Sabourin, David - (David Sabourin)
At the age of fourteen years, 0 months and 11 days Mr. David Sabourin became the youngest Life Master in the country of Canada. This title was earned at the Summer North American Bridge Championship games conducted in the city of Chicago, Illinois, United States, between the dates of July 23 and August 2, 1998. The achievement was announced in the Daily Bulletin, dated Wednesday, July 29, 1998, Vol. 70, No. 6. The previous record holder was Mr. Gavin Wolpert of Toronto, Canada, who was 14 years, six months and 19 days when he earned his gold card.

Note: The visitor can also review a short summary of the announcement made in the Daily Bulletin, which has been archived and preserved on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.

Sack
Slang: to sacrifice.

Sacrifice
To deliberately bid above one's trick-taking potential in the hope of losing fewer points than if the opponents were allowed to play and make their contract.

Sætre, Jan Einar and Skoglund, Tore System Declaration
In this System Declaration of these two bridge players from Norway, they have established guidelines, by which their partnership understanding has been established. This information is only preserved and archived here. Attention has been carefully given to the format of this System Declaration, which is in English, and nothing has been added or substracted. This is a .pdf file format, and, depending on your browser, will be automatically downloaded to your computer and automatically opened with Adobe Acrobat or opened automatically by your browser without being downloaded.

Safety Level
This is the maximum level which a partnership can reasonably reach without any risk in order to explore the possibility of a higher contract, game, slam, or even to compete against the bidding of the opponents.

Safety Play
The best line of strategy by the declarer to make the contract, or to reduce the risk of a defeat, disregarding extra tricks that might be made in some other way. A safety play refers normally to a specific suit and the management thereof, in order to win the most tricks possible in that suit by respecting and recognizing the possible unfavorable split held by the opponents.

Saffle System - Säfflespader
The Saffle Spade system, or the Säfflespader, as it is known in Sweden, is a strong pass system developed, devised, and published by Mr. Einar Bergh and Mr. Pontus Svinhufvud. This system was devised in the year 1980 as both developers were living in Säffle, Sweden

Sahara Convention
The origin of this conventional method is unknown. The purpose of this approach is as a means of competing in the auction following a 1 No Trump opening by an opponent. The intervenor is able to communicate pattern descriptions to partner regarding a one-suited holding, two-suited holdings, and three-suited holdings.

Saint Mandé
In the Acol bidding system, especially the Benjamin Opening Bids on the two level, a 2 Clubs opening promises a range of 20-23 points and a long unspecified suit or 22-23 plus points and a balanced distribution. If the long, strong suit is actually the Club suit, then the player, by partnership agreement, can employ the bid of 3 Clubs to show this specified suit, and which has earned the nickname of 3 Clubs Saint Mande. The source of or the reason for this designation is unknown. However, Saint-Mandé is an administrative division in France, located in the department of the Valley-of-Marne and the area Island-of-France. Its inhabitants are called Saint-Mandéens. V:3-1017.

Sanction
This term refers to the permission given by the ACBL to a Club, a Unit or a District to hold a duplicate bridge event within the ACBL governed areas and to award masterpoints.

Sandbag
Slang: to pass with strong values, hoping to trap the opponents or to reenter into the bidding later in the auction.

Sandwich No Trump
The origin of this conventional method is unknown, but is closely aligned and related to the conventional methods of Michaels Cuebid and Unusual No Trump in that the defense method also communicates to partner a particular distribution.

Sandwich Overcall
This is a term used mainly in Europe to describe an overcall and/or bid made in the fourth position after both opponents have bid. This sandwich bid may prove disadvantageous in the sense that the overcall and/or bid must be interpreted according to the partnership understanding, which would allow for several interpretations of the overcall and/or bid.

Sandwich Defense or Surrounding Play
A group of defensive suit combination plays calling for the play of the second-highest card from particular broken holdings.

San Francisco Convention
This is a 4 No Trump convention, which is sometimes referred to as the Warren Convention. It was used by many bridge players when the game of bridge was evolving and it is, to some degree, very similar to the concept of the Culbertson Four-Five No Trump convention. The origin of the designation of the convention is unknown. The 4 No Trump opener is required to hold at least two Aces before being able to make this opening.

San Marino Bridge League - Sammarinese Bridge
The Bridge Federation of San Marino

Contact Address
c/o Fiorenzo Fiorini
Via G. Giacomoni 73
I-47031 San Marino
San Marino (RSM)
Telephone: 378-992 114
Facsimile: 378-990 434

Sans Atout
French for No Trump

Sans Atout Comique
Devised by Mr. Nico Gardener, London. As a defense mechanism, a 1 No Trump overcall can be very effective. It is definitely obstructive. However, the Gardener No Trump overcall has two interpretations, one of which signifies a weak holding with a long suit. If the overcall is always weak, the French refer to it as the Sans Atout Comique.

Santa Fe Canapé
Written by Mr. Bill Isham and Mr. Paul Lanier.

Sarjeant
The origin of this conventional method is unknown. We have no information regarding the continuances regarding rebids after an opening of one of a suit. If any visitor is able to supply us with additional information, we would greatly appreciate the information. See: Orange Book 2002.

Saturated Squeeze
The origin of this particular squeeze postion is unknown. This is a squeeze similar to the hexagonal squeeze, but all four suits are, or become involved in the play, with each opponent singly holding length guards in two suits, and then the two other suits are shared. See article by Mr. Don Kersey in The Bridge World magazine of August 2003.

Saudi Arabian Bridge Federation
Contact Address
Box 5660
31311 Dhahran
Saudi Arabia
Telephone: 966-3-874 3617
Facsimile: 966-3-878 4783

Save
Slang: to sacrifice.

SAYC or Standard American Yellow Card
An acronym for Standard American Yellow Card, which is a bidding system defined by the current set of listings on a form of convention card identified by its color. Clicking on the following .pdf file formats will, depending on your browser, cause the file to be automatically downloaded to your computer and automatically opened with Adobe Acrobat or be automatically opened by your browser.

For a Picture of the Front and Reverse Side of the SAYC Card, click on: Standard American Yellow Card.

SAYC - Version 2006 by ACBL. This is a .pdf file, which has also been archived and preserved on this site for future reference.

SAYC - Version 1988 by ACBL. This is a .pdf file, which has also been archived and preserved on this site for future reference.

SAYC Simplified
October 2001. This format, explaining the Standard American Yellow Card was originally developed as ACBL Standard Yellow Card. Expanded by Mark London. Further Simplified and Expanded by Wayne Flournoy and Anna Marsh. This is a .pdf file format. This .pdf file will, depending on your browser, be automatically downloaded to your computer and opened with Adobe Acrobat or automatically be opened by your browser.

SAYC OKBridge-Style Simplified - Part 1
July 2002. Revised and Simplified by Wayne Flournoy and Anna Marsh. The original Internet URL is located at: http://www.annam.co.uk/sayc01.htm. This is a .pdf file format. This .pdf file will, depending on your browser, be automatically downloaded to your computer and opened with Adobe Acrobat or automatically be opened by your browser.

SAYC OKBridge-Style Simplified - Part 2
March 2003. Conventions used with SAYC, but mainly with 2/1. The original Internet URL is located at: http://www.annam.co.uk/sayc02.htm. This is a .pdf file format. This .pdf file will, depending on your browser, be automatically downloaded to your computer and opened with Adobe Acrobat or automatically be opened by your browser.

SAYC - Short Summary
This is a short summary of the Standard American Yellow Card written for the Internet by Jukka K. Korpela. This is a .pdf file format. This .pdf file will, depending on your browser, be automatically downloaded to your computer and opened with Adobe Acrobat or automatically be opened by your browser.

SBU
Abbreviation for the Scottish Bridge Union, which is the governing body for duplicate bridge in Scottland,

Scanian Signals
Definition contributed by Mr. Stephen Tu. A defense signal mechanism devised by Mr. Anders Wirgren, and which uses standard or upside-down attitude signals depending on the situation, in an attempt to retain the advantages of each while not taking on the disadvantages. Standard signals fail when a clear signal might waste a critical spot card. Upside-down signals fail when a clear signal might block a suit. The basic principle of Scanian signals is to use upside-down signals when the dummy contains a card which can be finessed, or when it is presumed that the signaling player is long in the suit and declarer short, or when discarding. Standard signals are used otherwise. Several examples are illustrated below.

 
J742
 
AK105
 
Q83
 
96
 
  The object is to use normal signals unless the dummy contains a card, which can be finessed. Once the Ace or King is lead, East signals "upside-down" with the 3. West will then lead the 10.
     
 
AJ
 
873
 
KQ104
 
9652
 
  Lead is the 8, or top of nothing, and the dummy plays A. To signal encouragingly in third seat, the play of the 4 is necessary.
     
 
6
 
KQ954
 
A102
 
J873
 
  The contract is No Trump and the lead is K. The Scanian signals in this example are standard and the 10 is played, which simultaneously encourages and unblocks. If the upside-down carding were used, then either the suit would be blocked or the 10 may be interpreted as discouraging.

SCBA
See: Singapore Contract Bridge Association

Schenken System or Schenken Club or
Shenken System or Shenken Club
An artificial 1 Club system devised by Mr. Howard Schenken.

Schizo Club Opening Bids
These opening bids are based on the Precision and Symmetric Relay bids and were devised by Mr. Steve Starkey of Pecs, Hungary. The main feature of this method is that most opening bids show various distributional holdings, different possible value ranges and definite card length in at least one suit. The special feature of the Forcing Pass is to be noted, since it communicates information to the partner.

School Instant Matchpoint Game
Each spring, the ACBL sponsors such an event for students under the age of 20 years old in schools throughout North America. All schools are eligible to participate and to compete. The highest scoring North-South and also East-West pair each receive a $500 scholarship provided by the ACBL Educational Foundation.

Schroeder Squeeze
This is a triple trump squeeze without the count in a three-card position.

Schwab Cup
This cup is for the World Pairs Championship which was first contested in Cannes, France, in 1962. It was presented by Mr. Charles M. Schwab in 1933 for the contest between the United States and England. The cup was redonated to the World Bridge Federation by the heirs of Mr. Ely Culbertson.

Science, The - The Science: Simply Scientific Four-Card Majors
This bidding system originated with the members of the Cambridge University Bridge Club, and is listed as one of the Articles on their website. Mr. Tom Townsend was one of the members and possibly co-devised by him and other members. This information can be found on the website of the Cambridge University Bridge Club, but it has also been archived and preserved on this site in .pdf file format for future reference. The bridge student should review the original website for any and all changes and updates.

Science Opening Bids - The Science: Simply Scientific Four-Card Majors
These opening bids gained a certain popularity among bridge players on the Cambridge University Bridge Club. They were first devised by Mr. Tom Townsend. Additional information can be viewed at the website of the Cambridge University Bridge Club. This information has only been preserved and archived on this site in a in a .pdf file format for future reference.

Scientific
A style of bidding in which the partners attempt to clarify their hands as accurately as possible.

Scissors Coup
This is a loser-on-loser play intended to deny an entry and/or to interrupt the line of communication of the opponents to each other. Generally applied with the intention of preventing a ruff. Also referred to as The Coup Without a Name.

Score
1. the number of game or premium points earned as a result of bidding and play of the hand;
2. to record the score, which can be different according to the type of bridge is being played. The scoring is/can be different if the game is rubber bridge, Chicago, or tournament bridge;
3. to take a trick with as in score the Queen of Spades.

Scorecard
As a point of reference and/or clarification of terms a scorecard is a personal sheet of paper used at bridge events and bridge tournaments, which is commonly referred to as the Convention Card since space is included on the back side for personal data entry. If the game is party or progressive bridge, then this scorecard is referred to as a tally.

Score Card for All Possible Duplicate Contracts
This web page presents all possible bridge contracts including overtricks and, in the case of defeating the contract, also the bonus points for the opposing side.

Score Sheet
In club games, the score sheet is the summary sheet on which the masterpoints won by a pair or partnership are entered. In tournaments, the score sheet is generally referred to as the recapitulation sheet which contains the posted scores. Since the introduction of the computer, these score sheets have become less popular.

Scoreslip
This is the printed form on which the results of a round of duplicate play are entered. These are then collected by the caddies for the director, who enters the scores either manually or in the computer.

Scoring
This is the act of tallying the results of a game or an event.

Scoring Across the Field
A method of scoring a multi-section Matchpoint Event designed to prevent inequitable score comparisons when the results in one section are at extreme variance with the results in other sections. The score on each board is matchpointed not just against other contestants in the same section, but against the contestants in all sections playing in the same direction.

Scoring Corrections
Any correcting of the scores are provided for in the regulations concerning tournament bridge as set forth by the ACBL. These regulations for scoring corrections underwent drastical changes during the year 1994, and are explained in Law 79C.

LAW 79 - TRICKS WON

C.  Error in Score

An error in computing or tabulating the agreed-upon score, whether made by a player or scorer, may be corrected until the expiration of the period specified by the sponsoring organisation. Unless the sponsoring organisation specifies a later time, this correction period expires 30 minutes after the official score has been made available for inspection.

Scoring Duplicate Bridge
The scoring of Duplicate Bridge can be different depending on the bridge event. The mathematical calculations, however, remain universal.

Scoring Programs
Ever since the computer has become a household product, a digital devise by which the owner can communicate with the external world, so long have bridge players been tinkering with, experimenting with, and developing means and ways to not only compute bridge results and scores, but also how to bring the bridge-related material and information to the individual bridge player.

