Kit Woolsey, and the Robinson conventional method, developed by Mr. Steve Robinson.
MG Precision Handbook
This is a Precision bidding system handbook for those serious about playing a more sophisticated and scientific system, devised by Mr. Greg Earnest and wife/bridge partner Meaghin Burke. Mr. Greg Earnest has published this information privately and offers it for purchase on his web blog. This information has also been archived and preserved on this site in .pdf file format for future reference. The serious bridge student should, by all means, research the information as published by Mr. Greg Earnest.
MG Precision Cuebids
This bidding method has been developed by Mr. Greg Earnest together with wife and bridge partner Meaghin Burke. The first letter of their first names constitute the initials of this bidding approach with Meaghin Burke receiving first billing. The concept and employment of these particular cuebids lie in the fact that they are able to show game values, 4-card plus support, slam interest, and promise also a first-round control in the suit bid.
MG Precision Opening Bids
These are the opening bids of the Precision bidding system handbook, published privately March 24, 2009, devised by Mr. Greg Earnest together with bridge partner Meaghin Burke of Oxford, Mississippi, United States. The designation MG is from the first initials of both names. Mr. Greg Earnest has published this information privately and offers it for downloading on his web blog Walking the Dog.
This convention allows one partner to inform his partner about a 2-suited hand. Distributional hands are very powerful, and this convention instructs the user how to use this tool.
Modified Michaels Cuebid
This variation is played mostly in Canada, especially around the area of Quebec and has been contributed to this website by Mr. Lyse Mercille, Mr. Pierre Gauthier and Mr. Kamel Fergami, to whom we owe our thanks for contributing this variation of the Modified Michaels Cuebid convention for presentation on this site.
Developed and devised by Mr. Gordon Bower in the year 1999 and presented on his website. Addressing a certain weakness of the Michaels Cuebid method, this approach combines the features of Michaels Cuebids and the features of the Roman Jump Overcalls.
Michelangelo: A Better Alternative
This write-up on an alternative option to the Michaels Cuebid is presented on his website. The date of the revised version is dated December 2010. The web page will be opened by your browser in a new window. This information has also been only archived and preserved on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.
A form of bridge played with 36 cards. The origins of this variation are unknown, but this form of the game was presumably devised in the early 1930s as were other variations. All cards lower than six were eliminated and the remaining 36 cards were dealt to four players. In this version the honors were not scored and the Minor suits held the same trick value as the Major suits, which is 30 points. The exact scoring of this form of bridge, such as the bonuses for game and slam contracts, has been lost over time. A book was reduced to three tricks instead of six tricks as is the case with Duplicate Contract Bridge. Slams were bid at the level of five and six. Opening bids and responses could be based on a suit length of at least a 3-card suit. See also: Five Card Bridge and Joker Bridge.
Mid-American - Canadian Regional Championships
This was a bridge tournament contested over the course of four days and consisted of six events. The event was conducted annually beginning in the year 1955 and ceasing in the year 1967. The location of the event was either in North Dakota, South Dakota, Iowa, states in the United States or otherwise is Canada. This bridge tournament was discontinued in the year 1968 and was replaced by the Iowa and District 14 Regionals. This bridge tournaments consisted of Open Teams, Masters Pairs, Open Pairs, Men's Pairs, Women's Pairs, and Mixed Pairs. This event was discontinued in 1968.
This was a trophy awarded by the Mid-Atlantic Bridge Conference in 1951 at the Summer National Championships for the Charity Event.
Mid-Atlantic Fall Regional Championships
This was a bridge tournament contested over the course of four days. The tournament was contested annually. The event began in the year 1952 and was contested in North Carolina or Virginia, especially in the south of South Carolina, or Maryland, or Washington DC, United States. This bridge tournaments consisted of Open Teams, Masters Pairs, Open Pairs, Men's Pairs, and Women's Pairs.
Mid-Atlantic Independence Day Regional Championships
This was a bridge tournament contested over four or five days. The tournament was conducted annually in either Baltimore or Virginia, United States, beginning in 1966. This bridge tournaments consisted of Opens Teams, Masters Pairs, Open Pairs, Men's Pairs, and Women's Pairs
Mid-Atlantic Spring Regional Championships
This was a bridge tournament contested over four days. The tournament was conducted annually in either eastern Tennessee or North Carolina, later also in Virginia, United States, beginning in the year 1956. This bridge tournaments consisted of Open Pairs, Men's Teams, Women's Teams, Masters Pairs, Open Pairs, Men's Pairs, Women's Pairs, and Mixed Pairs.
Mid-Atlantic Summer Regional Championships - Labor Day Regional Championships
This was a bridge tournament contested over four or five days. The tournament was conducted annually in either Atlanta or Washington D.C., and in the last four years before it was discontinued also in North Carolina and South Carolina, United States, beginning in the year 1960. The tournament was scheduled to coincide with the American holiday of Labor Day. This bridge tournaments consisted of Knockout Teams, Open Teams, Masters Pairs, Open Pairs, Men's Pairs, Women's Pairs, and Mixed Pairs.
Mid-Atlantic Winter Regional Championships
This was a bridge tournament contested over four days. The tournament was conducted annually in South Carolina. This bridge tournaments consisted of Open Teams, Masters Pairs, Open Pairs, Men's Pairs, Women's Pairs, and Mixed Pairs.
The middle card of an original three-card holding. The term applies generally to opening leads.
The play, generally the play of the declarer, after the first lead or first few tricks won by the defenders, during which the plan of the remaining play is developed, generally leading to the End Play position, or preparation for them. Basically the middle game is a designation for the defensive and/or offensive tactics used to maximize the pair's assets before all thirteen tricks have been played. Mr. Terence Reese compiled and listed several tactics an strategies devoted to the middle game in his publication Reese On Play in the chapter Part Three: Tactical Strokes In The Middle Game.
The tactics and strategies employed for the middle game can be applied to other games such as chess and backgammon, two games of skill and, of course, also chance. However, the element of chance can be assisted by learning through experience and practice, thereby profiting from the play and/or defense after the first lead (or first move) and before the last trick (or last move).
Kings, Queens and Jacks.
See: Double Menace
Mid-South Fall Regional Championships
This was a bridge tournament contested over five days. The tournament was conducted annually in Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, or Western Tennessee, United States, beginning in the year 1967. This bridge tournament replaced the Southern Conference Regional Championships in 1965. This tournament consisted of Open Teams, Life Masters Pairs, Masters Pairs, Open Pairs, Men's Pairs, Women's Pairs, and Mixed Pairs.
Mid-South Spring Regional Championships
This was a bridge tournament contested over five days. The tournament was conducted annually in Western Tennessee or Alabama, and in later years before it was renamed and/or discontinued in Louisiana, Mississippi, ande Arkansas, beginning in the year 1941. This bridge tournament consisted of Knockout Teams, Open Teams, Masters Pairs, Open Pairs, Men's Pairs, Women's Pairs, Mixed Pairs, and Masters Individual.
Mid-South Summer Regional Championships
This was a bridge tournament contested over five days. The tournament was conducted annually in Louisiana, Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, or Western Tennessee, United States beginning in the year 1960. Prior to the Mid-South Conference being granted a third Regional by the American Contract Bridge League, this particular tournament was occasionally conducted in the fall. This bridge tournament consisted of Knockout Teams, Life Masters Pairs, Masters Pairs, Open Pairs, Men's Pairs, Women's Pairs, and Mixed Pairs.
Mid-West Fall Regional Championships
This bridge tournament was contested over four days. This tournament was conducted annually in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, or Fort Wayne, Indiana, United States, as began in the year 1959 and was discontinued in the year 1968. The tournament was replaced by the District 8 and Tri-Unit Regionals. This bridge tournament consisted of Open Teams, Open Pairs, Men's Pairs, Women's Pairs, and Mixed Pairs.
Mid-West Spring Regional Championships
This bridge tournament was contested over five days and sometimes six days. The tournament was conducted annually in Ohio, Kentucky, or Indiana, United States, beginning in the year 1944. This bridge tournament consisted of Open Teams, Masters Pairs, Men's Pairs, Women's Pairs, and Mixed Pairs.
Minor For Major
This is another designation given to the variation of the Texas convention known properly as the South African Texas convention as developed by Mr. Max Sapire. A second designation is Super Texas.
A software application for playing bridge based on a bidding system database, artificial intelligence, and Monte Carlo simulation. The company is based in Japan and the software is developed by Mr. Tomio Uchida and Yumiko Uchida. The enclosed .pdf file helps to explain the software application and is only preserved and archived on this site for future reference.
Mid-Atlantic Bridge Conference Standard Bidding
MABC Standard is based on Bridge World Standard with certain changes that appear to be popular among Mid-Atlantic Bridge Conference Players. Bridge World Standard (BWS) is a system based on the majority preferences of approximately 125 leading experts and thousands of The Bridge World magazine readers. The changes from BWS are the results of talking to numerous MABC expert players and studying over 500 convention cards from players of all range of expertise in the MABC. The system can and will be changed from time to time if an overwhelming majority of players want a change.
A designation used by Mr. Jon Drabble in his publication A New Approach to Bidding: Complete Hand Valuation (Cv) and the Midmac Bidding System, whereby the designation is a mnemonic for Minors bid a Diamond, Majors bid a Club.
A contest staged after the main events of the day have been completed. A midnight game is either an open pairs, a Swiss Teams of a Knockout Teams with abbreviated matches. The contest usually ends at 3:00am. At sectionals, the awards are in silver points. At regionals and at North American Championships, the awards are in red points.
A common play of bridge around midnight, which consists of five matches of five boards played at a rapid pace, generally no more than 25 minutes each round. The average time is thus 5 minutes and not the usual 7+ minutes allowed for 1 board. Sectional games pay in silver points, regional and North American games pay in red points. The game is sometimes referred to as Zip Swiss.
Mr. Mike Cappelletti and Shannon Lipscomb offer assistance to other bridge players at bridge events. At the age of 32, Mr. Mike Cappelletti earned over 12,000 master points. Giving back to the bridge community, both hold lectures, one of which is entitled Mikey's Rules, which are:
1. Pitch losers. Keep winners. For example, when declarer is forcing you to make discards and your last three cards are A4 and another good card, throw the four. Sounds easy, right? Then why do so many defenders discard that other good card? 2. Lead partner's suit - he risks his neck to overcall. He overcalled for a reason, so he can't get upset if you lead his suit. Here's a warning to all. Make sure your overcalls are good, K10654 would be the lightest. Only if you have an overwhelming reason should you lead a suit other than partner's. 3. Jumps to slam end the auction - you may not raise. Sometimes partner jumps on speculation or to sacrifice. He could also be counting on a specific opening lead by the defense. 4. Mikey says, "Only God saves - the 5-level belongs to the opponents." To sacrifice you must be sure it is profitable. You also know your opponents, which is helpful. Sacrifices at the 5-level are dangerous. 5. Lead a J or 10 and if it holds, continue. Obviously, the partner holds something in that suit, so keep leading it. 6. ASBF (All strange bids are forcing). It's better to play one level higher than play the wrong contract. 7. Never pass a forcing bid. Mike opens 1 spade and Shannon responds with 2 clubs. Mike can bid 2 spades safely because Shannon's call is a 2-over-1 bid which cannot be passed. Thus, it is not necessary for Mike to use up bidding space and jump in his suit in order to force partner to bid again. 8. Double Trouble. a. Don't double anything you can't beat. b. Take out partner's take- out double. (c) Leave in partner's penalty double unless you have a surprise. Don't double because you might beat it. Have a good reason. Team players do not double for a one trick set. Even if you are lucky and the setting trick cashes, the points you receive are not worth the chance you took. You will gain only 1 or 2 IMPs depending upon the vulnerability. The opponents bid 2 hearts and partner doubles. 9. Lead a singleton (versus suit contracts with no void in trumps) or AK if you have it. Not a singleton trump unless against doubled part score. Aces are meant to take kings or queens. Partner must know that if you don't lead the king or ace (some lead ace from AK), you don't have that combination. Also, if you have led a spot card in a particular suit and later show up with a second card, you have no singletons. 10. Preemptor can only bid once unless answering a question asked by the partner. When opening a weak two-bid and partner raises to three, it is not an invitation to bid four. A preemptive opening two- or three-bid tells your story. You should never have to say, "But I had an extra......" 11. Aces are meant to take kings. Assume you are left of dummy and declarer leads the 4 from Q64. Don't jump up with ace. Though you may get a free trick if declarer holds a stiff king, he later can get a free discard on dummy's queen. If declarer holds K62, that queen may be the only entry he has to dummy. If you refuse to jump up with the ace, you have made a superior defense by denying him his dummy. 12. There are no rules, only guidelines. Always keep in mind that these are guidelines. There are no rules as nothing is right 100 percent of the time. A good declarer or defender must be able to use his imagination.
Miles Convention - Miles Conventional Method
An artificial, forcing opening bid which describes a three suited hand (4-4-4-1 or 5-4-4-0) with 17 points or more not counting distribution. The singleton and/or void can be in any suit. The response of 2 Hearts is negative. The opener rebids his singleton or void and the responder places the contract. Attributed to bridge expert Mr. Marshall Miles.
This trophy was donated by Mr. R.L. Miles, Jr. to be awarded at the Summer Nationals beginning in the year 1950 for the winner of the Masters Pair Championships, which was played by qualifying Senior and advanced Senior bridge players. This event was discontinued in 1954.
Miles Responses to Two No Trump Openings
A method of responding to opening bids of 2 No Trump devised by Mr. Marshall Miles to assist in the safe exploration for slams, games, or partscores in any suit.
This conventional slam bidding method was published in The Bridge World reportedly in the early 1960s by Mr. M.M. Miller of Toronto, Canada. The concept behind this conventional method was to reach the slam try immediately upon finding first a suit fit, and especially after a 1 No Trump opening by partner, and also, added later, following a 2 No Trump opening by partner. The 1 No Trump opening was considered to be a strong No Trump opening with a range from a strong 15/16 to 18 high card points. The 2 No Trump opening was considered to have a range from a strong 19/20 to 21 high card points.
Milton Work Count
See: Losing Trick Count
A method of hand valuation as set forth in the book The System the Experts Play, as portrayed by Mr. F. Dudley Courtenay in 1934. The general idea was that when a suit fit was discovered, the partnership added the number of worthless cards in the hand to the number of losers revealed by the partners bidding. The total was subtracted from the number 18, and the result would inform the partnership how many odd tricks the combined hands were likely to take.
Milton Work's Coup
Two great bridge personalities of France, Mr. José Le Dentu and Mr. Robert Berthe, describes this particular play technique in their publication Mesurez-Vous Aux Champions.
Mind Sports Olympiad Worldwide
The First Annual Mind Sports Olympiad, a festival of thinking games that includes bridge, is scheduled for August 18 to August 24 and was conducted at the Royal Festival Hall in London, England. Other contests on the schedule include such classic, strategic contests as chess, draughts (checkers), backgammon and Go. The mind sport of bridge was included in all other following annual Olympiads (possible exception in 2002). In 2004 the Mind Sports Olympiad included the game of bridge in partnership with the English Bridge Union. The Prize Fund for bridge was a guaranteed 8,500 Pounds. The results are presented by the Manchester Bridge Club, and are also archived and preserved on this site in .pdf file format for future reference. Updated link: The Mind Sports Olympiad.
The results of the competition in the category of bridge was:
Bridge Duplicate Pairs
Gold Medal M. Gold and D. Higgenson England Silver Medal P. Hecht-Johnasen and K. Blakset Denmark Bronze Medal M. Beyer and J. Tesselaar Holland
Bridge Swiss Pairs
Gold Medal M. Beyer and J. Tesselaar Holland Silver Medal G. Horscroft and M. Walsh England Bronze Medal M. Gold and D. Higginson England
Bridge Team Championship - Saturday
Gold Medal S. Burn, P. King, T. Townsend, N. Sandqvist Silver Medal S. Dannell, P. Shepperson, M. Beyer, J. Tesselaar Bronze Medal R. Eaton, A. Salem, Bharat, T. Nnando
Bridge Team Championship - Sunday
Gold Medal S. Burn, P. King, T. Townsend, N. Sandqvist Silver Medal S. Mohandes, A. Bowles, D. Stoev, H. Iukovici Bronze Medal M. Gold, D. Higginson, M. Beyer, J. Tesselaar
A method for individual movement for one session with two or more groups of players, where the groups are mingled so that a player will have most of the other players during the contest either as partner or as opponent. Devised by Mr. Olov Hanner.
A prefix designation to describe something of lesser strength or weaker than the usual kind. For example: a Mini-Roman 2 Diamonds, which is a 2 Diamonds opening showing the identical hand-type or pattern but less strength than a Roman 2 Diamonds opening.
This style of the game was first introduced in Holland, where it was developed as an introduction to bridge for school children. It was quickly found to be very effective, not only for teaching youngsters, but for adults as well. Not surprisingly, therefore, it has spread like wildfire into many parts of Europe and no doubt other parts of the world as well. In England, it has become the EBU recommended route into bridge for all beginners. This is a .pdf file format and will automatically be opened by your browser.
The origin of this conventional method is unknown. As with the original concept of the lightner double, the mini-lightner double can be employed at the four and at the five level in the game of bridge. This is generally the case when the opponents see the strong possibility of a suit contract being declared
The information contained in this .pdf file is in an unknown foreign language. Any assistance in translating this information would be greatly appreciated.
The McKenny Trophy was established in 1938 to recognize the ACBL member who won the most masterpoints during a calendar year. At present, players compete to win the Barry Crane Top 500. In 1974, the ACBL voted to recognize masterpoint achievement among the bridge players below the rank of Life Master, and created the Mini McKenny award for honoring the various ranks of Rookie, Junior Master (Non-Master prior to 1987), Club Master (Master), Sectional Master (National Master), Regional Master (Senior Master), and NABC Master (Advanced Senior Master).