Scorpion, U.S.S. Scorpion Gunboat
This is a description of an incident from the year 1917, which took place in the harbor of Constantinople, Turkey, and which was decided based on a challenge to a card game with the Turkish Interior Minister Talat Pasha and Captain Herbert Babbitt, affectionately named Four No Trump Babbitt.

Scorrchio Convention
During the many years of Mr. Eric O. Kokish, as a bridge instructor and bridge teacher, he has also theorized on many methods to be employed at the bridge table. In this regard he has made many notes on possible approaches for competing in the auctions, in which the opposing side has the advantage of first opening the auction. One of these notes found great interest in Sydney, Australia, and became known as Scorrchio, which is a defense method against a No Trump opening by the opposing side. The concept is reported to have been a common agreement among several Australian bridge players and has found its way into the list of defense methods to No Trump openings.

Scottish Bridge Union

Purpose: The purpose of the Union shall be the development and control of Duplicate Bridge in Scotland.

Government: Government of the Union shall be vested in the Council, subject to directives from a General Meeting of the Union resulting from motions properly notified to the Secretary.

Geographical Districts: The Union shall be divided into seven geographical Districts, namely:

1. Ayrshire District shall be North Ayrshire, South Ayrshire, East Ayrshire and Wigtownshire.

2. Central District shall be Perthshire and Kinross, Angus, City of Dundee and Fife (excluding South Fife).

3. East District shall be South Fife, City of Edinburgh, West Lothian, Midlothian, East Lothian, Clackmannan, Falkirk and Borders.

4. Highland District shall be Highland, Moray, Orkney and the Western Isles.

5. North District shall be Aberdeenshire, City of Aberdeen and Shetland.

6. South District shall be Dumfries and Galloway (excluding Wigtownshire).

7. West District shall be Stirling, Argyll and Bute, Dumbarton and Clydebank, East Dunbartonshire, North and South Lanarkshire, City of Glasgow, East Renfrewshire, Renfrewshire and Inverclyde.

8. A Club will normally be affiliated to the District containing its geographical location as defined above, but in special circumstances a Club may apply for affiliation or transfer to another District which may be more convenient to it.

Scramble
1. to run to a new contract;
2. to take tricks without attempting to retain control of trumps.

Scrambled Mitchell Movement
This movement is a modification of the Mitchell Movement and used when it is desired to produce one winning pair. The pairs play some boards as North-South and the remaining pairs play East-West. This is done by switching the arrows pointing North so that they point to the original East simultaneously at the end of designated rounds.

Scrambling
1. to maneuver into an acceptable contract when the opponent's intention is to acquire a better score on a low-level penalty;
2. to attempt to score additional trump tricks by ruffing in the long trump hand with trumps that would otherwise by losers.

SCRAPE or Strong Club Relay Avoiding Passing Ever
This collection of various bidding systems has been compiled, authored, and posted to the web by Mr. Mark Abraham of Australia. His web pages provides links to the various bridge bidding systems and a personal list of artificial and/or transfer-based symmetric relay systems. The SCRAPE bidding system, formerly known as the Strong Club Relay, Opening Transfers Emphasising Majors, is to be found by clicking on the link above, which will transfer the interested reader to the web pages of Mr. Mark Abraham. These web pages have been archived only on this site for reference and preservation. These archived files are in .pdf file format and will be automatically opened by your browser.

Included on the website of Mr. Mark Abraham are:
Notes on T-Rex   SCRAPE - Preliminaries
CATOMULT   SCRAPE - Relay Structure
REGRESsion   SCRAPE - After Negative Responses to 1 Club
Transfer-Oriented Symmetric Relay or TOSR   SCRAPE - Very Strong Relays
Relay Precision   SCRAPE - Alternate 1 Club-1 Diamond Artificial Game Force
Suspensor Forcing Pass   SCRAPE - Major Suit Openings
    SCRAPE - Minor Suit Openings
    SCRAPE - 1 No Trump Opening
    SCRAPE - Weak Two-Level Openings
    SCRAPE - Other Agreements
    SCRAPE - Puppet Stayman

Scratch
Slang: to place high enough in a section or overall standings to earn masterpoints. Generally applied to pairs play.

SCREAM or Strong Club Relay Excessively Accentuating Majors
Presented on the Internet by Mr. Mark Abraham at the above link. This strong club system is the latest in the SCRAPE family. It features a strong Club with variable-captaincy relays for positive responses that ensure an unbalanced hand shows shape opposite a balanced hand whenever this occurs. The 1 and 1 opening are transfer-style, eaching show the next higher-ranking suit. Both of these deny the other Major (a sound tactical idea) and the 1 opening caters for those hands that have both Majors. The 1NT opening is approximately a weak notrump, but includes the 5-4 minor two-suited hands. Long-Minor hands are opened with 2 and 2. Enhanced relay structures are found throughout, improving right-siding of contracts. Relayer has the option to ask for AKQ, AK or A controls after full shape resolution, and after an AKQ-showing response, the new King Parity technique developed by Mr. David Morgan is used to improve denial cue-bidding effectiveness. Competitive bidding agreements are treated in detail. This .pdf file has also only been archived on this site for future reference.

Screen
A divider that prevents a player from seeing his partner. As a result of this screen, each player can see only one opponent. Screens were first used by the ACBL for the Vanderbilt Knockout Teams in 1974 and proved to be practical and popular to some degree, because the result was that there were almost no complaints regarding secret signals, etc.

Screen-Mate
The term for the opponent on the same side of the screen, when screens are used during the event.

SCUM Against No Trump Openings
The origin of this conventional method is unknown. The original concept appeared gradually some time in the 1970s, but the origin is also unknown as is the precise bidding outline for the original version. This defense method considers the Shape, Color, and the Major suit. The letter u seems to have been added in order to make a pronounceable designation and has no meaning.

Seat
The position a bridge player occupies at the bridge table, designated by North, East, South, or West. North and South are partners and East and West are partners and each partnership is the opponent of the other partnership.

Seating Assignments
At duplicate tournaments, the entries sold to the players carry a section designation, a table number, and a direction, and are referred to as seating assignments.

Sebesfi-Woods-1-Notrump-Escape
See: Swine, which is a feature of ACOL.

Secondary
1. describing a call made at a player's second turn to call or second opportunity to act;
2. describing honors or high-card strength, lower than the strongest values but still potentially useful;
3. describing a second-round control;
4. describing support, but less than primary; sometimes, the length just below primary.

Second Game
The second game of a rubber. Two games are necessary to win a rubber.

Second Guesser
The result player.

Second Hand
1. the player who is second to have the opportunity to bid or the player at the dealer's left;
2. the player second to play to a trick.

Second Hand Low
A general but established principle of card play, originating in the days of Whist.

Second Negative Response After Artificial Forcing Opening
A rebid by a responder who has made a negative response to his partner’s strong artificial opening bid that shows a hand worth about 0 to 3 points.

Secondary Honors
The lower honors or the Queens and Jacks. The King can be considered a secondary honor if not headed by the Ace.

Secondary Squeeze
A squeeze in which the squeeze card is followed by the loss of one or more tricks to the opponents. It is also called a Strip-Squeeze and Squeeze Without The Count.

Secondary Values
Queens and Jacks, which are also called Soft Values.

Section
A group of contestants who constitute a self-contained unit in the competition in one event for one session of a tournament.

Sectional
A group of contestants who constitute a self-contained unit in the competition in one event for one session of a tournament. This is an ACBL tournament run by a unit or by a club to which the unit has been given the authority to run the tournament. Silver points are awarded an all events of a sectional.

Section Markers
These are signs at tournaments indicating the location of each group of tables forming a section.

Sectional Master
a member who has at least 50 but fewer than 100 masterpoints recorded by ACBL, of which 5 must be silver.

Sectional Player of the Year
The annual Sectional Player of the Year race is won by the player who earns the most masterpoints at sectional tournaments.

Sectional Tournaments
Units are the sponsors of sectional tournaments, which generally last from three to five days. Units are allowed to conduct several special kinds of sectionals each year known as IN sectionals, or Intermediate Newcomer sectionals, and STaCs. The masterpoints awarded at sectional tournaments are silver points.

ACBL organized its inaugural Sectional-at-Sea cruise aboard the Costa Fortuna. The event is designated officially as the Inaugural ACBL Non-Champion Silver Point Sectional. Marilyn Blair, the ACBL Bridge Cruise Director, Wilson Day, the ACBL Tournament Director (Manager at the Naples Bridge Center in Florida, United States), and Fabienne Willcox, ACBL Cruise Lecturer-Director will be hosting this bridge event at sea. The date of the cruise is from January r, 2009 to January 11, 2009, and leaves from Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, and returns to Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, United States, after sailing to Key West, Florida, Grand Cayman of the Cayman Islands, Roatan, Honduras, and Cozumel, Mexico.

Summary of Costa Crociere as of 2008: Costa Crociere S.p.A. is an Italian company based in Genoa. The brands Costa Crociere, AIDA Cruises and Iberocruceros belong to Costa Crociere S.p.A. and include a total of 20 ships in active service and 9 on order. The ships currently in service fly the Italian flag and operate in the Mediterranean, Northern Europe, the Baltic Sea, the Caribbean, Central America, South America, the United Arab Emirates, the Far East and the Indian Ocean. Costa Crociere S.p.A. is part of Carnival Corporation & plc, world leader in the cruise industry, and is a member of the prestigious World's Leading Cruise Lines, an association of the world's most important cruise companies.

Security Level
A phrase to describe the bidding height to which it is presumed that the partnership can bid without significant risk, even with no additional values beond those already promised by the earlier bidding. For example: If North opens 1 Heart and South offers a game-forcing raise, the North-South security level at that point is four Hearts.

Seed or Seeding
To seed is to assign certain bridge tables to especially strong contestants when entries are sold in order to insure that there will no imbalance due to strong pairs in direct competition within one section. In pair events, these tables are normally 3 and 9; at national tournaments the tables are normally 3, 6, and 9; at board-a-match events these tables are normally adjacent to one another such as 1 and 2, 9 and 10, etc.

Seeded
1. The act of being selected in a seeding procedure;
2. The result of being rated higher than the current opponent.

Seesaw Squeeze
See: Entry Shifting Squeeze

Semi-Balanced Hand
A hand with suit distribution of 5-4-2-2 or 6-3-2-2.

Semi-Artificial Raises
These are limit raises devised by Mr. Thomas Ahmann and Mr. Thomas Ahmann, Jr. This approach is presented in a .pdf file format, which will be automatically opened by your browser. This presentation has been contributed by the authors, to whom we owe our gratitude for sharing this information. The authors are also published in The Bridge Wolrd, November issue, page 21, 2004, and this approach is only archived and preserved on this site for future reference.

Semifinal
1. the round of four or six in a knockout team tournament;
2. in a pair, team, or an individual tournament, the round immediately following the qualifying round and immediately preceding the final round.

Semi-Forcing
A term to describe a wide point range, including hands of game-invitational strength, over which opener will rebid as over a forcing 1 No Trump response, but not including game-going hands, so that opener is permitted to pass.

Semi-Psychic
A term to describe a departure from normal bidding methods which are, however, not entirely deceiving, but designed to confuse the opponents. Refers to an opening bid two points or more below minimum values required for an opening bid.

Semi-Solid
Pertaining to a suit with approximately one additional loser compared to a solid suit. The suit is likely to have one loser without any contribution from partner.

Sender Award
The Precision Award was donated by C.C. Wei and after his death continued to be donated by his widow, Kathie Wei, presently Kathie Wei-Sender. It is awarded by the International Bridge Press Association for the Best Article or Series on a System or Convention. The Precision Award was renamed in the year 1985 to the Sender Award and was presented to honor the best Defensive Play of the Year. Kathie Wei-Sender renamed the award in honor of her husband, Mr. Henry Sender of Nashville, Tennessee.

Send It Back
Slang: to redouble.

Senior
A bridge player over 55 years of age.

Senior Pairs
The ACBL-wide Senior Pairs is a special event held at clubs every year in February.

Senior Player of the Year
The Senior Player of the Year contests recognizes the player 55 or older who wins the most points each year in the ACBL. These Senior Tournaments were begun in Sun City, Florida, in 1977 and became very popular. The player receives The George Burns Trophy.

September
A variant of the Ogust Convention as developed by Mr. Jeff Goldsmith. See Modified Ogust.

Sequence
1. all calls made in an auction;
2. an auction;
3. two or more cards of consecutive order.

Sequence Discards
This designation is otherwise known as Informative Discard From a Sequence. The origin of this discarding method is unknown, although there is a strong argument that the method has been adopted from developments practiced in the early days of the game of Whist and integrated into the game of bridge at an early stage of the evolution of duplicate bridge.

Sequence Re-Entry
A method of suit preference signal. After leading a King against a No Trump contract from a holding of the King-Queen-Jack, the defender can follow with the Queen or the Jack at his choice, in order to suggest a reentry in a high-ranking or low-ranking suit.

Seres Squeeze
Although this combination is quite rare, it is a triple squeeze in a three card ending, which means that the squeeze begins with trick 10. It was first described by Mr. Tim Seres in 1965.

Serious
A term to indicate that a situation is strongly suggestive or invitational, as a serious slam-try as opposed to a mild slam-try or mere indication of willingness to cooperate in an investigation.