In 1974 the ACBL Board of Directors voted to recognize masterpoint achievements among players below the rank of Life Master. The Bridge Bulletin recognizes leaders ACBL-wide. At the unit level, winners in each category receive recognition and special medallions. All points won during a calendar year are counted in these races. The Mini-Mckenney competition is divided into several categories:
Rookie: 0-5 points Junior Master: 5 to 20 points Club Master: 20 to 50 points Sectional Master: At least 50 points, including 5 silver Regional Master: At least 100 points, including 15 silver plus 5 red or gold NABC Master: At least 200 points, including 50 pigmented points, of which 5 must be gold, 15 must be red or gold and 25 must be silver Life Master: 300-500 points Bronze Life Master: 500-1000 points Silver Life Master: 1000-2500 points Gold Life Master: 2500-5000 points Diamond Life Master: 5000-10,000 points Grand Life Master: 10,000 or more points
This categorization has been altered as of January 1, 2006. The above parameters have changed as of this date for the Ace of Clubs and the Mini-McKenney masterpoint competitions at all levels and will be determined by the total masterpoint holding of a player at the start of the year, and no longer by the designated rank.
The categories in which players will compete will be: 0-5, 5-20, 20-50, etc., up to and including 10,000 plus masterpoints. This change has taken place to rectify the problem or problems, in which players compete in the same category year after year owing to their lack of certain pigmented points.
A holding which justifies an original bid, response, or rebid with no high card strength or distributional values in reserve.
Minimum Off Shape Take Out Double
This is a variation of the standard and generally accepted concept of the Takeout Double. It is a Takeout Double with less than 3 cards in any unbid suits. It does not imply shortage in the suit of the opponent, over which the Double is employed. This form of double also implies that the doubler holds minimal opening values of 12-14 points, although this can be by partnership agreement. This action, if played, must be checked by the partnership on the Convention Card published by ACBL. This variation of the Takeout Double does not need to be alerted.
Mini No Trump
A 1 No Trump opening showing less than the usual opening bid strength which is typically 9/10-12 points. Lighter No Trump openings are allowed by the ACBL, but no conventional responses, such as Stayman, may be used, and are generally barred from being used in events sponsored by the ACBL.
Mini Roman Two Diamonds or Mini Roman 2 Diamonds
The origin of the Mini-Roman Two Diamonds is unknown. The concept is closely related to the concept of the Roman Two Diamonds conventional method and should be studied together with this concept. The Roman Two Diamonds conventional method promises a three suited holding with a distribution of 4-4-4-1 or 5-4-4-0.
The Mini-Splinter conventional method is a variation of the splinter conventional method. The application of the mini-splinter shows, after a jump shift by either the opener or responder, a definite suit fit and also a singleton or even a void in the suit bid.
Bergen and Mini-Splinters or BAM Raises
This file has been compiled by Mr. Kerry Kappell and has been presentled by him online. This file is only preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.
Slang: minimum values.
A term to designate a lower honor, generally a Queen, Jack, or Ten, but, depending on the circumstances, not necessarily.
Minor Penalty Card
A card below honor rank inadvertently exposed prematurely. See Law 50C and 50D.
LAW 50 - DISPOSITION OF PENALTY CARD
A card prematurely exposed (but not led, see Law 57) by a defender is a penalty card unless the Director designates otherwise. The Director shall award an adjusted score, in lieu of the rectifications below, when he deems that Law 72B1 applies.
C. Disposition of Minor Penalty Card
When a defender has a minor penalty card, he may not play any other card of the same suit below the rank of an honour until he has first played the penalty card (however, he is entitled to play an honour card instead). Offender's partner is not subject to lead penalty, but information gained through seeing the penalty card is extraneous and unauthorised (see Law 16A).
D. Disposition of Major Penalty Card
When a defender has a major penalty card, both the offender and his partner may be subject to restriction, the offender whenever he is to play, the partner when he is to lead.
1. Offender to Play
A major penalty card must be played at the first legal opportunity, whether in leading, following suit, discarding or trumping (the requirement that offender must play the card is authorised information for his partner; however, other information arising from facing of the penalty card is unauthorised for partner). If a defender has two or more penalty cards that can legally be played, declarer designates which is to be played. The obligation to follow suit, or to comply with a lead or play penalty, takes precedence over the obligation to play a major penalty card, but the penalty card must still be left face up on the table and played at the next legal opportunity.
2. Offender's Partner to Lead
When a defender has the lead while his partner has a major penalty card, he may not lead until declarer has stated which of the options below is selected (if the defender leads prematurely, he is subject to penalty under Law 49). Declarer may choose:
(a) Require or Forbid Lead of Suit
to require the defender to lead the suit of the penalty card, or to prohibit him from leading that suit for as long as he retains the lead (for two or more penalty cards, see Law 51); if declarer exercises this option, the card is no longer a penalty card, and is picked up.
(b) No Lead Restriction
not to require or prohibit a lead, in which case the defender may lead any card; the penalty card remains a penalty card.
Either of the two lower ranking suits: Diamonds or Clubs.
Minor Suit Stayman
This convention, a variation of the Jacoby Transfer originally devised by Mr. Oswald Jacoby, is used by the responder whose partner has opened the bidding with 1 No Trump. The Minor Suit Stayman conventional method was devised for specifically three types of holdings held by the responder, and which will be determined during the ensuing auction.
Minor Suit Swiss
A method devised by Mr. Albert Dormer and Mr. Terence Reese for use in conjunction with non-forcing Minor suit jump raises, to show a strong hand in support of openers Minor suit without exceeding 3 No Trump. After a 1 Club opening, a jump to 3 Hearts would indicate an excellent Club raise, whereas a jump to 3 Diamonds would indicate a moderate Club raise. After a 1 Diamond opening, a jump to 3 Spades would indicate an excellent Diamond raise, whereas a jump to 3 Hearts would indicate a moderate Diamond raise. All jumps are considered game-forcing and/or to four of the opener's suit. These Minor Suit Swiss jumps are deemed to be similar to Splinter bids.
An original holding of King-Jack, without the Ace or Queen, of a suit. After one or more rounds of a suit have been played, the second and fourth highest remaining cards of the suit in the hand of one player are also called a minor tenace.
The origin of this variation of the Blackwood conventional method is unknown. As the designation signifies, this variation is only employed when the established or inferred trump suit is a Minor suit.
Donald Kersey's Minorwood Version
Also included is the Minorwood version of Mr. Donald Kersey from Kingston, Ontario, Canada.
1. Identical in distribution;
2. In regards to a tournament movement, an event which is simultaneously held in parallel, as in a Mirror Mitchell, a team-of-four movement, in which the pairs are organized into two Mitchell arrangements.
This is a designation for having the same or very similar distribution as your partner. Mirror distribution tends to be ba news as it means that the player is unable to ruff either in hand or in dummy.
A team movement in which the teams of one group play against the teams of another group having the same odd number of teams. Also called Mirror Mitchell.
1. A term to describe that a bid, which is inappropriate because it is of the wrong rank and/or denomination or represents a descriptive misrepresentation to the partner. The term is to distinguish the third circumstance between and underbid and an overbid;
2. the act of erring by making a misbid or a misrepresentation.
The replacement of hands in the wrong slots in duplicate play. If the next table is unable to play the board, the guilty pair of pairs may be penalized.
An illegal cut. A cut that leaves fewer than four cards in either portion of the deck.
An imperfect deal, owing to an incorrect number of cards being dealt to any player, or a card being exposed during the deal.
A bad line of play that seems intended to fail. The name is derived from Solo and other card games in which it may have been desirable to lose tricks. Another term to describe this bad line of play is butcher.
A term used to describe a situation where two hands opposite each other in any given deal are unbalanced, each containing two long suits and extreme shortages or voids in its third and fourth suits, and further, where these lengths are met by shortages in the partner's hand and the short suits correspondingly met by lengths in the reverse hand. The misfit is where not even one 4-4 or better trump fit can be found in a set of 26 cards.
There is no recourse for not hearing a call or bid or called card. If a player is not certain what the previous call was, he may ask for a review of the auction when it is his turn to bid.
A bid or play improperly called. If a player bids 1 Diamond when the intended bid is 1 Heart, then he may substitute his intended call if he does so without pause. Otherwise his call, if legal, stands, and, if illegal, is subject to penalty. In the case that a player changes his call after a pause, the exchange of unauthorized information may be taking place, and a penalty under the provision of Law 25 should be enforced.
LAW 25 - LEGAL AND ILLEGAL CHANGES OF CALL
A. Immediate Correction of Inadvertency
Until his partner makes a call, a player may substitute his intended call for an inadvertent call but only if he does so, or attempts to do so, without pause forethought. If legal, his last call stands without penalty; if illegal, it is subject to the applicable Law.
In the case that a card is called by the declarer from the dummy in error, the declarer may change the call if he does so without pause for thought, otherwise the called card, if a legal play, stands as the card played. See Law 45C.
LAW 45 - CARD PLAYED
C. Compulsory Play of Card
4. Named or Designated Card
(a) Play of Named Card
A card must be played if a player names or otherwise designates it as the card he proposed to play.
(b) Correction of Inadvertent Designation
A player may, without penalty, change an inadvertent designation if he does so without pause for thought; but if an opponent has, in turn, played a card that was legal before the change in designation, that opponent may withdraw without penalty the card so played and substitute another (see Law 47E).