Serious 3 No Trump
A slam bidding method which was conceived of by Mr. Eric Rodwell. After an 8-card Major suit fit has been established below 3 No Trump, a bid of 3 No Trump is a serious slam invitation, and therefore forcing. Certain partnerships play that the 3 No Trump bid is a serious and strong slam try to which the responses of 4 Clubs or 4 Diamonds signify a mild slam try; the response of 4 Hearts offers the partner a choice of games. In other partnerships, the 3 No Trump bid is a so-called non-serious slam try, and the cuebid is the serious and strong slam try.

Serpent’s Coup
A term based upon the biblical event between Adam and Eve, where Eve surrendered to the deceit of the serpent and tempted Adam to also eat of the forbidden fruit. The declarer tempts the defender to act in a certain, appealing manner although the wiser choice by the defender would be not to take the bait, but rather play prudently.

Session
1. a group of deals played consecutively without a break;
2. a group of deals whose scores are added together;
3. one morning, afternoon or evening of play, usually of 24 to 36 deals.

Set
1. to defeat the contract or to prevent the declarer from fulfilling the contract;
2. playing in fixed partnerships;
3. the term also applies to the number of boards played.

Set Game
A pre-arranged match of rubber bridge or four-deal bridge with each pair remaining the same for the duration of the contest or competition.

Set Up
To establish one or more cards in the hand of either the player himself, or in the hand of his partner, or in the hand of an opponent. The result of having been established.

-seventh
To be within or heading a seven-card holding. For example: Jack-seventh means seven cards headed by the Jack.

Seven
The eighth ranking card in a suit.

Seven Deadly Sins, The - (The Seven Deadly Sins)
This is a list devised as a foundation of the bidding platform of the Aces Team put together by Mr. Ira Corn of Dallas, Texas, United States. The members founded these guidelines for co-players and all substitutes. Mrs. Judy Kay-Wolff, wife of Mr. Bobby Wolff, posted them on August 15, 2010, on her Bridge Blog, and are as follows:

1. No-win declarer plays.
2. No-win defensive plays.
3. Bidding without values.
4. System violations.
5. Unilateral actions.
6. Mechanical mistakes.
7. Impulsive actions.

Footnote to the list by Mrs. Judy Kay-Wolff: (Nos. 1 and 2 were judged not by the result, but whether the play made couldn't have been right. Perhaps much of their success was attributable to strict adherence to these principles!)

Seven-Odd
Seven tricks over book, or 13 tricks in total.

Seven Tables
At duplicate, seven tables provide for competition among 28 players as individuals, 14 pairs, or 7 teams-of-four. Seven tables has proven to be an ideal number of tables since it provides a basic pattern for all numbers of tables up to thirteen for pair contests.

Sex and Bridge
The game of bridge has always carried a touch of the sensual, as was the intention of its greatest and most active promoter Mr. Ely Culbertson in the 1930s and 1940s. To exclude this side of the game would to be to make Jack a dull boy. We have, however, only included those contributions, which pass the bar for being humorous without being offensive. If any visitor finds any of the material inappropriate, please let us know.

21 Reasons Why Bridge is Better Than Sex - Contributed by Mr. Dick Augur of The White Stallion Ranch located in Tuscon, Arizona, United States, and which offers bridge players the chance to stay at a Dude Ranch and learn bridge.

Sextet Bridge
This is presently a seldom played bridge game for 6 players or 3 partnerships. In order to play this game, two new suits had to be introduced and they were called Rackets or Racquets and Wheels. Wheels is a major suit ranking below Hearts and Racquets is a minor suit ranking above Diamonds. The concept of bidding, which occurs with two partners, is based on logical lines, and even provides a method to ask for Aces. The play of the hand is different in that there are two exposed dummies.

Sextuple Grand Coup
The example of a sextuple grand coup is presented in the publication Bridge á la une authored by Mr. José Le Dentu in the year 1964, published by Fayar of Paris, France. LC: 66055562, ASIN: B005ESHNOY.

Shaded
Pertaining to a bid made on slightly fewer values than the minimum requirements.

The Shaggy Giant
A friendly manner of referring to one of the great bridge players of all time, namely Mr. Phillip Hal Sims.

Shah, Shivam
As reported from Montreal, Canada
August 16-31, 2002, for the
2002 International Bridge Press Association Awards

This would make a good quiz question: if you have recently traveled to Kenya, Eygpt, Ivory Coast, Poland, USA and Canada, what sport might you have been engaged in?

And for a bonus point, how old would you be?

Of course, you have instantly got the first part right, it can only be Bridge. However, you are unlikely to get Part Two correct as the winning answer is nine.

Well at least it was, as on Tuesday Shivam Shah of England celebrated his tenth birthday.

Shivam has won enough master points on his travels to be a Life Master, although he does not have the title officially, and has already partnered Zia Mahmood in a competitive event.

Shake
Slang: to discard, usually a loser.

Shape
1. Slang: the distribution;
2. This designation also refers to pointed suits, Spades and Diamonds, and to rounded suits, Hearts and Clubs.

Sharif, Omar - (aka Michel Demitri Shalhoub - Michel Demitri Chalhoub)
Born April 10, 1932, in Alexandria, Egypt, he was educated at Victoria College in Cairo, Egypt. It was while he was working in the lumber business that he was offered a lead role in an Egyptian film in 1954. The name of the film is not listed in his filmography, but Fatin Hamama also played in this film, and it was she whom he married in 1954, and the divorce was 1974. His rise to fame or world-wide recognition and stardom began when he played in Lawrence of Arabia with Peter O'Toole in 1962, playing the role of Sherif Ali. The second most memorable film was when he played Yuri Zhivago in Doctor Zhivago in 1965. It is a little known fact that their son, Tarek Sharif (born 1957), played at the age of eight the role of the young Yuri Zhivago in this film. He was also a bridge player and played mainly on the international level. One of his memorable quotes is: 'I'd rather be playing bridge than making a bad movie.' Omar Sharif lent his name to many publications about the game of bridge and co-authored many books. He lent (licensed) his name for an evolving process in the game of bridge, namely interactive software for computer games, which was initially released in a DOS version in 1992, and called Omar Sharif Bridge. He also co-wrote with Tannah Hirsch a syndicated newspaper bridge column for the Chicago Tribune. In a public interview in 2006 he stated that he no longer played bridge, explaining, 'I decided I didn't want to be a slave to any passion any more except for my work. I had too many passions, bridge, horses, gambling. I want to live a different kind of life, be with my family more, because I didn't give them enough time.'

Sharif Bridge Circus
This was a professional team of world class bridge players, which was put together, organized and promoted by the actor Mr. Omar Sharif. They toured the country and played a series of exhibition matches against European and North American teams. The first performance began in 1967.

Sharing Boards
It is necessary in some bridge movements for two tables or more to share the same set of boards in a single round. These shared boards can be played out of the normal numerical order.

Shark
Slang: a hustler or a bridge professional whose specialty is playing for money.

Sharples Against No Trump: Original Version
This version of the defense method developed by Mr. James Watson Sharples, born in November of the year 1908 and died October 3, 1985, and also by his younger twin brother Mr. Robert Boake Sharples, born in the year 1908 and died in the year 1999, both of Caterham, England, is originally a method of responding to a No Trump opening by the partner. This version carries the designation as the original version in the sense that the original version of the developers has not been recorded and this version has the distinction of being the oldest.

Sharples Against No Trump Opening: Version One
This version of the Sharples conventional defense method can be employed either in the immediate seat or in the balancing seat. The range of the No Trump opening is generally on the stronger side, but the concept can / may be adapted to confront all ranges of No Trump. The main difference is that this version assigns significance to idle bids above 2 Diamonds.

Modified Sharples Against a No Trump Opening: Version Two
This version of the defense method can be employed either in the immediate seat or in the balancing seat. The range of the No Trump opening is generally on the stronger side, but the concept can / may be adapted to confront all ranges of No Trump. This variation is dissimilar to the original concept by including a multi-purpose 2 Diamonds bid.

Sharples Convention
The Sharples convention is a method of responding to a No Trump opening when the responder holds only one 4-card Major and one or both 4-card Minor suits. This concept was devised by Mr. James (Jim) Watson Sharples, born in May 1908 and died October 3, 1985, and his twin brother Mr. Robert (Bob) Boake Sharples, born in the year 1908 and died in September 1999, both of Caterham, England. The Sharples conventional method is an extension of the Stayman convention and allows the partnership to explore first of all for a fit in a Major suit, and, if no fit is found, then to attempt to find a fit in a Minor suit.

Shell Simultaneous Pairs, The
The link will open in a new window. In the year 1966, after contacting the Shell Clubs at Lensbury (Teddington, England) and Te Werve (The Netherlands), Mr. Gregor H. Riesser of Houston organised the first Shell Worldwide Bridge Tournament.  The bridge clubs enjoyed the concept to the extent that they offered their assistance.  With this support the tournament became the first worldwide duplicate bridge tournament ever.  In the beginning all results were scored by hand, but the following year Mr. Jan Bots volunteered to have it scored by computer in Holland he continued in this capacity until the year 1979.

Shenkin Trophy
The Shenkin Trophy is the Scottish Bridge Union's Individual Cahmpionship for Masters and Senior Masters. The event was first contested in the year 1964.

Shift
1. to change suits from one originally led on defense;
2. the declarer changing suits in the plan of the play during the play;
3. regarding the bidding, to continue describing the holding by bidding a new suit.

Shomate Movement
This is an Individual movement, also called an Irregular Rainbow, and does not keep the players in a particular group, thus allowing comparison across the field. This movement was devised for Individual Tournaments of 8, 9, or 10 tables. This movement is non-cyclic and must be conducted with Guide Cards.

In comparison a Rainbow movement is an individual movement in which contestants are divided into groups corresponding to their original starting directions, with separate instructions for progressing to each group.

In individual events section awards are earned by all four fields in a Rainbow movement but only by one field in a Shomate movement. Overall awards remain consistent and are based on the total number of tables in the event and the level of competition.

Shoot or Shooting
A situation of playing deliberately for an abnormal result in the scoring. This does not mean the act of overbidding. The goal of shooting consists in arriving at a contract which is wrong, but only slightly wrong, and based on the percentages of success or failure in order to obtain a positive abnormal result or top board.

Short Club
In general, the short prepared or convenient club is the first bid to open the auction and is made with a 3-card or less Club suit. If this is not the case, then the opener will bid 1 Diamond. This short club method was first adopted by the Four Aces, and the 3-card club holding had to be headed at least by the Queen. This configuration gave the opener a comfortable rebid. This method is mostly used by advocates who open a Five Card Major suit. It is important to remember that a Short Club is not a system or convention, but rather only an opening, and as Charles H. Goren designated it, a convenience.

In his publication The Standard Book of Bidding, with an Introduction by Somerset Maugham, published by Doubleday, Doran and Company, Inc. in the year 1944, Charles H. Goren writes on page 11 the following description of The Short Club Bid, excerpted below without alteration. (Note: this publication was authored when it was customary to open 4-card Major suits in the United States as was the case in the English Bridge Union.)

The Short Club Bid

This is not a system. It is a convenience. I make this point because so many players are heard to inquire, "Partner, do you play the Short Club?" as though they were referring to some special convention. They explain that they open with a Club to show three tricks. And what, pray, do you open with

Kxx   xx   xxx   AKQ10x

a hand that contains only 2½ tricks? To which, of course, the an swer is 1 Club.

The point of the Short Club is this: There are certain hands which must be opened because they contain too many high cards to be passed, but which contain no convenient opening bid because they would be difficult to rebid. In such cases an opening bid of 1 Club is recommended on a three-card suit, if it is headed by at least a Queen. For example:

AKJx   J10x   xxx   A10x

This hand contains considerably more than 3 honor tricks and therefore must not be passed. However, if you should make the normal opening bid of 1 Spade it is evident that you will have no convenient rebid should partner respond with two Diamond. For your own personal convenience this hand shoud be opened with 1 Club. If partner's response is 1 Diamond or 1 Heart, the rebid is 1 Spade,. If his respons is 1 Spade, you raise to two. If the response is 1 No Trump, you pass, and if his response is 2 Clubs, you should also pass.

This bid of 1 Club is made not because your Club holding is short, but in spite of it. It is a practice devised strictly fo the convenience of the opener, and it should be no concertn of partner. He should treat all Club bids as though they were natural bids, being careful, however, not to raise Clubs without four good trumps. This subjects him to no hardship, since it is so easy to find some other bid at the level of one.

There is another type of hand which some players like to open with 1 Club:

Q10xx   Kxxx   10x   AKx

This meets the minimum requirements. It can be opened with 1 Spade, but then if partner responds with 2 Diamonds it will be necessary to rebid 2 Hearts. The weakness of the two suits and the border-line nature of the hand make one hesitant about adopting this bidding sequence. A Club opening may be conveniently employed in this case. If partner responds with a major, that suit is raised. If partner responds with 1 Diamond a rebid is available in one of the major suits.

When there is no occasion to worry about a rebid, a hand like this one, previously shown:

AKJx   J10x   xxx   A10x

need not be opened with a Club.

When is there no occasion to worry about a rebid? When your partner has previously passed and, for that reason, you are persuaded that there is no more than a part score in the hand. In third position, for example, the proper opening with the above hand is 1 Spade, since you are trying for a part score and intend to pass any bid that partner makes.