A card which is not in any of the four hands. If three of the four hands have a correct number of cards and the fourth hand is deficient, and this fact is determined before the end of the play, a search for the card is undertaken. If the card is located, it is deemed to have been in the hand which is deficient. If the missing card has been found and its denomination determined, it may then be judged an exposed card or established as a discard or ruff on a previous trick as a revoke. Law 14.
LAW 14 - MISSING CARD
A. Hand Found Deficient before Play Commences
When three hands are correct and the fourth is found to be deficient before the play period begins, the Director makes a search for any missing card, and:
1. Card Is Found
If a card is found, it is restored to the deficient hand.
2. Card Cannot Be Found
If a card cannot be found, the Director reconstructs the deal, as near to its original form as he can determine, by substituting another pack.
B. Hand Found Deficient Afterwards
When three hands are correct and the fourth is found to be deficient after the play period begins, the Director makes a search for any missing card, and:
1. Card Is Found
(a) If a card is found among the played cards, Law 67 applies.
(b) If a card is found elsewhere, it is restored to the deficient hand, and penalties may apply (see 3., following).
2. Card Cannot Be Found
If a card cannot be found, the deal is reconstructed as nearly as can be determined in its original form by substituting another pack, and penalties may apply (see 3., following).
3. Possible Penalties
A card restored to a hand under the provisions of Section B of this Law is deemed to have belonged continuously to the deficient hand. It may become a penalty card (Law 50), and failure to have played it may constitute a revoke.
Mississippi Heart Hand
A trick hand from the era of Whist.
Mississippi Valley Regional Championships
This was a bridge tournament contested over five days. The tournament was conducted annually in St. Louis, Missouri, United States, beginning in the year 1951. This bridge tournament consisted of Open Teams, Masters Pairs, Open Pairs, Women's Pairs, Masters Individual, and Individual.
Missouri Valley Regional Championship
This was a bridge tournament contested over five days. The tournament was conducted annually in Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma, or Northwest Texas, United States, beginning in the year 1952. This bridge tournament consisted of Knockout Teams, Open Teams, Open Pairs, Men's Pairs, Women's Pairs, Mixed Pairs, and Individual.
Mixed Pair Championship - Mixed Pair National
See: Hilliard Trophy. This trophy was awarded for the National Mixed Pair Championships, and which was donated by Mrs. Olga Hilliard beginning in the year 1931. The event was contested at the Fall Nationals until 1946, and was then transferred to the West Coast and played as part of Bridge Week until 1957, while retaining the status of a National Championship. Beginning with the year 1958 the event was contested at the Spring Nationals. The Rockwell Trophy was donated by Helen Rockwell in 1946 for the North American Mixed Pair Championship and replaced the Hilliard Trophy. This tournament was contested as a four-session event at the Fall North American Championships.
This is an event at Duplicate competition, whereby each partnership consists of one male player and one female player.
Motor City Regional Championship
This bridge tournament consisted of Open Teams, Open Pairs, Men's Pairs, Women's Pairs, and Mixed Pairs.
Mister and Mrs. - Mr. and Mrs.
An event at bridge tournament, in which entries are limited to married couples playing as a partnership. Known as Flitch in England, and generally played at annual bridge tournaments contested and conducted around the American holiday of Valentines Day.
This is a two-session movement, in which one session is played as a Scrambled Mitchell and the other session as a twin or Interwoven Howell. Mitchell-Howell movements are preferred for two-session games of up to five tables.
Mitchell, John Templeton
Mr. John Templeton Mitchell, born 1854 in Glasgow, Scotland and died 1914 in Chicago, Illinois, was known as and referred to as the King of Duplicate Whist. He was paramount in developing and devising table movements for both boards and players at Whist tournaments. A movement still popular today in the game of bridge and conducted practically globally is the Mitchell Movement, but he also devised many additional schedules for Individual Movements, Pair Movements, and Team Movements. He assisted to adapt the matchpoint scoring and employed the game of Whist for the purposes of duplicate auction. Born in Glasgow, Scotland, he immigrated to the United States in 1875 and became an American citizen and took up residence in Chicago, Illinois. It was not until 1888 that he became interested in the game of Whist. The story, mostly valid, states that he became interested when he saw a newspaper clipping from the London Field, which referred to a Duplicate Whist Match being contested by two Duplicate Whist Clubs in his native Glasgow, Scotland, using James Allison's Automatic Hand Registers. Thereupon he decided to establish and form the Chicago Duplicate Whist Club.
He authored and had published the first book on Duplicate Whist in 1892, the first such book, and this publication was revised by him in 1896. He joined the Hyde Park Team in 1895, that won the Fifth American Whist League Congress, which was a national championship. He became the Director in the American Whist League, year unknown. An excellent player he was quite partial to the long suit game and he published his American leads in his book, simply titled Whist in 1896. Source: oeb.
He authored the book Duplicate Whist, published in c1895 by E.I. Horsman of New York, New York, Library of Congress: ca 05001816
He authored the book Duplicate Whist, published in 1897 by Ihling Bros. & Everard of Kalamazoo, Michigan, ASIN: B000877T0O, Library of Congress: 05026427. The official title is: Duplicate Whist, With appendices: Modern Leads and Inferences. Draft of Program for Congress. Draft of By-Laws for Whist Club. The Laws of Whist and Duplicate Whist. (As Adopted by the American Whist League).
He authored the book Duplicate Whist, published in 1891 by A.C. McClurg and Company of Chicago, Illinois, Library of Congress: 05026426.
He authored the book Duplicate Whist Rules, published in c1891 by Ihling Bros. & Everard of Kalamzoo, Michigan, Library of Congress: 28017535.
A method of play for duplicate Whist developed by Mr. John T. Mitchell which has been continued through the age of Auction Bridge and Contract Bridge. In every pairs tournament, the movement has three basic components: the boards, the tables, and the pairs. In the Mitchell Movement the pairs are in two groups, North-South and East-West, with the goal of having all North-South pairs meeting all of the East-West pairs and playing all the boards. Except for minor modifications with an even number of tables, compensated by using Skip Mitchell or Relay Mitchell, the East-West pairs move to the higher numbered table, while the boards move to the next lower numbered table. The North-South pairs are always stationary.
Named after, and perhaps devised by, Mr. Victor Mitchell and Mr. Samuel Stayman, two very top bridge experts of their time and who partnered very often. This conventional method finds application when a Minor suit has been overcalled by a bid of 1 No Trump. Instead of bidding either of the Major suits with a distribution of 4-4, 5-4, or even 5-5, varying but not dependent on the state of the vulnerability, the third hand can use the Minor suit of the partner to show this distribution, by bidding the Minor suit on the two level, and which is then totally artificial. It is not a normal, simple raise of the Minor suit. For example:
East South West North 1 1 NT 2
The 2 acts as Stayman. There are many partnerships that play 2 to act as Stayman, if, in this bidding sequence, the opening has been 1. A response by the partner of 2 would therefore become a simple Minor suit raise. The question is to the opener, whether or not the player has at least a 3-card Major suit or better and the advantage is that the No Trump bidder must lead, if a Major suit fit can be found.
Mixed Board-A-Match Teams
The Mixed Board-A-Match Teams, is a bridge event contested for the Lebhar Trophy, beginning in the year 1946, but which was played for the Barclay Trophy until the year 1945. The bridge event is a four-session Board-A-Match event with two qualifying rounds and two final rounds. It is restricted to players, who have won at least 100 masterpoints. In 1969 this bridge event was played in three session.
A call, usually a raise, having both preemptive and constructive elements.
An event at duplicate bridge tournaments between pairs, each of which has one man and one woman member.
In bridge tournaments in the United States, a mixed team is composed of four, sometimes five or six, players, who are obligated to compete at all times as two mixed pairs, one member of each partnership being of each sex.
Mixing Cards After Completed Play
This practice is illegal if a claim has been made to inspect the cards either for a revoke, or to ascertain honors, or to assure the number of tricks won or lost. See Law 66.
LAW 66 - INSPECTION OF TRICKS
D. After the Conclusion of Play
After play ceases, the played and unplayed cards may be inspected to settle a claim of a revoke, or of the number of tricks won or lost; but no player should handle cards other than his own. If, after such a claim has been made, a player mixes his cards in such a manner that the Director can no longer ascertain the facts, the Director shall rule in favour of the other side.
See: Replay Duplicate
Mock Swedish Opening Bids
This is a opening bidding system devised in 1993 by Mr. Richard Lighton of New Jersey, United States, who was fascinated by the Muppet Show created by Mr. Jim Henson. Especially one character captured his imagination, and that was the Swedish Chef who spoke in babbled sounds and made absolutely no sense, but who was comical and chaotic at the same time.
Modern Polish Club Opening Bids
This is a variation of the Polish Club bidding system and was devised by Mr. Greg Matula of Poland. The opening of 1 Club could describe one of four different shapes and distributions, which would be clarified in the ensuing auction. This bidding system also includes a strong 1 No Trump opening, whereas the 2 No Trump opening describes a two-suited opening in both Minor suits. Weak Two openings describe distributional holdings, one of which is the suit mentioned.
Modern Standard Club Opening Bids
These opening bids are based on the Swedish Standard bidding system and is very similar to the concept behind the Precision bidding system. The visitor can obtain additional information about standard opening bids at the website of Swedish Bridge Federation or Sveriges Bridgeförbund.
Modified Astro Defense Method
This variation, or modification, of the Astro conventional defense method is used to expedite the description of a Major suit two-suiter after a strong 1 No Trump opening to show a two-suited hand. The range of the No Trump bid is limited by the range of 15-18 high card points.
Modified Cansino Defense Method
This variation is also a defense method used after the opponents have opened a 1 No Trump, especially against a weak No Trump opening with 12 to 14 high card points or even a No Trump range of 10-12 high card points. This idea is to discover, as soon as possible, a 7-card fit at least in one of the four suits, and preferably an 8-card fit.
Modified Cappelletti Defense Method
This concept is variation to the Cappelletti defense method, also known as Hamilton and Pottage, and is a defense method to an opening of No Trump by an opponent. The origin of this variation is unknown, but the reader should refer to the published article for a modified version of the original Cappelletti conventional defense method, which appeared in the Bridge Bulletin, December 1996.
Modified Crash Convention - Modified Version
The origin of the Modified Crash conventional method is unknown. This version of the Crash conventional method was employed and popular in England for many years before it became published in the United States. The version is employed in combination with the TWERB convention method, which is an acronym for Two-Way Exclusion Relay Bidding.
A variation on the original concept conceived by Mr. Marty Bergen and published by Mr. Larry Cohen.
Some partnerships have decided to alter the Ghestem system and use a Modified version or a version called Upside-Down. These versions use interchanged and reversed meanings of the original Ghestem system.
Modified Grand Slam Force
A conventional method by an unknown developer, which states that after the trump suit has either been established or strongly implied a bid of 5 No Trump, which by-passes the normal Blackwood 4 No Trump bid, enquires about the Grand Slam, not the small slam. There are various modifications of this conventional method during the evolution of the game, but the most common are as follows:
1. A bid of 6 Clubs promises none of the top three honors, whereas a bid of 6 of the agreed suit promises one of the top three honors. 2. A bid of 6 Clubs shows one of the top three honors, whereas a bid of 6 of the agreed suit promises none of the top three honors. 3. With two of the top honors the responding partner bids the Grand Slam.
Modified Michaels Cuebid
This variation is played mostly in Canada, especially around the area of Quebec and has been contributed to this website by Mr. Lyse Mercille, Mr. Pierre Gauthier and Mr. Kamel Fergami, to whom we owe our thanks for contributing this variation of the Modified Michaels Cuebid convention for presentation on this site.
The origin of this variation of the Ogust conventional method is unknown. This variation is a method of questioning the strength and location of control cards in the hand of the partner can be essential, if the responder holds sufficient values, properly located honors, and at least one entry to the to the dummy in case he becomes the declarer. Note: also known as September.
Modified Sharples Against a No Trump Opening: Version Two
This version of the defense method can be employed either in the immediate seat or in the balancing seat. The range of the No Trump opening is generally on the stronger side, but the concept can / may be adapted to confront all ranges of No Trump. This variation is dissimilar to the original concept by including a multi-purpose 2 Diamonds bid.
Modified Trap Method
The origin of this conventional defense method is unknown. It is a modified version of the Trap Defense Method and contains in addition bids on the two level to show distribution not capable of being shown by the trap defense method. As with the original concept, the modified version is a defensive bidding system employed after strong, artificial 1 Club opening bids.
Modified Wallis Against No Trump or Wallis Modified
The features behind the concept of this variation are employed after a No Trump opening by an opponent. Whether or not the concept can / should be employed in the immediate seat or as a balancing action is dependent on the partnership agreement.
The origin of this defense method is unknown. The defense method can be employed following the opening bid by the opposing side of a suit on the one level to show a two-suited holding. The evaluation of the holding is generally based on the same parameters, upon which other, similar defense methods are based. The employment is dependent upon the state of vulnerability as is the normally required length of the two suits.
Mohan Defense Against Weak No Trump Opening
Devised by and named after Mr. John A. Mohan, who is the only player to win two World Championship titles in the year 2000. He was also selected as the ACBL Player of the Year 1999. The original concept behind this defense method is the fact that it is employed by partnership agreement against Weak No Trump openings by the opponents.
The concept of the Mole Squeeze is a squeeze play on one opponent that can lead to an endplay against the other defender. Upon initiation of the Mole Squeeze a trick is lost or surrendered after the squeeze trick. The squeeze was analyzed and named by Mr. Julian Pottage of Great Britain.
Fédération Monegasque de Bridge - Bridge Federation of Monaco
Monaco Bidding System
The Monaco system was the original Relay System. It was devised by Mr. Pierre Ghestem of France around 1954, and used with Mr. Rene Bacherich in several World Championship tournaments. The main concept of the relay system is to bid in such a manner as to make the stronger hand become the declarer in the final contract. Although not officially a bidding system, this concept was a prototype of the evolving relay systems being developed, and which later found adherents within the bridge community.
Monaco Responses by Pierre Ghestem
As devised by Mr. Pierre Ghestem and Mr. Claude Delmouly of France. This response method constitutes a feature of the Monaco Bidding System, which was also devised and developed by both Mr. Pierre Ghestem and Mr. Claude Delmouly. The first responses, in general, show the number of Aces and Kings held plus strength. Via this conventional method it is also possible for the partnership to exchange information about the possession of Queens.
Monaco Responses - Variation
The origin of this variation, which employs natural responses, is unknown. They are, reportedly, generally taught and played in the country of Israel. These responses are based on the conventional method of Natural Responses, and are natural responses instead of artificial responses. This is a variation of responses based on the original concept as developed by Mr. Pierre Ghestem and Mr. Claude Delmouly of France and which they describe in their publication Le Monaco: Le bridge de demain.
A partner, or a spectator, who suggests a line of play that would have been successful after declarer has failed to fulfill the contract with a different strategy of play. Sometimes referred to as: Result Merchant or Player.
A colloquial term for a score of 500. The term is derived from the English colloquial designation in cockney slang for 500 quid, which is the basic unit of money in Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and is equal to 100 pence.
A bridge hand of enormous trick-taking capability either due to preponderance of high-card winners or due to a concentrated strength in long suits and extreme shortness in weak suits. The term also refers to a very large one-session score.
The following is a presentation of a set of outlines for No Trump responses authored by Mr. Christopher Monsour and presented in an online bridge forum discussing No Trump response methods. These overcalls to an opening bid of No Trump by the opposing side have some similarities with an alternative version of D.O.N.T. as authored by Mr. Marty Bergen and also Meckwell as authored by Mr. Jeffrey (Jeff) John Meckstroth and Mr. Eric Victor Rodwell, although the discussion is indeed tangentially about the defense overcall method Blooman authored by Mr. Irv Bloom.
is presented in an online forum discussion of Google by Mr. Christopher Monsour as accurately as possible for web presentation. The author of the Blooman Over 1 No Trump defense method, Mr. Robert Hoffman, strongly suggests that this particular version is more similar to DONT (Disturbing Opponent's No Trump) and Meckwell.
Monte Carlo Approach
In the world of software programmers, this designation is for a form of statistical analysis. This is a way of simulating a statistical process by sampling probabilities from randomly generated data. The name Monte Carlo was originally introduced by Mr. Nicholas Metropolis during the Manhattan Project, because of the similarity of statistical simulation to games of chance. Methods that utilize random numbers to perform a simulation of phenomena have many applications in various disciplines. Monte Carlo became a tool to perform the most complex simulations in natural and social sciences, financial analysis, physics of turbulence, rarefied gas and fluid simulations, high-energy physics, chemical kinetics and combustion, radiation transport problems, and photorealistic rendering. Monte Carlo methods today have very broad and extensive use in various areas of science and technology. Random number generators (RNGs) are a core part of any Monte Carlo method, having a significant impact on the overall quality and performance of Monte Carlo simulations. Libraries of RNGs can make implementing Monte Carlo simulations much easier and faster. The most important role of high-performance libraries is to provide facilities that can make writing programs simpler, substantially speed up development, and improve program efficiency in terms of performance.
This concept or conventional method arose in the bridge community, whereby the partnership could distinguish, via a particular bidding sequence, which, upon employment, would determine whether the responder has a 5-card Major suit. The concept is that only when the opening is 1 Club and the first response is 1 Diamond, then the responder does not hold a 5-card Major suit. After the concept found some popularity, Mr. Eric Kokish developed and devised a continuation of bidding, which is based on this concept. Mr. Eric Kokish published an article in the publication The Bridge World, August, 1974, Volume 45, No. 11, called The Montreal Relay.
Montreal Relay Bids - Provided by Neil H. Timm
The student of the Montreal Relay as presented in the Bridge World by Mr. Eric Kokish should also view and review the issue of BridgeNews, Volume 1, Issue 1, of November, 2006 of The Villages Duplicate Bridge Club. An article contained therein is titled Montreal Relay Bids and is provided by Mr. Neil H. Timm. This is a .pdf file and should load automatically. The Villages Duplicate Bridge Club is in central Florida and is located in District 9, Unit128, and is supported on the Internet by BridgeScore.com. Although the designation for this method is practically identical to the development of Mr. Eric Kokish, certain differences are obvious. Therefore the designation must be considered from the perspective that the two methods are not identical.