IN A NUTSHELL: The "Short Club" is not a system. it is a convenience.

Short Club Opening Bids
Authored by Mr. Mark Abraham and Mr. Griff Ware and published online April 20, 2009, the Short Club Variant consists of multiple opening bids for all four suits on the one level. The continuations allow the partnership to discover or reveal the relevant definition. Mr. Mark Abraham and Mr. Griff Ware have presented there bidding system online.

Note: A write-up of the Short Club Variant, dated February 10, 2009, authored by Mr. Mark Abraham, Mr. Griff Ware, and Mr. Daniel Geomboux has only been preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.

Note: A newer write-upof the Short Club Variant, dated April 20, 2009, authored by Mr. Mark Abraham and Mr. Griff Ware has only been preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.

Short Diamond
Those partnerships that use strong club systems, such as Precision, which employ 5-card Majors for opening Majors, use the Short Diamond for holdings that are not suitable for any other opening bid. This bid must be alerted and made known to the opponents as to the minimum length of the Diamonds, which under certain conditions may be zero Diamonds. However, a 2 Diamond response as the first response is natural and forcing. The Short Diamond is sometimes referred to as the Loose Diamond, the Nebulous Diamond, and the Phony Diamond.

A Short Diamond, or a holding of a 3-card Diamond suit, also describes the standard form of modern methods and partnership understandings. In relation to the distribution of the holding, this term describes a 4-4-3-2 distribution which allows no other opening bid, unless the values of the entire holding justify another opening bid, such as No Trump.

Shorten
The act of forcing a player to reduce the number of cards in a particular suit, especially in the trump suit, for example by forcing the declarer to ruff.

Short Hand
A term to describe a hand holding fewer trumps than in the hand of the partner.

Short Howell Movements
A term designating a Reduced Howell.

Short Suit
A suit containing two or less cards. Either a doubleton, a singleton or a void.

Short Suit Trials - Long Suit Trial and Short Suit Trial Combined - Long Suit Trials - Help Suit Game Try - Weak Suit Game Try - Counter Trial
All designations refer to the same concept and conventional method, regardless of whether each explanation varies from another. As with some partnership agreements, one partner can show a hand willing to accept an invitation to game by bidding any other suit. This action is referred to as a Weak Suit Game Try. All of the above designations apply for this particular concept. This action can be used, for instance, when employing Reverse Drury or Limit Raises.

Short Suit Leads
This is a term for the opening lead of a singleton or a doubleton, when the auction clearly indicates such a lead. This lead can also be employed against No Trump contracts and are considered normal if and when the partner has bid that particular suit.

Short Suit Points
The valuation points awarded to short suits because of their trick taking ability, or the trick-taking ability of the long suits whose possession they imply.

Short Suit Trial Bid
This bidding method, used after a Major suit opening, is very useful if the responder shows immediate support to determine whether the partnership should be in partscore or in game. Using the Short Suit Trial bid, a new bid by the opener shows a singleton. This web page also includes Short Suit Trial Bids and Long Suit and Short Suit Trial Bids combined. This concept has similar features as in the method known as Help Suit Game Try or Short Suit Game Try.

Show Out
The failure to follow suit because the player does not have any card left of that suit.

Show Up Squeeze
A squeeze position in which declarer refuses a finesse in the ending because if the missing card(s) were onside it would have already been played, thereby allowing the declarer to avoid a guess between a finesse and a play for a drop. Sometimes referred to as a Pop-Up Squeeze.

Shuffle
To mix the cards. The most common shuffle is the riffle. The cards are divided into two halves and then shuffled. It has been determined by mathematicians that seven riffles are necessary in order to produce a good mix and distribution of the cards.

Shut-Out Bid
A preemptive bid.

Shuttle Dummy
The term for a procedure used for a team of two in rubber bridge or Chicago, when there are only 7 players. After the first table has reached a contract, the dummy moves to the second table to begin the auction. Whoever becomes dummy at the second table then moves to the first table to continue the auction for the second deal, etc. Only individual scores are kept, and not team scores.

SID
An acronym for the term Stayman In Doubt.

Side
A team of two in a rubber bridge or Chicago game. The term can also be used to describe a pairing in a duplicate contest, or, in team-of-four play, the entire team.

Side Game Series
This is the designation for a series of at least three one-session games at a Championship Tournament which is held concurrently with a championship event and is open to all players. Overall ranking is done on an individual basis by computing the sum of each player's two best games. At NABC and regional tournaments, gold points are awarded to section-top players who have competed in at least two sessions of this even. Each session may also be run as a one-sessionstratified pairs.

Side Suit
1. a suit other than the trump suit;
2. a suit of four or more cards other than the trump suit in declarer's or dummy's hand;
3. in the auction, a suit of at least four cards held by a player whose first bid is in another suit, unless defined as a cuebid.

Sidewalk
A colloquial term for a holding, that contains zero to three Jacks at most, and no other values. Origin is most likely slang for being the only player holding the most annoying and unsatisfactory cards among the four players as the holder is unable to either compete or defend, but rather stand aside and alone on the sidewalk watching the other three player become active during the auction.

Sidney H. Lazard Jr. Award for Sportsmanship
This award was established by Mr. Sidney Lazard in honor of his son, who died in 1999 after a year-long battle with cancer.

Signals
Conventional plays made by the defenders in order to exchange information. The methods of signaling differ with the systems and partnership agreements used.

Signals is a designation employed for a set of agreements between partners relating to the meanings of cards played on defense. There are several carding and signaling methods devised for the game of bridge by experts experimenting with different variations. Many methods have withstood the proof of time and have lasted from the days of the game of Whist in order to communicate to partner generally attitude, count, and preference.

See also: Signaling.

See also: Signal Defense Summary.

See also: Signals by Mary Hemenway (.pdf file).

See also: Signaling, Leading, and Discarding Summary by Mary Hemenway (.pdf file).

See also: Carding Signals Summary (.pdf file) by BridgeSlam.com.

Combined Attitude and Count Signal

In an article published in the magazine Bridge Today, issue of November/December 1995, which is presented by Pamela and Matthew Granovetter. The author of the article is not named, and the following feature was presented to the subscribers:

Begin quote: A unique signal, which has been played by a few experts for many years, is the combination attitude/count signal. This can be utilized only when you have shown a long suit in the bidding, say about five cards or longer. On partner's lead you can signal attitude (and obvious shift) by the normal fashion: encouraging card says continue, don't shift, and discouraging card says make the obvious shift.

However, you also give count by playing an even-numbered card to show an even number and an odd numbered card to show an odd number. Here is a good example:

West   East
Spades A   Spades K98643

West leads the Ace of Spades gainst a contract declared by South and East signals with the Spades 8, showing an even number and the King of Spades.

End quote. The feature of this type of combined signal is as follows:

1. High and Even Card is encouraging and shows even parity.

2. High and Odd Card is encouraging and shows odd parity.

3. Low and Even Card is discouraging and shows even parity.

4. Low and Odd Card is discouraging and shows odd parity.

Note: The definition of parity is as follows: Mathematics The even or odd quality of an integer. If two integers are both odd or both even, they are said to have the same parity; if one is odd and one even, they have different parity.

Sign-off Bid
1. a call that requests partner to pass;
2. a call that denies additional values.
3. a bid intended to close the auction for one partnership.

Silodor Trophy
This trophy was presented officially and originally in 1963 in memory of Mr. Sidney Silodor, but the recogniztion for winning the event was made retroactive to include the winners of the Spring North American Open Pairs Championship since its beginning in 1958.

The Silodor Trophy, presented in memory of Mr. Sidney Silodor, winner of the Bermuda Bowl, the McKenney Trophy and more than 30 North American championships, is awarded to the winners of Open Pairs I. Mr. Sidney Silodor was a member of the team that won the first Bermuda Bowl World Championship in 1950, won the Vanderbilt eight times, the Spingold, the Open Pairs and the Master Mixed Teams three times each and the Mixed Pairs five times, which constituted a record at that time. At the time of his death in 1963, Mr. Sidney Silodor was third on the list of all-time masterpoint holders with a total of 6,450, a number great enough to hold that place until a year later when his total was surpassed by Mr. Norman Kay, who had been his regular partner.

Mr. Sidney Silodor was an original member of the Bridge Hall of Fame, elected in the 1960s when the institution was the province of its creator, The Bridge World magazine. The trophy was presented in 1963 in memory of Mr. Sidney Silodor and made retroactive to include winners of the event, which began in 1958. The four-session event consists of two qualifying sessions and two final sessions.

Silver Life Master
A Life Master who has at least 1,000 masterpoints recorded by ACBL.

Silver Points
These are masterpoints awarded for sectional and overall placing at sectional tournaments. They are also awarded at Sectional Tournaments at Clubs (StaC). Barry Crane Top 500 race: This trophy is presented to the ACBL player who wins the most masterpoints during a calendar year. Originally the McKenney Trophy, it was put into play by William E. McKenney, ACBL executive secretary. It was known as the McKenney Trophy from 1937 to 1981. The list was expanded to include the top 500 players in 1982 and called the Top 500 from 1982 to 1985. It was renamed the Barry Crane Top 500 in 1986. Crane, who was first in July 1985, and was ACBL's top masterpoint holder at that time and was acknowledged by his peers to be unequaled as a masterpoint winner and a matchpoint player.

Silver Ribbon Pairs
This is an ACBL event with national rating for players 55 years old or more. The participating pairs earn the qualification by placing first or second in a regionally rated senior event.

Simon Award
This is the award for the Bridge Sportsman of the Year and was endowed by Mr. John E. Simon. It was presented yearly by the International Bridge Press Association, but has become temporarily inactive since 1986.

Simony, Maggy - Maggy Simony
Publisher and author of a new bridge publication title Bridge Table, which, in the author's workds, is about the history and pop culture of the kind of bridge played by Marla Paul’s mom - sociable bridge - that began around the turn of the century with the ladies-only-at-home-bridge lunch or luncheon. She has completed May 2009, at the age of 90, the Preface to her publication, which is preserved and archived here in .pdf file format by courtesy and permission of Maggy Simony, the author.

Maggy Simony also maintains a website and blog in order that other bridge players can contribute past stories. The intention is to present "An Affectionate Look Back at Sociable Bridge & Ladies' Lunch".

Simple
In regards to an overcall or a response, the term means a non-jump, holding values only sufficient to make that bid or call.

Simple Finesse
A finesse for a single card held by one of the opponents.

Simple Honors
During the age of Auction Bridge, this was a term denoting three honors in the trump suit, for which 30 points were scored. These bonus points were sometimes important in deciding the final score since several methods of play divided the players and partnerships, so that the more precise definition is three honors in the trump suit held by one partner or divided between two partners.

Simple Overcall
A non-preemptive overcall. An overcall with minimum values.

Simple Squeeze
The term for a squeeze against one opponent in two suits. Generally the minimum requirements for a simple squeeze are twofold:
1. a 2-card menace and a 1-card menace, both guarded by the same opponent;
2. all the remaining tricks except one.

Simple System
This is a designation for a bidding system or conventional method listed in the publication The Bridge Player's Bedside Companion, authored by Mr. Albert A. Ostrow, published 1955. During the early evolution of the game of bridge there occurred a proliferation of many such bidding systems. However, many have been forgotten and were discarded for the newest version of another bidding system. Any additional information would be greatly appreciated.

Simplified Club System
The Simplified club System incorporates and combines several of the features of the Blue Team Club and the Oman System, and was originated by Mr. Larry Weiss. Among the fundamental features of the system is:

1. An opening of 1 Club promises 16 points or more, and responses shows controls. A 2 Clubs rebid shows a stronger holding with game values. After the rebid by the opener, the responder once again rebids controls.
2. A 2 Diamonds rebid by the opener promises a strong three-suited holding.
3. The bidding sequence, without competition: 1 Diamond - 1 Heart - 1 Spade promises a two-suited holding with at least a 5-4 distribution. The shorter suit is bid first unless the suit is Clubs.
4. A 1 No Trump response is an artificial and positive bid, and promises about 10 points. The suit immediately above the suit of the opener is an artificial negative bid. However, the reaponder is not required to employ this bid if the responder has a fit with the suit of the opener.
5. An opening of 1 No Trump promises 12 to 15 points and balanced to semi-balanced distribution.
6. An opening of 2 Clubs promises 11 to 16 points and shows a three-suited holding with a possible singleton and/or void.
7. Openings on the two level, other than 2 Clubs, promise single-suited holdings with a range of 11 to 16 points.
8. Single-suited holdings with Clubs requires a 2 No Trump opening bid promising 11 to 16/17 points. However, by partnership agreement, the single-suited Club holding can also be shown by an opening bid of 3 Clubs, promising a range of 11-14 points, which is also preemptive in nature.

Simplified New Minor Forcing
A variation of the original concept devised and contributed by Mr. Martin Gellman. The addition of Mr. Martin Gellman to the New Minor Forcing convention is presented due to the understanding of certain partnership agreements. The idea behind this simplified form is readily understood and should be made available to the bridge players, who use different interpretations of the auction to mean different things.

Simplified Precision
This Simplified Precision version of the Precision Club system differs from the Precision Club system in that it uses no Asking Bids, the 2 Diamond opening shows Diamond length instead of Diamond shortness, and the Four Level Minor-suit openings are natural preempts.

Sims System
In the early days of Contract Bridge, Mr. Philip Hal Sims developed his system in the years 1930 to 1932. His system placed importance on strong first and second-hand opening bids. All opening bids on the Two and Three Level were forcing, and weak defensive bids were only made when not vulnerable. The employment of the so-called psychic bids, as introduced by his wife Dorothy was added later to the Sims System. In addition, in the publication The Bridge Player's Bedside Companion authored by Mr. Albert A. Ostrow, published 1955, it is mentioned that The success of Sims at Asbury Park and the fact that a couple of youngsters named John Rau and William Barret were doing sensationally with the methods advocated by Hal and Dorothy brought the Sims System of bidding into prominence. It was only after an organized and highly publicized bridge challenge with and/or against Mr. Ely Culbertson, which Mr. Philip Hal Sims eventually lost, that the popularity of the Sims System began to rapidly fade from the favor of the bridge players.

The serious student can also purchase the publication by Madeleine Kerwin titled One-Over-One For Everyone: The Philip Hal Sims System, c1932, Publisher: The Kerwin Company, New York, New York, LC: 32024946.

Simultaneous Calls, Leads, or Plays
Covered by the Laws of Duplicate Bridge, the corresponding Law treats a simultaneous call, lead, or play, if they are in legal rotation, as normal. If the simultaneous call, lead, or play is not in legal rotation, then the Law provides the applicable penalty for such a call, lead, or play.

Simultaneous Pairs
An event played at the same time in different locations, using the same deals.

Simultaneous Play
The play of pre-duplicated boards at more than one table in a section at the same time, allowing for instant scoring.

Singapore Contract Bridge Association - Official Website

Singapore Contract Bridge Association
Contact Address
51 Bishan Street 3
#01-01 Singapore 579799
Singapore
Telephone: 65-6356-8540
Facsimile: 64-6259-7832

Short History of the Singapore Contract Bridge Association

On Christmas Eve in 1962, some Singapore bridge players met at the then Adelphi Hotel along Coleman Street and established the Singapore Branch of the Malayan Contract Bridge Association. The Founder Chairman was Colnel J.A.M. Gemmel, a British army officer. Mr H. Kurd, then the Singapore Manager of Amsterdam London Insurance Co. Ltd, was elected Honorary Secretary and Treasurer. The four Committee Members were Mr. A.H. Gould, a senior civil servant, Mr. Wee Eng Lock, a solicitor, Mrs. J.F. Wilson, housewife, and Mr. V.R. Marar, a solicitor's clerk. The registered address of the Branch was c/o Amsterdam London Insurance Co. Ltd, at Chartered Bank Chambers, Battery Road.

Following Singapore's separation from Malaysia on 9th August 1965, the Branch Members decided that the Republic should have its own bridge association. The then Chairman, Mr. Wee Eng Lock, prepared a Constitution for the new association, and on 22nd July 1966, he filed a Notice of Change of Name at the Registry of Societies, Singapore. Thereafter, the Singapore Branch of the Malayan Contract Bridge Association became known by its new name, the Singapore Contract Bridge Association.

In its early days, SCBA objectives were confined to encouraging the growth and development of duplicate bridge in Singapore, and to this end, it ran two weekly duplicate bridge evenings on Tuesday and Fridays, and initiated various annually duplicate bridge tournaments for bridge players in Singapore. As SCBA did not then have its own premises, its bridge activities were initially held at the Adelphi Hotel, then at the Hollandse Club, the Cricket Club, and a long line of other clubs,associations and hotels.

As of 2004, thanks to the People's Association, SCBA has a permanent home at the Singapore Intellectual Games Centre in Bishan. It is a Member of the World Bridge Federation (WBF), the Pacific Asia Bridge Federation (PABF) and the ASEAN Bridge Council. It is recognised by the Singapore Sports Council as the National Sports Association (NSA) for Contract Bridge in Singapore, and by the WBF and the PABF as the National Contract Bridge Organisation (NCBO) for Singapore, and in this last capacity, it is responsible for selecting the Republic's National Bridge Teams and players for participation in International Competitions as well as hosting such tournaments as WBF and the PABF may decide.

SCBA hosted the PABF (previously known as the Far East Bridge Federation) Championships in 1972, 1990, 1993 and 2001, as well as the inaugural Far East Bridge Congress in 1988. The Members countries of the PABF are Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines, Indonesia, Japan, Hong Kong, Macau, China, Taiwan, New Zealand and Australia. SCBA also hosted the ASEAN Bridge Clubs Championships in 1981, 1985, 1992 and 1997. The Members countries of the ASEAN Bridge Council are Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines, Indonesia and Brunei. SCBA organises numerous tournaments annually. Its two annual International Bridge Congresses are the Easter Congress and the Pesta Sukan. In 1987, it anaugurated the annual Singapore Inter-Club Bridge League. This is today the largest and most popular by far domestic bridge event in Singapore.

Single Coup
This is a coup in which the declarer shortens his hand once in trumps by ruffing a card from the dummy, in order to reduce his trump holding to the same number held by his right hand opponent.

Single Dummy
This describes a situation, whereby everything is based on the sight of only the dummy and one's own cards as opposed to a double dummy, whereby all four hands are exposed.

Single Grand Coup
Similar to the single coup the declarer reduces the holdings to that of the right hand opponent. However, the grand coup also involves ruffing one of the dummy's winners with declarer's long trump suit to provide transportation to declarer's hand.

Single Raise
A raise of opener’s suit to the Two Level, showing a normal range between 6 and 9 support points. The length differs in the suit bid, relative to the Minor suits and the Major suits.

Singleton
An original holding of exactly one card in any given suit.

Singleton Swiss
The origin of this addition to the Swiss conventional method is unknown. When applied the response means that the responder has opening values and a 4-card fit in the Major suit opening of his partner. The parameters of the concept demand that the cards of the responder must have a definite distribution, otherwise the bid can not be made.

Sit or Sit For
Slang: to allow to stand, usually a double, although the double by the partner is for takeout.

Sit Out
1. to miss a round of play in a duplicate game owing to the odd number of tables;
2. to wait in order to cut in to a Chicago or rubber bridge game.

Sitting
1. a session of bridge;
2. a term referring to one’s position at the table.

6-Ace Roman Key Card Blackwood - Kantar Six Ace Roman Keycard Blackwood
This conventional method, otherwise known by its abbreviated designation 6A-RKCB, is considered to be a natural extension of the concept known as Roman Key Card Blackwood, whereby the Key Card Bidder asks for five known Key Cards. However, the 6A-RKCB conventional method asks for eight known Key Cards, the four Aces, the two Kings, and the two Queens. The one difference is that the Roman Key Card Blackwood conventional method applies to only one known suit fit, whereas the 6A-RKCB conventional method applies to two known suit fits.

-sixth
Within or heading a six-card holding. For example: Jack-sixth shows six cards headed by the Jack.

Six No Trump Opening
Although highly rare, this opening bid shows a balanced hand containing twelve sure tricks. The opinion is that the responder should raise to 7 No Trump if he holds an Ace or King.

Six Of A Suit Opening
Although highly rare, this opening bid guarantees twelve sure tricks, but is missing only the Ace or King of trumps.

Six-Odd
A term describing six tricks over book, or twelve tricks in total.

Six Tables
At duplicate, six tables provide for competition among 24 players as individuals, 12 pairs, or 6 teams. As a pair contest, either the Mitchell or Howell movement can be applied.

Skip Bid
The term for any bid at a higher level than is required by the previous auction.

Skip-Bid Warning
In tournament play, a verbal warning to an opponent to be prepared to pause before taking his next action to avoid giving illegal information to partner with a quick pass. The normal procedure is to announce: "I am about to make a skip bid, please wait." This has been reduced to: "Skip bid." The next player in rotation is expected to wait about 10 seconds before making his bid or call, in order to prevent the impression that he is communicating unauthorized information to his partner. When bidding boxes are being used then the player making a Skip Bid places the Stop card on the table, makes his Skip Bid and the following player must refrain from making his call until the skip bidder has picked up the Stop card and replaced it in the bidding box.

Skip Mitchell
A method of play for duplicate based on the Mitchell Movement when there are an even number of tables. For an even number of tables the Skip Mitchell method is used, and the East-West players skip one table after the half-way round.

Skip Movement
This is an irregularity in the progression of the traveling pairs, or boards, in a Mitchell Movement pair game with an even number of tables, where it is not necessary that all contestants play every board in play. With an even number of tables, caution must be exercised to prevent the East-West pairs from playing the same boards twice. This is generally accomplished by having the East-West pairs skip one table after they have played the number of rounds equaling one-half of the total number of tables in play. Therefore in an 8 table game, a skip must be called after 4 rounds, and in a 10 table game, a skip must be called after 5 rounds of play, in a 12 table game, the skip is called after 6 rounds, and so on.

It is of the utmost importance that the skip be called at the proper time. In the case that the director is playing, the director should mark the skip round on his private score. If the director is not playing, the director may ask one of the players to mark his/her score and remind him/her at the proper time.

It is also possible to run a game with an even number of tables without a skip. This movement is called a Bye-Stand And Relay. One set of boards is out of play and on a bye-stand each round and two tables (usually table 1 and the highest-numbered table) relay boards. During a relay the two tables exchange their boards during the play of each round.

Skrot
This designation is a slang term used by Swedish bridge players, especially the younger players, for the variation of the Carrot Club bidding system, which was developed to meet the criteria of the sponsoring organizations of bridge events, which disallowed the use of the original version of the Carrot Club bidding system. See also Svan for the opening bids.

Slam
The winning, but not expressly the bidding, of any contract of six, called a small slam, or seven, called a grand slam.

How many points does it take to make a slam? This question has always triggered a debate among many bridge mathematicians and bridge theorists since there are several factors involved in attempting to find the solution, such as the so-called point count systems, the re-evaluation after finding a suitable fit of a known minimal length, the trump suit split held by the opponents, the discovery of singletons and more importantly voids, and just plain dumb luck. One example below illustrates the possibly lowest yet number of points required to make a grand slam. It is only an example:

North
765432
432
5432
West
Q
KJ9765
K10
AQ108
East
K
AQ108
AQJ
KJ976
South
AJ1098
98765432

Although East-West have 35 points and the possibility of bidding and making only a 6 Heart small slam contract, North-South can comfortably make a contract of 7 Spades with only 5 points.

Many bridge theorists have attempted to further improve upon this example, which has been around for many decades, but without success. The suits, but not the cards, of all four hands can be rearranged accordingly so that the contract of 7 Clubs or 7 Diamonds, etc., by North-South can be made, but which still does not permit East-West to make more than a small slam. Maybe one of our visitors has some ideas. If so, please let us know.

Slam Bidding
Any of the various methods or treatments available by which slam contracts are first investigated and then bid if the correct requirements are fulfilled.

Slam Leads
The opening lead against any slam contract is of the utmost importance and must be considered carefully. One general guideline if your partner has remained silent throughout the auction is to make a passive lead against a small slam contract and an active lead against a grand slam contract.

Slam-Try
Any call or bid that invites partner to bid a slam under the presiding partnership agreement.

Slam Try Stayman
A variation of the Stayman convention which allows the responder to bid 2 Diamonds to indicate interest in slam.

Slawinski Leads - Combine Leads
This method of leading is attributed to Mr. Lukasz Slawinski. It is also sometimes referred to as Combine Leads. This method of leading may also be designated as either encrypted or coded by the sponsoring organization and should be clarified prior to the event since there are generally regulations governing such leads. The additional clarification / designation of Combine Leads may remove such strict categorization since such leads are intended to prevent the declarer from realizing the location of certain honor cards.

The bridge player should remain aware of the fact that this method is not etched in stone since it is perhaps less structurally strict than other carding methods. This concept may also be altered and personalized to meet the requirements of the individual partnership.

Combine Leads, for example, are so defined that if the declarer holds K87 in hand and AJ53 in dummy and plays the King, then both defenders provide a so-called honest small card only count. If one defender has the Q62, then this defender will show even combine signal and the other defender with 1094 will show odd combine signal. The declarer remains uncertain as to the full distribution of the suit since the defenders would have signaled identically with Q962 and 104.

Slawinski Leads: This method of leading is employed when the first player to lead has one or more honors in a suit and the lead specifies direct counting. A small card with an odd number of cards, and a high card with an even number of cards. When the suit has no honors the lead signifies a reverse counting, or small with an even number of cards, and high with an odd number of cards. Several examples follow to illustrate this method:

Holding Lead
K6532: 2
K653: 6
9832: 2
983: 9
92: 2
Logical Exceptions
1062: 6
10962: 10 against a suit contract
10962: 2 against a No Trump contract
10654: 4
KJ92: 2

In this method the 10 is not considered an honor but holding 10x the general consensus is to lead with the 10 spot.

Sliding Blackwood
See: Rolling Blackwood

Sliding Gerber
See: Rolling Gerber

Sliver Bid
This is an extension of the Splinter Bid treatment. It was devised by Mr. George Rosenkranz for the use with weaker responding hands.

Slovenia Bridge Association
Bridge Zveza Slovenije

Founded in 1972 and joined the WBF in 1992.
Contact Address
PP 1638
SLO-1101 Ljubljana
Slovenia
Telephone: 386-61-123 1393

Slow Arrival
A jump to the level to which the bidding is already forced showing specific values. For example: 1 Heart - 2 Clubs - 2 Spades - 4 Spades to show unusually strong Spades.