See also: the publication titled Some Issues of Intermediate Bridge and The Montreal Relay Plus System, authored and published by Mr. Al Rosenthal 1992. See at amazon.com (ASIN: B000GWYD1O).
Monty Hall Trap
A general blind spot in probability problems in which the solver attributes unwarranted significance to new information. The term alludes to the famous Monty Hall Problem which is: You are asked to choose one of three doors. Behind one door is a prize. Behind the other two doors are goats. You have one chance in three of choosing the prize. Before you choose, Monty Hall opens one door and reveals a goat. You now assume that your chances have increased from 33% to 50% of choosing the correct door. This would be true had Monty Hall opened a door at random, which is the key to the problem. Since Monty Hall always had a goat to show you, his revelation becomes meaningless, which is the trap. You still have three chances of finding the prize. To avoid the trap, you must consider information you receive as random. Using this fact as the foundation for your choice, you must ask yourself if it were equally possible for you to have learned the opposite fact.
A colloquial term for a holding with an abundance of high cards or honors. Origin unknown.
This is an abbreviation for the designation of Master of Puppet Stayman, which originated presumably with the bridge partnership of Mr. Brian McNamara and Mr. Sheumaker. See: Master of Puppet Stayman.
A trophy donated by The New York Times in memory of Mr. Albert H. Morehead, who was a longtime bridge editor for the publication. The trophy was awarded to the winners of a special knockout team event that followed the Reisinger team contest at the Fall NABC in 1967. However, since the event became unpopular among the bridge players, the event was withdrawn. Since 1973 the trophy has been awarded to the winners of the Grand National Teams. The very first winners in 1967 were: Steve Altman, Michael Becker, Charles Peres, and Daniel Rotman. The second-place winners were: Paul Deal, Noel Duvic, Frank Hoadley, Gerald Kendal, and Paul Munafo.
Morgan Two Diamonds
The origin of this opening bid is unknown. The Morgan Two Diamonds opening bid is an artificial opening bid that is forcing for one round. However, the opening bid is not game forcing. Herein lies the uniqueness of the concept that the opening bid is only one-round forcing, but never game-forcing.
A contest played in the morning, generally finishing at noon. These morning games used to be called Side Games and were strictly secondary events. These games have become a major part of the tournament event. In general, most regional and all North American tournaments feature morning Knockout Teams which run for four consecutive mornings. These are championship events awarding gold points for overalls and red points for matches won.
Moroccan Royal Bridge Federation - Fédération Royale Marocaine de Bridge
Founded in Casablanca by Mr. M. Tazi Mohamd in 1957, after independence was achieved by Morocco, succeeding the Moroccan unit of the Federation Francaise de Bridge.
The expression of this bridge-related term was allegedly first coined by some member(s) of the Stanford Bridge Club and is attributed to Mr. Ravi Romamoorthi. The definition is that the declarer runs off all the winners in his/her hand when declarer has only one loser remaining, hoping the defenders cannot figure out what the last card is. The use of the term generally implies that it should be obvious to the defenders what card to keep. (A milder term, memory squeeze, is more widely known and there is the neutral pseudosqueeze that is in common use).
This is the Swedish designation for the Carrot Club bidding system developed by Mr. Sven-Olof Flodqvist and Mr. Anders Morath in 1972.
Morris Transfer Bids
This conventional method is employed by Precision Club partnerships and was developed by Mr. Kenneth T. Morris Ph.D. in the year 1983. At the time he was serving as a Professor at Central Michigan University. Following the approval by the American Contract Bridge League for its employment at tournaments on a national level the ACBL included this conventional method into its publication The Official Encyclopedia of Bridge, Newly Revised Fourth Edition of 1984, page 287.
Morris Asking No Trump Sequence
This method also covers the possibility that the Morris Transfer Bid is to No Trump, and the corresponding responses are explained and outlined.
Morton's Fork Coup
A play maneuver by which the declarer presents a defender with a choice of either taking a trick cheaply or ducking the trick in order to preserve an honor combination with the result that both decisions cost the defense a trick. If the defender wins the trick, he sets up another high card in that suit for the declarer. If he ducks the trick, his winner is no longer valid because the declarer has a discard possibility.
Moscito and Variations
Moscito, the designation, is an acronym of Major Oriented Strong Club Including Tactical Openings. To date this concept has been the most varied and has become the most popular among bridge players.
Moscito Byte Bidding System
This bidding system was developed and devised first by Mr. Paul Marston and Mr. Stephen Burgess. The designation is an acronym of Major Oriented Strong Club. For its foundation, Mr. Paul Marston and Mr. Stephen Burgess used to a considerable extent the Symmetric Relay system and applied their version especially in auctions where the opening side has the balance of power. The concept is also a modification of the Weak Opening Systems devised by Mr. Jukasz Slawinski of Poland.
Moscito Byte by GIB
This is another variation of the Moscito bidding system devised by GIB, which is a computer bridge software program developed by Mr. Fred Gitelman. This information is presented in .pdf file format and will be opened automatically by your browser in a new window. This information has only been preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.
This variation of the Moscito System was developed by the German Moscito Team Mr. Nikolas Bausback, Mr. Jurgen Dueball, Mr. Bjorn Janson, and Mr. Rene Steiner. In Germany, the standard form for the most recognized bidding system is called Forum-D, derived from French bidding systems.
This bidding system was developed and devised first by Mr. Paul Marston and Mr. Stephen Burgess. The designation is an acronym of Major Oriented Strong Club. For its foundation, Mr. Paul Marston and Mr. Stephen Burgess used to a considerable extent the Symmetric Relay system and applied their version especially in auctions where the opening side has the balance of power.
Moscito System Summary
Compiled and authored by Mr. Richard Willey this information is presented and unaltered as it appeared on the web. The opening bids are described in detail and the continuing auction is presented with explanations. Suggestions on defense mechanisms are also offered with possible interpretations and continuances.
SCRAPE or Strong Club Relay Avoiding Passing Ever
Mr. Mark Abraham of Australia has compiled a collection of various bidding systems. This particular bidding system is a derivative, modification and/or adaptation of the Moscito System and is therefore included in this list. The system has also been archived and preserved on this Website for future reference.
Moscow Rescue Bids or Moscow Escape Bids or Moscow Runouts
The origin of this defense method is unknown. They are employed normally for partnerships, whose agreement is to open a weak No Trump with a range of 12-14 high card points. The opponents double either in direct or in balancing seat for Takeout, and via the Moscow Rescue bids the partnership can discover at a low level additional information. These rescue bids or escape bids or runouts may be altered accordingly if the partnership employs a stronger No Trump with a stronger range.
Mosher Defense Method Against No Trump Openings
This competitive defense method is also known as the Mosher Convention. This conventional defense method was devised by Mr. Robert Mosher of San Francisco, California, United States, and bears his name. This defense method is employed after an opponent has opened the auction with No Trump.
This trophy is awarded annually to the player with the best overall individual performance record in the American Contract Bridge League Spring North American Bridge Championships. It was donated by friends in memory of Mr. Geoffrey Mott-Smith in 1961, but made retroactive to 1958 to include all the winners.
Mouse Bidding System
This bidding system is devised and developed by Mr. Jochen Rich and is presented on his website. This bidding system is built on several guiding principles. First, it should allow the player to get to a good 3 No Trump game pretty quickly. 3 No Trump is probably the easiest game to make and the most often missed bid in all of bridge. Second, it puts a heavy emphasis on natural bidding, such as having 5+ length in the bid suit. Third, it tries to use opponent's bid to convey information. This bidding system is only archived and preserved on this site in .pdf file format for future reference. See also: Stich Bidding System.
To change seats in duplicate bridge after a round has been completed.
Movements - Bridge Movements - Presently Off Line
A movement is a schedule of progression for bridge players, which indicates the seat to be occupied in succession of the play. This schedule also indicates the boards and the numbers of the boards to be played by each player during each round of play. It is the obligation of the director to announce the movement to be followed before play commences. This is a compilation, summary, collection of different bridge movements in .pdf file format found on the Internet.
These are large plastic cards placed on the bridge table during a pairs event indicating the player numbers and the board numbers for each round of play, and with the movement of the players at the completion of each round. These plastic cards are available from BaronBarclay.
Movement for Individual Movements for 5, 7, 11 Tables
The individual movement is practically the only form of duplicate bridge whereby each player generally plays with every other player and not with an established or regular partner. This movement has been constructed in such a manner that each player is a so-called separate contestant. It is possible that the one-time partnership plays only one board with each partner and other times two or three boards. Four or more boards are not recommended. Since an odd number results in a prime number, odd tables are played according to the following schematic, which has proven to be mathematically the most ideal movement, which is referred to as the Rainbow Movement. Since the player participates in play at each table with a new partner each round, guide cards are generally supplied by the director in order that the player knows in advance to which table he/she must move and to occupy which compass direction. The recommended partnership agreement, since the players are not an established partnership, is the Standard American Yellow Card. In international events the sponsoring organization may establish that the most common method of bidding be employed.
All the table numbers are prime.
The following movement will not work otherwise.
The Rainbow movement accomplishes this movement:
There are 5 components: Boards, N, E, S, and W.
One component must be stationary. If the stationary is the boards, it is easier.
So from round to round, the boards remain fixed.
At the end of each round, the players use the following structure:
North: moves up one table East: moves up one table South: moves up two tables West: moves down two tables
In order to achieve a satisfactory balance, it is recommended to seed the field.
There should be an equal mixture of strengths in each direction.
Numbers: for a 7-table movement:
Norths are: 1-7 Easts are: 8-14 Souths are: 15-21 Wests are: 22-28
You can play 3-boards per round, and with North fixed, the other three players
rotate around North playing 1-board in each partnership at the table. At the end
of the round, however, allow the player to return to their starting positions as they
arrived at the table, then call the move.
This means that Easts move as East always from table to table.
A contract in which the declarers trump suit is divided 4-3. It is named for Mr. Alphonse Moyse Jr. and who fervently advocated this distribution as part of his case in favor of opening 4-card majors and raising with three trumps.
1. This is a character from the book Why You Lose at Bridge by Mr. S.J. Simon, published in 1946 and reprinted in 1996. Other characters include the Unlucky Expert, Futile Willie and Mrs. Guggenheim. The fictional character Mr. Smug is one of moderate skills, extreme overconfidence, and practical behavior at the bridge table, and therefore is a descriptive term for any such bridge player displaying similar attributes.
2. A designation or endearing term referring to the Bridge World's computer.
This is a character from the book Why You Lose at Bridge by Mr. S.J. Simon, published in 1946 and reprinted in 1996. Other characters include the Unlucky Expert, Futile Willie and Mr. Smug. The fictional character Mrs. Guggenheim is one who cannot achieve anything beyond the obvious or routine, and therefore describes any such bridge player displaying similar attributes.
A lead convention in which the original lead from three small cards is the middle one, followed by the higher card. The name stems from Middle-Up-Down, the order in which the cards are played. This particular lead applies to all suits, but possibly more so if the suit of partner is a Major suit.
Note: Although there are several agreements, the concept behind the MUD Leads is that MUD Leads do not, and need not necessarily apply to suits bid by your partner during the auction. The reason behind this understanding is that if partner has bid a suit and responder has raised, then the necessary information has already be communicated by a general margin of no more than two cards for this suit. Also the partner, again via the bidding by partner, makes safe assumptions as to the possible length in the bid suit or bid suits by partner. The continuation of or any action to complement this information via the lead therefore becomes secondary, if not unnecessary. With another, possibly preferable and more favorable lead the player can communicate additional information.
However, if the best possible lead is a lead in the suit bid by the partner, then the following guidelines are strongly suggested and recommended.
In general the concept of Middle-Up-Down leads may prove more confusing than possibly other count-showing opening leads. The attempt to communicate the most information to partner with a single card is achieved generally by more solid partnership understandings and long-time experience. The so-called standard for leading in partner's suit becomes dependent on whether or not the responder has raised the suit of partner. If the responder has raised, then the partner strongly assumes that the responder holds a minimum of three cards to satisfy the requirements of a raise.
Therefore, by all logic, when leading the highest spot card, this denies a useful honor card (face card). Conversely, the lead of the lowest spot card confirms possession of a useful honor card.
Example: Therefore, when holding 862 the guideline forces the play of the 8, which denies a useful honor card. And with the holding of K1084 the guidelines requires the play of the 4 to show the possession of a useful honor card.
Note: Partnerships, who favor the Third and Fifth Best Leads concept generally agree to lead from a 4-card suit such as K1084 the 10 (a non-useful honor card), Third Best, followed at a later trick by the 8, if and only if the trick cannot be won with the King. Other agreements take into possibility the opportunity of leading the higher of two touching spot cards such as 9852 to deny a useful honor card. Conversely, if the holding contains a useful honor card such as K1094, then the guideline strongly suggests the lower of the two spot cards or K1094.
In the case that the responder has not raised the suit of partner, then the partner, who has bid, is now defending, and whose partner is on lead, makes the assumption that the lead of the bid suit shows either a two-card suit or a three-card suit. To some degree this information may be exchanged via the lead regarding the count. If the partner leads a useful honor card from Kx, then the partner holds only two cards in the suit bid. Conversely, if the partner leads a low-ranking spot card, then this shows at least a 3-card suit, but does not necessarily deny the possession of an honor card.
Also known by the designations Muiderbergh, the Dutch Two Bids, and the Lucas Two Bids. The origin of the Muiderberg or Muiderbergh Two Bids, which is sometimes spelled differently, began in the village of Muiderbergh, The Netherlands. The village is lies in the Dutch province of North Holland. The concept was devised by Mr. Onno Janssens and Mr. Willem Beogem, who both lived in this village, and is based on Weak Two opening bids.
Note: The origin of the Lucas Two Bids is unknown and the original definition was that it represented a 5-card suit either in Diamonds, Hearts, or Spades with a second 4-card side suit in the other Major if the opening Two Bid is in either of the Major suits. The high card point range was between 6 and 10 high card points. In general, the responses follow the same pattern as the Muiderbergh Two Bids and are therefore included as being based on an identical concept.
Note: The Dutch Twos approach of bidding on the two level bid and being defined as showing a 5-card plus Major suit with a 4-card plus Minor suit and a range between 6-10 points is also known in the United Kingdom as The Woo Twos or The Woo Two Bids. This designation is for Mr. Alan Woo, who is a member of the Young Chelsea Bridge Club of London, England. Source and Source. The Lucas Two Bids approach, as described, is also not identical as the Dutch Two Bids, although they are very similar and contain only slight differences.
Muiderberg Two - Muiderberger Two - Muiderbergh Two
This is a write-up of the Muiderberg convention in Dutch. The definitions and also the explanations of the bids are included.
Muiderberg Two - Muiderberger Two - Muiderbergh Two
This is an explanation of the Muiderberg - Dutch Twos - Lucas Two Bids conventional method in Russian. This information is in a .pdf file format, which will be automatically opened by your browser.
Muiderberg Two - Muiderberger Two - Muiderbergh Two
This informative outline has been translated in English and contributed by Mr. Bart Moonen to this website in August 2003. Gratitude is expressed to Mr. Bart Moonen for his valuable contribution. A description of the conventional method of opening on the two level and the ensuing responses, plus defense against overcalls and provisions for slam attempt.
Muiderberg Two - Muiderberger Two - Muiderbergh Two
This informative outline has been translated in English and contributed by Christine Karman to this website in August 2003. Gratittude is expressed to Christine Karman for her valuable contribution. This translation provides a description of the conventional method of opening on the two level and the ensuing responses.
Defense Against Muiderberger Two - Muiderberg - Muiderbergh Defense Mechanism -
This is a write-up of the suggested defense method agains Muiderberger Weak Two bids. This explanation of the Muiderberg - Muiderbergh Two Bids Defense Mechanism in the native language of Dutch.
Defense Against Muiderberger Two - Muiderberg - Muiderbergh Defense Mechanism
This is a write-up of the suggested defense method agains Muiderberger Weak Two bids. This version has been translated in English and contributed to this website by Christine Karman in December 2003. This is the English translation of the web page in Dutch for the Muiderberg Defense Mechanism listed above.
Muiderberg By The Experts
This information constitutes a survey of several bridge experts conducted for the Bridge magazine sponsored by the Nederlandse Bridge Bond in connection with the continuances relating to the Muiderberg method. These continuances have been excerpted from this magazine and presented on the Internet. This information has only been preserved and archived in .pdf file format on this site for future reference.
Major Suit Weak Two Bids
This variation has been provided to this website by Mr. Dirk Waerenborgh of Belgium. This conventional method is a variation of the general guidelines for opening Weak Two Bids combined with the Muiderberg convention and includes a Preemptive Opening on the three level. The exception is that the Weak Two Bids are confined to only the two Major suits. This is a .pdf file format and will automatically be opened by your browser.
Multi Landy Variation Against No Trump Opening
Multi-Landy is, in essence, a combination of conventional methods such as the Landy conventional method following an opening of No Trump by an opponent, the Muiderberg convention, and the Multi 2 which can basically be made on multiple hand patterns.
This is a designation sometimes colloquially used in the game of bridge to define an action, which, simply put, means 'to do it again'. Officially it is an official term employed in the game of golf and means a golf shot not tallied against the score, granted in informal play after a poor shot especially from the tee.
Origin is vague and several attempts have been made to explain, however unsatisfactory, how the term originated. Following is one of these versions:
There are many theories about the origin of the term. The United States Golf Association (USGA) cites three different stories explaining that the term derived from the name of a Canadian golfer, David Mulligan, one time manager of the Waldorf Astoria Hotel in New York City, who played at St. Lambert in Montreal during the 1920s. One version has it that one day after hitting a poor tee shot, Mr. Mulligan re-teed and shot again. He called it a 'correction shot,' but his friends thought it more fitting to name the practice after him. David Mulligan then brought the concept from Canada to the famous U.S. golf club Winged Foot. A second version has the extra shot given to Mulligan due to his being jumpy and shaky after a difficult drive to the course. The final version of the David Mulligan story gives him an extra shot after having overslept, rushing to get ready to make the tee time.