Slow Pass
The term for a pass at a slow tempo which could reveal that the passer was considering an alternative action. If the passer becomes the dummy or the declarer, then no ethical problem is attached to the slow pass. If, however, the slow pass is perceived as having passed unauthorized information to the partner, and they become the defenders, the partner may not use this information to his advantage. Otherwise the director must be called.

Slow Play
Slow play must be distinguished from careful or thoughtful play. There are several contributing factors, which result in a violation of the Proprieties of duplicate play, and which may be subject to penalty in national and international championships:

1. to delay in arriving at the table after the round has been called;
2. discussing the boards previously played;
3. the failure to pass at least one completed hand promptly;
4. failure to pass one board if the other has not been completed;
5. the inattention during the bidding which could result in necessitating frequent reviews of the auction;
6. the failure to accept a ruling from the director in the event of an irregularity;
7. the discussions or post mortems;
8. blaming the previous opponents for present tardiness instead of finishing the present hand;
9. waiting purposely for the opponents to forget the count and foregoing play of the hand in order to lessen the damage expected by being in a bad contract.

As a example of a possible penalty, it was at the conclusion of the Venice Cup championship in 2000, which Mr. Robert Hamman won, that Mr. Shawn Quinn and Mr. Tobi Sokolow lost by half an IMP after their teammates were penalized more than an IMP for slow play.

Slow Shows, Direct Denies
The concept that a lebensohl bid followed by a cuebid or 3 No Trump promises a stopper in the suit of the opponent. Several partnerships reverse the meaning and play Slow Denies, Direct Shows.

Sluff
1. to discard a worthless card;
2. to discard a loser by throwing it off on the lead of a suit not held by the sluffer.

Note: The word sluff is derived from the English word slough, which means a place of deep mud or mire (noun), and to engulf in a slough (verb). The term was first known or used around 1846. Other definitions is 1. the cast-off skin of a snake, 2. a mass of dead tissue separating from an ulcer, 3. something that may be shed or cast off.

Note: The first known use of the word in relation to card games occurred in the year 1720 according to the Merriam-Webster dictionary. Over the years the word was basterdized to and spelled as sluff, which only refers to games of cards in a competitive surrounding. The definition evolved into something to get rid of or discard as irksome, objectionable, or disadvantageous.

Slush
Slang: the honor strength mostly, or entirely, in Queens and Jacks.

Small Card
A spot card in any suit lower than the 6, which is considered to be insignificant in trick-taking ability.

Small Slam
The bidding and the fulfilling of any contract in any suit or No Trump which makes twelve tricks.

Smart Blonde Bridge Bidding System
This bidding system was devised and developed by Gretchen Ohstrom and Mr. William (Will) Aubrey.

Smith Convention
A variation of the Cheaper or Lower Minor suit, devised by Mr. Curtis Smith, whereby a bid of 4 Clubs is the only bid over any preempt on the Three Level for takeout. Used mainly in England.

Smith Convention
The Smith Convention is also a 4 No Trump slam conventional method devised by Mr. William S. Smith and Gertrude Smith in the year 1935., which is very similar in principle to the Norman 4 No Trump.

Smith Convention
A term applied to the cheating action, which borders on transgression, supposedly used in the game of rubber / social / party bridge. Any player holding a Yarborough would announce at/to the table that he has 14 cards, and his partner, also with a worthless hand, would announce that he has 12 cards, and the two players quickly throw their cards onto the table, mixing them in preparation for a redeal. In case the partner has a good hand, he will then ask for a recount, after which the player who asserted that he held 14 cards, will then count again and indeed find only 13 cards.

Smith Signals - Smith Echo
The Smith Signal is sometimes attributed to Mr. T .R. H. Lyons of England, but the concept was mainly devised and developed by Mr. I. G. Smith of England, who published the elements of this defense concept in the British Bridge World magazine in 1963, and for whom the concept is designated.

Smith Trophy
This trophy is awarded to the winners of the Life Master Women’s Pairs contested at the Fall North American Championships. The trophy was donated by Mr. Charles H. Goren in 1969 in memory of his longtime partner Helen Sobel Smith.

Smolen Convention
A convention allowing the weaker hand to force the No Trump bidder to become the declarer. This conventional method was originated by Mr. Michael Smolen. The responder holds a 4-5 distribution in both Major suits, but employs first the Stayman conventional method, and by a 2 Diamonds denial bid, employs Smolen to find a Major suit fit.

Smother Play
A rare endplay to enable the capture of an onside trump when a higher card behind it has insufficient supporting cards for a finesse. For example: Spades are the trump suit. North has Spade Ace and the Heart Ace. West has Spade King-Ten. South has Spade Queen-Jack. East has Club Ace-King. If East is on lead, West's King of Spades is smothered.

SNAP
An acronym for Strong No trump After Passing. A 1 No Trump response by a passed hand showing 9-12HCPs. See: Strong No trump After Passing

Snap Dragon Doubles
During its course of development and/or employment this concept it also acquired the designation of Fourth Suit Double. The reason for this designation is that the Snap Dragon Double can only be triggered by the player in the fourth seat after the three previous players have bid a suit.

Sneak
Slang: a singleton.

Snoopy
Mr. Charles M. Schulz
created Peanuts, a comic strip, which appears in many newspapers around the world and which has been translated into many languages for enjoyment and pleasure. In May 1997 he created four consecutive comic strips with Snoopy, the pet dog of Charlie Brown, which show Snoopy as playing featured bridge hands. Since Mr. Charles M. Schulz was an avid bridge player, the ACBL made Snoopy and Woodstock honorary Life Masters.

The New York Times
By: Alan Truscott
Published: July 10, 2000

BRIDGE: Snoopy's Finest Card Game

Trump That, Red Baron!

Most bridge players are not aware that Snoopy and his creator, Charles M. Schulz, were bridge enthusiasts. Members of the public did not understand the bridge that appeared occasionally in the strips, but they put up with this little quirk in the makeup of the beloved cartoonist, who died in February, 2000.

In May 1997 four consecutive strips featured bridge hands, and the American Contract Bridge League made Snoopy and Woodstock honorary life masters. Schulz was delighted. His strip that appeared on November 7 centered on the bridge deal shown in the diagram.

The same layout appears in Ely Culbertson's ''Gold Book,'' first published in 1936, allowing a pleasant speculation. Did the bridge exploits of World War I's greatest fictional flyer find their way into the archives of the great bridge authority two decades later? Or was it the other way round?

In the first frame Snoopy, in flying gear, is sitting on a doghouse decorated with suit symbols. In the second he is engaged in a game with three small helmeted friends. The third shows the diagram, and Snoopy correctly interprets his partner's mumbled bid as a raise to three no-trump.

The reader is left to guess that a Spade is led and can see that South has eight tricks. If he routinely attempts to set up a ninth trick in Clubs he will almost surely fail. The defenders will establish Spades and make at least five tricks in the black suits.

At this point duty calls. ''Sorry, men,'' Snoopy says. ''We'll finish that hand when I return.''

He and the doghouse take to the air, and he boldly faces a barrage of anti-aircraft fire. He is in great danger but succeeds in returning to base.

''Flying Ace Snoopy reporting, mon capitaine,'' he says.

The capitaine, one infers, is not pleased.

''Yes, sir. Everything went bad,'' says Snoopy. ''Perhaps the captaine could tell me what I did wrong.''

The chastened flyer returns to the bridge game, where the troops have been patiently waiting.

''He said I should have led a low Heart to the Queen.''


By: Alan Truscott
Published: July 10, 2000

BRIDGE: Snoopy's Finest Card Game (Trump That, Red Baron!)

Most bridge players are not aware that Snoopy and his creator, Charles M. Schulz, were bridge enthusiasts. Members of the public did not understand the bridge that appeared occasionally in the strips, but they put up with this little quirk in the makeup of the beloved cartoonist, who died in February.

In May 1997 four consecutive strips featured bridge hands, and the American Contract Bridge League made Snoopy and Woodstock honorary life masters. Schulz was delighted. His strip that appeared on Nov. 7 centered on the bridge deal shown in the diagram (not shown).

The same layout appears in Ely Culbertson's ''Gold Book,'' first published in 1936, allowing a pleasant speculation. Did the bridge exploits of World War I's greatest fictional flyer find their way into the archives of the great bridge authority two decades later? Or was it the other way round?

In the first frame Snoopy, in flying gear, is sitting on a doghouse decorated with suit symbols. In the second he is engaged in a game with three small helmeted friends. The third shows the diagram, and Snoopy correctly interprets his partner's mumbled bid as a raise to three no-trump.

The reader is left to guess that a Spade is led and can see that South has eight tricks. If he routinely attempts to set up a ninth trick in Clubs he will almost surely fail. The defenders will establish Spades and make at least five tricks in the black suits.

At this point duty calls. ''Sorry, men,'' Snoopy says. ''We'll finish that hand when I return.''

He and the doghouse take to the air, and he boldly faces a barrage of anti-aircraft fire. He is in great danger but succeeds in returning to base.

''Flying Ace Snoopy reporting, mon capitaine,'' he says.

The capitaine, one infers, is not pleased.

''Yes, sir. Everything went bad,'' says Snoopy. ''Perhaps the captain could tell me what I did wrong.''

The chastened flyer returns to the bridge game, where the troops have been patiently waiting.

''He said I should have led a low Heart to the Queen.''

 

Snoopy
 
Snoopy
 
Bird

 

Snowman
A colloquial term for the 8 since this number resembles a child's snowman.

Sock
Slang: to double, usually for penalties.

Soft Values
Pertaining to the lower honors, usually Queens and Jacks, as compared with Aces and Kings.

Sohl Doubles
The origin of this call of double is unknown, but it has been rumored to be a double employed at colleges and universities, especially in The Netherlands. The origin for the designation for this double is also unknown, but is believed to be the surname of a bridge player and has no relation to the lebensohl conventional method. Source is from website for the M.A.F. (MAF) Bidding System located on the web and in The Netherlands.

Solid Suit
A card holding in any suit which is expected in a suit or No Trump contract to win as many tricks as there are in the suit, even with absolutely no assistance from partner.

Soloman Award
This award if presented annually by the International Bridge Association for the Bridge Hand of the Year. The award was endowed by Mr. Charles J. Solomon. The award is given to the player who has produced the best play of a hand, whether as declarer or as defender.

Solomon Trophy
This is a World Bridge Federation Trophy in honor of Mr. Charles J. Solomon and is awarded to the nation with the best overall victory-point record in the World Pair Olympiad. The trophy was first presented in 1966.

Soloway Jump Shifts
This conventional method was devised and developed by Mr. Paul Soloway, born October 10, 1941 and died November 5, 2007. During his bridge career he became one of the leading bridge personalities of his time.

Soloway, Paul

Mr. Paul Soloway, born October 10, 1941 and died on Nomember 5, 2007, accumulated over his bridge career a total of 65,512.92 masterpoints, more than any other bridge player since the game of bridge has been an organized and sponsored mind-sport. The Los Angeles Times printed an article about his life and career as a bridge player, which is presented here as a dedication to him. The article was written by Valerie Nelson and is presented in .pdf file format.

Sorting The Hand
To arrange one's cards by rank within suits after the cards have been dealt or pulled from the board.

S.O.S. Redouble
A redouble requesting that partner make another bid or call, and is recognizable whenever there is no possibility of the redouble having any other interpretation according to any partnership agreement.

Sound
1. to be full-valued;
2. to be based on relatively high requirements. Sound opening bids have, for example, higher minimum requirements than light opening bids;
3. when pertaining to a player, the term means reliable and talented and consistent;
4. when pertaining to a contract, the term means worthwhile and likely, most probably sufficient to make and worth the intended risk.

Sound Bidding
A bidding system which emphasizes higher than average standards for opening bids and overcalls. The player applying sound bidding is considered to be conservative and not prone to risk taking.

South
One of the compass points used in describing one of the four players at the bridge table. The partner of South is North, and South is over the East hand and under the West hand.

South Africa Bridge Federation
Formed in 1954. The Federation withdrew from international competition between 1981 and 1991 owing to the political policy of Apartheid.
Contact Address
P.O.Box 890347
2106 Lyndhurst
South Africa
Telephone: 27-11-440 6435
Facsimile: 27-11-333 6698

South African Texas Convention
This conventional method was originated by Mr. Max Sapire of East London, South Africa. This version or variation of the Texas Convention or Texas Transfer Bids is also known and designated as Super Texas or Minor For Major. Since this method did not allow the use of the Gerber Convention, this method has not found much favor with the bridge community.

South American Bridge Confederation - Confederacion Sudamericana De Bridge
Founded in 1948 to administer bridge in the South American countries, and consists of the countries Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay.

Southern Conference Regional Championships
This was a contest consisting of two tournaments, whereby one tournament was conducted in the spring and one tournament was conducted in the fall. The location of the tournaments was generally in Alabama, Georgia, or Tennessee, United States. However, the redistricting play of the American Contract Bridge League caused the Southern Conference Regional Championships to be discontinued. The event was contested over four days beginning in 1952 and discontinued in 1965, when it was renamed the Mid-South Fall Regional Championship. The four-day five-event Spring Tournament, that began in 1963, was discontinued after 1966. The five events included Open Teams, Master Pairs, Men's Pairs, Women's Pairs, and Mixed Pairs.