This designation is also applied in the game of bridge to some extent. It is generally applied to an action by newcomers, novices, and beginners, who are not versed in the Laws of Duplicate Contract Bridge. Whenever such a bridge player makes a bid, and then decides to change this bid, as allowed by the Laws of Duplicate Contract Bridge, the question arises as to when such a bridge player be allowed to change a bid according to Section Two, Changes of Calls, Law 25A and Law 25B. However, such an action and the consequences are not limited to only inexperienced bridge players.
Multi Landy Against No Trump Openings
This is a concept employed as a defense mechanism against an opening bid of No Trump by an opponent. This concept was devised by Mr. Alvin Landy. This web page also contains several variations of the original concept, which are employed according to the partnership agreement and is generally based on the employed bidding system.
Multi 1 No Trump or Multi 1 NT
This version of the Multi 1 No Trump has been compiled by Mr. Kerry Kappell. This is a .pdf file format and, depending on your browser, will be automatically download to your computer and opened with Adobe Acrobat or opened automatically by your browser.
Multi Two Diamonds - Multi 2 Diamonds
The Multi 2 Diamonds opening was devised in the 1960s by Mr. Terence Reese and Mr. Jeremy Flint, assisted by fellow bridge partners Mr. Robert Sheehan, Mr. Jonathan Cansino, and Mr. Irving Rose. The concept behind this opening is to make the interference by the opponents difficult and to obstruct their line of communication by an opening on the two level.
Multi Two Diamonds - Multi 2 Diamonds
This variation is by Mr. Barry Rigal and Mr. Chris Ryall of England.
Defense Method to Multi 2 Diamonds Opening
This method of defense against a 2 Diamonds opening by the opponents, employing the Multi 2 Diamonds convention, was devised by Mr. Danny Kleinman, a bridge expert player, who together with Mr. Eddie Kantar devised the Kantar Kleinman Slam Force. This online published defense method includes two options for the bridge player.
Also included are two Versions of defense methods against the employment of Multi 2 Diamonds. The authors are unknown and any additional information would be greatly appreciated.
This version of a possible defense method was devised by Mr. Danny Kleinman.
The origin of this defense method is unknown.
The Liberty defense method versus the Multi offensive method is employed when the opponents opening bid has multiple weak possibilities with no known suit. This defense method is designed to increase the possibility of penalties while also providing, at the same time, some blocking bids.
Multi Two No Trump Response
This conventional method was originated by Mr. Ronald Denny Klinger, better known as Mr. Ron Klinger of Australia. The publication of this response method first appeared in the magazine The Bridge World, June 1999.
This conventional variant was devised and developed by Kitty Cooper, whose maiden surname is Munson. This is a conventional redouble used in competitive auctions after an immediate intervening overcall of a double, and which is a variation of the Rosenkranz Redouble. The redouble promises shortage, one or two cards, which also includes the honors of either the Ace or King. Following a Munson Redouble, the spot-card lead of the overcaller in his overcalled suit is suit preference for the side suit to shift to. In both cases the reasoning is that a better hand for the bid suit should raise the level of the auction to make things difficult for the opponents. See: Rosenkranz Double.
The Munson Redouble applies also over partner's non-preemptive overcall and the opponent's subsequent non-penalty double. For example the following auction shows the Munson Redouble correctly executed:
South Intervenor North Advancer Meaning 1 1 Double Normally a Negative Double. Redouble Munson Redouble.
This is a concept devised by Mr. Bill Jacobs and published in the Victorian Bridge Association Bulletin in April 2009. The heading is: System Corner: Puppet In Puppet. This conventional treatment serves to find a particular distribution in both Major suits following a 2 No Trump opening bid by partner. This information has also only been preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.
Note: Several variations have been conceived and it would be prudent for the bridge student to search online for other modifications or versions. One modification, which is an individual partnership agreement, is that the concept can also be employed following a 1 No Trump opening, which would show fewer than game values if necessary.
A comical, whimsical designation for the phrase: "When the contract looks like a disaster, then it is better if the partner is playing the contract". The origin is unknown.
Mutos or MUlti and Transfer Oriented System
This is the designation for MUlti en Transfer geOrienteerd Systeem, or MUlti and Transfer Oriented System, authored by Mr. Eugeen Vannuten and published in English. This information has only been preserved and archive on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.
If anything can go wrong .... it will. This adage seems to be applicable to many actions in the game of bridge. The bridge players around the world have experienced first-hand actions, which seem inexplicable, remain unexplained, are are simply not to be believed. The attempt has been made to collect these coined phrases for the enjoyment of our visitors.
Murray, Eric Rutherford Trophy
The Eric R. Murray trophy is awarded to the team representing Canada in the Open Teams at the World Olympiad. It was first awarded in 1968.
1960 N. M. Burns, NPC; Eric Murray, Sami Kehela, Percy Sheardown, C.B. Elliott, Harry Bork, Bruce Gowdy 1964 A. Lando, NPC; Ralph Cohen, R. Forbes, Am Gold, Jack Howell, Sami Kehela, Eric Murray 1968 A. Lando, NPC; Eric Murray, Sammy Kehela, Bruce Elliot, Percy Sheardown, Gerald Charney, William Crissey 1972 A. Lando, NPC; Gerry Charney, Bill Crissey, Bruce Gowdy, Sami Kehela, Eric Murray, Duncan Phillips 1976 W. Lebovic, NPC; Bruce Gowdy, Karen Allison, Franco Bandoni, Don Cowan, Eric Murray, Sami Kehela 1980 G. Charney, NPC; Allan Graves, Sami Kehela, Eric Kokish, George Mittelman, Eric Murray, Peter Nagy 1984 Stephen Aarons, NPC; John Guoba, George Mittelman, Allan Graves, Mark Molson, Boris Baran, John Carruthers 1988 Marc Stein, NPC; Boris Baran, John Carruthers, John Guoba, Sami Kehela, Mark Molson, Eric Murray 1992 George Mittelman, NPC; Ed Bridson, David Lindop, Geoff Hampson, John Gowdy, Mark Molson, Boris Baran 1996 John Gowdy, NPC; Joseph Silver, Eric Kokish, Mark Molson, Boris Baran, Fred Gitelman, George Mittelman 2000 Martin Kirr, NPC; Robert Lebi, Nader Hanna, Drew Cannell, John Carruthers, Eric Kokish, George Mittelman 2004 Paul Thurston, NPC; Ray Jotcham, Lewis Richardson, James Prieve, Stephen Mackay, David Lindop, Michael Cummings
Murray, Eric R. Interview
This is an audio version of an interview with Eric Rutherford Murray and Mr. Sami Kehela conducted in 2001. This interview is only archived and preserved on this site for future reference. The circumstances surrounding the interview, the name of the person conducting the interview, and the origin of this interview are unknown. Any and all information would be greatly appreciated. The interview has a duration of about seven minutes. For additional tapes of interviews the student of bridge can review the work of Sheila Rabinovitch, whose collection is preserved by the University of Manitoba: http://umanitoba.ca/libraries/units/archives/collections/complete_holdings/ead/html/rabinovitch.shtml. A list of these interviews follow. The Bridge Guys have no access to these tapes and/or audiocasts.
Bridge Playing - Sam Kahela
Bridge Playing - Eric Murray
Bridge Playing - Diana Gordon
Bridge Playing - Ruby Warlick
Bridge Playing - Igor Kuszsyn
Bridge Playing - Ralph Cohen
Bridge Playing - Anthony Ching
Bridge - An Obsession - Mind Games - Body Games
22a Kahela[?], Sam 7" (1)
22b Murray, Eric 7" (1)
22c Gordon, Diana 7" (1)
22d Warlick, Ruby 7" (1)
22e Kuszsyn[?], Igor 7" (1)
22f Cohen, Ralph 7" (1)
22g Hong Kong 7" (1)
Murray Two Diamonds - Murray 2 Diamonds
The Murray Two Diamonds convention was devised by Mr. Eric Rutherford Murray and is similar to the Two Way Stayman concept. After one partner opens the auction with 1 No Trump, the partner, with a holding such as the following, must bid 2 Diamonds.
Myxomatosis Two Bids
This system of Weak Two bids, or bids beginning on the two level, with optional and various features was devised and developed by Mr. Robert Sebesfi (aka: Bob Sebesfi) of Sydney Australia.
Myxomatosis Two Bids Variation
A variation of the fundamental concept was devised by Mr. Sean Bentley and Mr. Yiannis John Sfinias, and is included on the identical web page.
Myxomatosis Two Bids Variation
An alternative variation of the fundamental concept was devised by Mr. Tony Rolfe of Australia, and is included on the identical web page.
Myxomatosis Two Bids Variation
An alternative variation of the fundamental concept was devised by Mr. Paul Soloway, although this cannot be positively substantiated. Any contribution of additional information would be greatly appreciated.
Myxomatosis Two Bids
This system of Weak Two bids, or bids beginning on the two level, with optional and various features was devised and developed by Mr. Robert Sebesfi. The noun describes a disease which kills rabbits.
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