Sowter Lodge System
A designation for a partnership bidding system of Mr. Anthony Sowter and Mr. Lodge. This bidding system was played at the European Championships in 1981. A unique feature, among a few other features, was that a pass, the Sowter-Lodge Pass, in First or Second Seat when vulnerable showed a holding either with 17 plus points or between zero and 6 points. A 1 Club opening in either the First or Second Seat promised a range between 7 and 10 points. Not much additional information has survived from this bidding system.

Space
Slang: meaning Bidding Space as in there was no space to bid.

Spades
The highest-ranking suit of the four suits at bridge.

Spanish Bridge Federation - Federacion Espanola de Bridge
Official site of the Bridge Federation in Spain, which develops the policies and procedures for managing and governing the game of bridge in Spain, and which also sponsors local championships and tournaments. The organization also provides information about local leagues, players, tournament schedules and results.

Spanish Gentleman
An English-based colloquial term for the trick, which equals the contract minus one trick.

Spanish Lexicon of Bridge Terms
This is only an abbreviated list of the general terms and designations used in the game of bridge. Any contributions to this list would be greatly appreciated. This information has only been archived and preserved on this site in a .pdf file format for future reference.

Special Trump Asking Bid - STAB
This concept is employed in the Romex System originated by Mr. George Rosenkranz. Once a partner has opened the auction with a strong, artificial 2 Clubs opening and the responder bids 2 Diamonds, which indicates at least one control, and the opening partner jump rebids either 3 Hearts or 3 Spades (either Major suit), then this jump rebid establishes the trump suit and initiates an Ace-asking auction. The difference between the Romex Trump Asking Bid and the Romex Special Trump Asking Bid is that the Romex Trump Asking Bid can also be employed following a 1 No Trump opening in addition to a strong, artificial 2 Clubs opening.

Specific Kings
A 5 No Trump follow-up by the Blackwood bidder to ask partner to cuebid Kings at the Six Level, as opposed to showing them as a total with a step response, as in traditional methods.

Specified Michaels
The origin of this conventional defense method is unknown. This conventional method is employed after the opponents have opened the auction with one of a Major suit. The rank of the Major suit is not relevant with the application of Specified Michaels.

Specified Suit
This is a suit of which the lead may be required or forbidden, as the case may be, because of the occurrence of an irregularity prior in the auction or play.

Specific Trump Cuebids
Proposed by Mr. Ian McCance and published in the July 1981 issue of the Bridge World magazine, the concept is that in a cuebidding situation attempting to discover the possibility of a slam contract, the bid of 4 No Trump would not indicate any variation of Blackwood, but rather would indicate either the Ace or King of the trump suit, but not both. Bypassing the bid of 4 No Trump by any player would promise neither the Ace or King of the trump suit or both. In the auction, where one partner of the 4 No Trump bidder indeed bids 5 No Trump, this bid promises the other trump Key Card, the bid being based on the goal of a grand slam. Any bid of 5 No Trump by either partner, if the bid of 4 No Trump has been skipped, promises either the Queen of the trump suit or the combined known length of the trump suit being at least 10 cards. Mr. Ian McCance also suggested strongly that this feature should be combined with a strict first-round control bidding feature before beginning second-round control bids.

Specified Michaels
This conventional method is employed after the opponents have opened the auction with one of a Major suit. The rank of the Major suit is not relevant with the application of Specified Michaels.

Spectator
A person who watches a bridge tournament without participating. A Kibitzer is also a spectator, but his presence is limited to a particular table. Conduct of the spectator is governed by the Law 11 and Law 76.

LAW 11 - FORFEITURE OF THE RIGHT TO PENALISE

A. Action by Non-Offending Side

The right to penalise an irregularity may be forfeited if either member of the non-offending side takes any action before summoning the Director. The Director so rules when the non-offending side may have gained through subsequent action taken by an opponent in ignorance of the penalty.

B. Irregularity Called by Spectator

1. Spectator Responsibility of Non-Offending Side

The right to penalise an irregularity may be forfeited if attention is first drawn to the irregularity by a spectator for whose presence at the table the non-offending side is responsible.

2. Spectator Responsibility of Offending Side

The right to correct an irregularity may be forfeited if attention is first drawn to the irregularity by a spectator for whose presence at the table the offending side is responsible.

C. Penalty after Forfeiture of the Right to Penalise

Even after the right to penalise has been forfeited under this law, the Director may assess a procedural penalty (see Law 90).

LAW 76 - SPECTATORS

A. Conduct during Bidding or Play

1. One Hand Only

A spectator should not look at the hand of more than one player, except by permission.

2. Personal Reaction

A spectator must not display any reaction to the bidding or play while a deal is in progress.

3. Mannerisms or Remarks

During the round, a spectator must refrain from mannerisms or remarks of any kind (including conversation with a player).

4. Consideration for Players

A spectator must not in any way disturb a player.

B. Spectator Participation

A spectator may not call attention to any irregularity or mistake, nor speak on any question of fact or law except by request of the Director.

Speedball Pairs or Speedball Swiss Teams
In the Fast Pairs game the speed of play is increased by a major factor. Instead of the usual seven to eight minutes allowed to play each board, the game is set up so that boards must be completed in five minutes. Sometimes this permits more boards to be played; more often this type of game results in a game finishing at an earlier time. Such a game often is called a Fast Pairs. This event is frequently offered as a late-night game during a sectiona, a regional, or an NABC. It is sometimes flighted or stratified.

Speedball
This is a bridge event with an unusually fast time limit, such as Zip Swiss, and played normally around midnight or it could be a day time event, but in any case leaves the evening open for the actual competition.

Speedball Swiss Teams
Speed of play is a major factor. Each match consists of five boards, and an average of only five minutes per board is allowed for play, 25 minutes per round. Usually five rounds are played, and the event sometimes is called a five-five-five Swiss. This event frequently is a late-night game during a section, regional or NABC. It is sometimes flighted or stratified.

Spingold - Spingold Trophy
This trophy was donated by Mr. Nathan Spingold in 1934 for the World Championship Masters Team-of-Four and which was played as a separate knock-out event. In 1938, this event became a part of the Summer NABC events, and superseded the City of Asbury Park Trophy event. It is one of the most highly sought after trophy in bridge, because the Spingold plays a major factor in selecting the American representatives for world championship events.

Mini-Spingold I
This event debuted in 2001 in Toronto and 72 teams entered the contest. The qualification was that the player could have between zero masterpoints and 5000 masterpoints. The events are national bridge championshipsand are conducted at the summer American Contract Bridge League's (ACBL) North American Bridge Championship (NABC). These events are held at the same time as the main Spingold Knockout (KO) team competition. The Mini-Spingold is a knock-out team event. These events typically last from five to six days with each day being a round consisting of two sessions of 28 boards.

The winners are listed below:

Year   City   Teams   Winners   Runner-Ups
2001   Toronto   72   Brian Johnston, John Lloyd, Bill Woodcock, Gary Whiteman, Brooke Nelles, Dale Freeman   Howard Gianera, Barry Purrington, Vernon Evans, Monte, Evans, John Koch, Tony Ames
2002   Washington DC   53   Howard Einberg, Michael Mikyska, Alan Myerson, Jim Glickman, David Sokolow   John Hodges, Lynn Johannsen, Dale Johannsen, Franklin Lowenthal
2003   Long Beach   41   Barbara Wallace, Mark Yaeger, Lisa Kow, Rick Pavlicek Jr., Brian Gunnell   Marjorie Michelin, David Anding, Kenneth Titow, Ed Ulman, Andrew Vinock
2004   New York   40   Larry Mohr, Alex Hong, Shi Yan, Hao Ge, Yi Liu   Keith Connoly, Andrew de Sosa, Bob Rebelein, Morrie Kleinplatz
2005   Atlanta   51   Walt Murphy, Julie Murphy, Steve DeVico, Gayle Covey, Elliott Grubman, Ava Grubman   Richard Wegman, Arnold Malasky, Gloria Silverman Bart, Jim Russell
2006   Chicago   51   Jacob Morgan, James Melville, Will Engel, Martin Harris   Paul Stern, Daniel Levin, James O'Neil, Christopher Monsour
2007   Nashville   61   James Gordon, Karl Hicks, Michael Betts, Brian Alexander   Bud Biswas, Nathan Glasser, Susan Winkler, Randy Okubo

Mini- Spingold II
This event debuted in 2001 in Toronto and 72 teams entered the contest. The qualification was that the player could have between zero masterpoints and 1500 masterpoints. The events are national bridge championshipsand are conducted at the summer American Contract Bridge League's (ACBL) North American Bridge Championship (NABC). These events are held at the same time as the main Spingold Knockout (KO) team competition. The Mini-Spingold is a knock-out team event. These events typically last from five to six days with each day being a round consisting of two sessions of 28 boards.

The winners are listed below:

Year   City   Teams   Winners   Runner-Ups
2001   Toronto   72   Bob Hollow, Motaz Farag, Jim Brickman, Bill Kertes, Leo Takefman, Irving Goodman   Larry Friedman, Jennifer Gianera, Jerry Poliquin, Larry Delefs, Ala Sobol, Meleva Jobin
2002   Washington DC   53   Bob Hollow, Motaz Farag, Gabriel Tawil, Theo Lichtenstein   Maeve Mahon, John Segal, Russell Friedman, Allan Wolf
2003   Long Beach   36   Matt Meckstroth, Rob Meckstroth, Rich Regan, James Hawkes, Andrew Hurd   Bruce Blakely, Fred Stout, Nancy Ferguson, David Bryant
2004   New York   32   Mark Teaford, Norton Rimer, Myron Rimer, Ronald Resnick   Doris Banks, Christine Woodring, Paul Lenoble, Lew Kroll
2005   Atlanta   34   Nancy Ferguson, David Bryant, Bruce Blakely, Dmitri Shabes   Nicolas Hammond, Martin Nathan, Maureen McGuire, Edward Foran, John Hassett, Robert Temosky
2006   Chicago   43   Edward Foran, Nicolas Hammond, John Hassett, Steve Callaham   Eric Hendrickson, Matthew Bribitzer-Stull, Jason Bribitzer-Stull, Richard Lawson
2007   Nashville   41   Matt Meckstroth, Daniel Goldfein, Sam Katz, Robert Glickman   Owen Lien, Eric Sieg, Zachary Brescoll, David Coberly, Mike Develin, Eric Mayefsky

Spiral
This concept was introduced in the Symmetric Relay system. A player who has already defined his holding accurately is asked by a response from his partner to "scan" his holding again, looking for high cards or honors in a set order. Through relay bids, these top cards are revealed. A minimum step denies a top card in the longest suit. A minimum step plus 1 indicates a top card in the longest suit but denies one in the second-longest suit, etc. This treatment is generally used in the Romex system after Blackwood has been introduced, but also in other situations.

See: Denial Cuebids. Denial Cuebids form a method of showing the location of honors. The bidding sequence was first developed by Mr. Roy Kerr in association with other bridge players in New Zealand, and which was used as part of the Symmetric Relays. The concept has also been attributed to Mr. David Leigh Cliff. This concept has achieved several interpretations over the years and has been designated by different authors with different names such as Sprial Scan Cuebids (or Spiral), designated by Mr. George Rosenkranz of Mexico.

Spiral Scan by Mr. George Rosenkranz
The following is a description of the Spiral Scan originated by Mr.George Rosenkranz. The conventional method is used for uncovering key side-suit Kings and Queens. Using the Spiral Scan, the bridge player does not have to ask for cards already held. The player can immediately zero in on the card, which is hopefully the partner holds.

Spit Regional
A tournament with regional rating held in online play. Few sequences are defined in the later rounds of Standard Yellow Card auctions. The players are at liberty to assign forcing, invitational, or non-forcing meanings to natural calls in such sequences. The players may also exercis their bridge judgments, for example in the decision to open a 4-card Major suit in third seat.

Spash Convention
The origin of the Splash convention is unknown, but is rumored to have roots in bidding systems employed in Australia. The designation is an acronym of the phrase Suit Plus A Suit Higher.

Splimit - This is a variation of the Truscott Two No Trump conventional method to show, after a double by the opponent, shortage in a side suit and at the same time a Limit Raise of the suit of the partner. The designation is a combination of Splinter and Limit Raise.

Splinter Bid
The concept or conventional method was developed independently by Mr. David Leigh Cliff in the year 1963, who was the first to publish an article relating to this concept, and by Dorothy Hayden, who later married Mr. Alan Truscott and was addressed as Mrs. Dorothy Hayden Truscott. She was born on November 3, 1925 and died on July 4, 2006.

Splinter Responses to a 1 No Trump Opening
The origin of this conventional method is unknown. It is a concept, whereby the responder employs a three-level jump to show a singleton or a void in the suit bid. The action strongly indicates slam interest. The establishment of a trump suit occurs in the ensuing auction. If no fit is found, then the partnership considers playing in No Trump. This action by the responder normally indicates a holding worth a minimum of 10 high card points, but in general is based more of the principle of the Losing Trick Count Method, and on the fact that the holding of the responder is either a one-suiter or at most a two-suited holding. Continuances are basically a matter of partnership agreement such as how the trump suit is established, and how to deal with immediate interference.

Although this conventional method can be singularly employed, it is generally played in combination with Four Suit Transfer Bids or Minor Suit Transfer Bids and also Jacoby Transfer Bids to the Major suits.

Empathetic Splinters
This term is defined as a call, in simple form, that essentially shows interest in a slam if partner has a singleton in the suit bid. Mr. Kenneth Rexford, Esq. describes this concept more in detail on his blog Cuebidding At Bridge. This online article has only been preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.

Split
1. to play one of a group of cards equivalent in rank, usually applied to honor cards;
2. the distribution of missing cards. For example: a two-two split of four missing cards.

Split Menace
This term describes a threat that depends on values in both hands of the side executing a squeeze.

Split Regional
This is a tournament event with regional rating held at two separated sites within an ACBL district.

Splitting Honors
The play of an honor in second position from two or more sequential cards.

Split No Trump
A term to describe a weak No Trump opening when non-vulnerable, and a strong No Trump opening when vulnerable.

Sponsor
1. the organizing organization of a tournament;
2. the person who hires a partner and/or teammates.

Sport of Bridge
The Game of Bridge has been recognized by many governments of the world as a Sport.

Sportsman of the Year
This award is known as the John E. Simon Award. This award has been suspended and is temporarily inactive. Mr. John E. Simon was born in 1897 and died in 1993 of St. Louis, Missouri. He was named an ACBL Honorary Member and was Life Master #641. He donated this award for presenting the best sportsmanship at the bridge table.

Spot
Slang: a term for the contract.

Spot Cards
These are cards ranking below the Jack or any card from the deuce through and including the Ten. It has been mathematically estimated that of all the 13 tricks, about 8 are won with the honors, and the remaining 5 tricks are won with spot cards.

Note: Mr. Fred Karpin, of Silver Springs, Maryland, United States, bridge teacher, lecturer, author, and ghost-writer of many of the bridge columns published in national newspapers, composed an article about spot cards and their importance for The Official Encyclopedia of Bridge. This article is only preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.

Spread
1. to put down the dummy;
2. Slang: a laydown;
3. to reveal one's cards during a claim or concession;
4. the difference between the minimum and maximum values shown by a particular bid.

Spread or Strong Pass Relay Ever Avoiding Defending
Presented on the Internet by Mr. Mark Abraham at the above link. This system is a major advance within the SCRAPE framework. It features a strong pass with variable-captaincy relays for positive responses that ensure an unbalanced hand shows shape opposite a balanced hand whenever this occurs. The 1 and 1 openings are double-under transfers with immediate differentiation of game-forcing relay, invitational probe and non-forcing auctions. Two fert openings of 1 and 1 are used - the former with all very weak hands and those with Hearts, and the latter with maximum non-opening hands that do not hold a Heart suit. 1NT is weak with no Major and the Minor one-suiters and two-suiters are treated with 2 and 2 openings. Enhanced relay structures are found throughout, improving right-siding of contracts. Relayer has the option to ask for AKQ, AK or A controls after full shape resolution, and after an AKQ-showing response, the new King parity technique developed by Mr. David Morgan is used to improve denial cue-bidding effectiveness. Competitive bidding agreements are treated in detail. This .pdf file has also only been archived on this site for future reference.

Spread or Strong Pass Relay Ever Avoiding Defending - Opening Bids Only
Authored by Mr. Mark Abraham and published online in its latest updated version in the year 2005. This system is a major advance within the SCRAPE framework (Strong Club Relay Avoiding Passing Ever). An alternative designation is the acronym SPREAD.

Spring North American Bridge Championships
This annual championship was formerly called the Spring Nationals and was first held in 1958. The most important event is the Vanderbilt Knockout Teams.

Spring Stayman
Generally played in France this concept allows the partnership to determine more accurately the distributional holding of the No Trump bidder, even the distribution of the Minor suits since the concept can also allow the discovery of a 4-4 or 5-4 Minor suit fit.

Sputnik
See: Negative Double.

Square Hand
A bridge hand of 4-3-3-3 distribution. Also referred to as a square hand, a flat hand, and a round hand.

Squeeze
A play which forces an opponent to discard a card he needs, often a potential winner.

Squeeze Card
A card which, when led, effects a squeeze upon one or both of the opponents, forcing one or both opponents to discard a guard or a potential winner.

Squeeze Card: a card that strangles the opponent's hand, like a boa contrictor, and forces him to sacrifice a winner, a guard, an entry, an advantage, a tempo - well, anything that would profit the other side. The squeeze card is often a winner, but can also be a losing card played by the declarer (submarine squeeze) or a winner played by the opponents (suicide squeeze). Source: The Encyclopedia of Card Play Techniques at Bridge, author Guy Leve, page 271. Direct quote.

Squeezed Position
During the evolution of bridge play, it was discovered that the play of a certain card forced an opponent, or both opponents, to discard a potential winner or a guard. It was Mr. Sidney Lenz who analyzed this feature of play. There are many such squeeze plays and each have been analyzed by different bridge players, who have loaned their name to a particular squeeze play. To view some of the forms and types of squeezes, please see: Squeezes

Squeezee
in card games, especially those card games based on the game of Whist and those card games following thereafter, a squeezee is a player who is squeezed, in other words the player is forced to play a card, and any card the squeezed player can legally play results in a loss. This loss may be material, for example establishing a winner for the other side, or immaterial, resulting in a loss of an exit card in case of a Strip Squeeze.

Squeeze Finesse
The squeeze finesse is similar to the guard squeeze. In each instance, the declarer threatens to take a successful finesse. The squeeze finesse is characterized by the presence of a symmetric menace which must be guarded with an equal number of cards by both opponents. In the guard squeeze, the opponents are not equally threatened.

Squeeze Mnemonics
These are acronyms used as helpful hints necessary for the success of a squeeze. Three popular ones are:

1. BLUE, devised by Mr. Clyde Love

B: busy — one defender busy in two suits;
L: loser — one loser remaining;
U: upper — at least one threat in upper hand;
E: entry — to the threat card

2. EFG, by Mr. George Coffins, meaning Enter Freedom, Force the Guards.

E: entry — to the threat card;
F: forcing card;
G: guards — in one defender’s hand

3. STEM, by Mr. John Brown

S: share-out or substance
T: timing — count has been rectified
E: entries — to the threat card
M: menaces

Squeeze - Psychic Squeeze - Slavenburg Coup
This particular squeeze situation was reported in the Daily Bulletin of the European Open Pairs, which were conducted at The Hague, The Netherlands, in 1997. Irena Choddorowska reported this story to the journalists of the Daily Bulletin: Bulletin 5. She also reported that this particular action was referred to as the Slavenburg Coup. It was achieved by Jarek Kolton on a deal from the first session:

Board 12 - North/South Game -Dealer: West

 
North
Spades AK1053
Hearts Q2
Diamonds 972
Clubs 1043
 
West
Spades AK1053
Hearts Q2
Diamonds 972
Clubs 1043
East
Spades AK1053
Hearts Q2
Diamonds 972
Clubs 1043
South
Spades AK1053
Hearts Q2
Diamonds 972
Clubs 1043
 
 
West   North   East   South
    Kolton       Zajkiewicz
1Clubs   1 Spades   Double   Pass
2 Diamonds   Pass   2 Spades   Pass
3 Hearts   Pass   4 Diamonds   All Pass

West opened a Strong Club, and East's double showed at least six points. As the cards lie, with the Clubs so favourably placed and North unable to ruff higher than dummy on the third Heart, it looks as if declarer should have no trouble in making 12 tricks. The defence began with two rounds of Spades. Declarer trumped and went for Heart ruffs. On the third round North threw a Spade. The Heart was ruffed in dummy and declarer came back to hand with a trump to lead a fourth Heart. North could not afford another Spade discard so it looks natural to let a Club go.

However, Kolton saw that this would reveal the Club position. So, mentally placing himself with the Queen of Clubs, he discarded a small trump. West over-ruffed in dummy, ruffed a third Spade to come back to hand, and cashed the rest of his trumps. On the last trump North had to keep his Spade, as dummy still had the nine, so North had no choice but to throw a Club.

Declarer was a competent player and his mind went back to North's earlier discard of a trump.Yes, it looked as if North held the Queen of Clubs and had been squeezed by the last trump. Feeling satisfied with himself, declarer rejected the Club finesse and was surprised when North followed to the second round with the ten. He had been held to 11 tricks by North's psychic squeeze.

Squeeze Suitout
The Principle of Squeeze Establishment was called the Delayed Duck Squeeze by Mr. Clyde E. Love, and called the Squeeze Suitout by Mr. George S. Coffin.

Squeeze Without The Count
A squeeze in which the squeeze card is followed by the loss of one or more tricks to the opponents. It is also called a Secondary Squeeze and Strip-Squeeze.

Sri Lanka
Bridge Federation of Sri Lanka

Contact Address
97 Castle str.
8 Colombo
Sri Lanka
Telephone: 94-1-691 823
Facsimile: 94-1-686 670

STAB - Special Trump Asking Bid
This is an acronym for the designation of Special Trump Asking Bid, and the concept is employed in the Romex System originated by Mr. George Rosenkranz. Once a partner has opened the auction with a strong, artificial 2 Clubs opening and the responder bids 2 Diamonds, which indicates at least one control, and the opening partner jump rebids either 3 Hearts or 3 Spades (either Major suit), then this jump rebid establishes the trump suit and initiates an Ace-asking auction. The difference between the Romex Trump Asking Bid and the Romex Special Trump Asking Bid is that the Romex Trump Asking Bid can also be employed following a 1 No Trump opening in addition to a strong, artificial 2 Clubs opening.

Stack
1. This means that the cards are stacked against a player when only one opponent holds all, or almost all, of the cards in a critical suit;
2. to stack a deck means to arrange the cards in an undealt deck in order to put predetermined holdings into one or several hands, in other words, cheating.

Stacked
Slang: to describe a situation whereby some or all of the cards are unfavorably distributed, generally for the declarer, as in the cards were stacked against you and all finesses lost.

Stagger Movement
This is a movement for an even number of teams and allows scoring to begin at the halfway mark. The movement is identical to the American Whist movement where boards are moved up one table, while sharing with the adjacent table, for example Tables 1 and 5, Tables 2 and 6, etc.

Stakes
The element of money factored into the game of bridge has always been the case. The amount of money wagered is a personal decision by the players and can range from $0.001 to any range above this.

Stamps Representing the Game of Bridge
Although a relatively unknown fact, several governments around the world have been issuing and have issued postal stamps pertaining to the game of bridge for many years. This is more so in those countries, in which the game of bridge has been determined to be a sport and which has been recognized by the government as such.

Stand
Slang: to pass the takeout or penalty double of one’s partner.

Standard American
A rather vague term to describe the methods of bidding and playing mostly played in the United States. This method has evolved over the years and has incorporated many of the new methods which have been developed and accepted by the bridge community.

Standard American Yellow Card
A simplified version of the American Standard, which can be used to assist individual bridge players in playing with other fellow bridge players, who do not have a regular partnership for a bridge event, or which can be used for online bridge events as a foundation for a partnership agreement. Clicking on the following SAYC.pdf file will cause your computer to automatically download the file and open the file with Adobe Acrobat Reader.

Standard Bidding
The partnership understanding, which is employed by most bridge players. This situation changes most often due to geographical locations and by country.

Standard Cambridge
This is a .pdf file compiled by Mr. Robin Michaels. The opening bids for Standard Cambridge are included as are the continuations also. This information is only preserved on this site for future reference.

Stand Off
1. a term for a rubber with no net score;
2. a hand in which honor scores are offset by undertrick penalties;
3. a deal in a team game where neither team gains a higher score.

Stand Up
When playing defense, this is a high card that wins a trick, until it is trumped by the declarer.

Stanza Howell
This is a type of Howell movement for pairs or individuals which is split into several stanzas, or segments, and is normally played in several sessions with one stanza each session. In a Stanza Howell for individuals, each player will have each other player as a partner one and an opponent twice during the session.

Stanza Movement
A method of conducting a combined-section pairs game whereby the scoring of the first half of the game can be completed while the second half is actually taking place. This method was devised by Mr. Maury Braunstein.

Star Clubs
This is the designation for a bridge club playing games, which are sanctified by the ACBL, and that has qualified for recognition in that it performs a certain level of preferred services, programs, and games, which has been discontinued. There were three levels: one-star, two-star, and three-star, with the three-star rating being the highest rating. The criteria was as follows:

One-Star: Uses ACBL score.
Has a Zero Tolerance Program.
Is affiliated with a Teaching Program.
Participates in at least two ACBL special events.
Recruits at least one new ACBL member through the club per year.
Has a New Player Services Program (Host/Hostess for all games).
Guarantees partners.
Two-Star: All of the above and ....
Offers a game for limited MP players.
Recruits six or more new ACBL members for the club per year.
Has a Bridge Tip before limited masterpoint game(s).
Offers an Easybridge, Bridge Plus+, or equivalent game.
Has a non-playing director for the majority of games.
Shows an annual increase in tables.
Three-Star: All of the above and ....
Recruits 20 new members for the club duing the year.
Has a mentoring program.
Has a club newsletter (or club website).
Host a special IN activity at least once a year.
Offers a social activity once a month.

Star Recruiter
This is the designation for a teacher or club official who has recruited at least 100 new members (no time restriction) since the program began in January of 2002.

Stationary
This term refers to players or a player, who remain sitted in the same seats or seat at the same table in the same direction throughout the tournament or event.

Stayman - Stayman Variations - Stayman Response Methods
The concept and the principle behind the original Stayman convention has been varied, modified, and altered to accomodate different distributional holdings. A list of these different methods is presented.

Stayman After a 2 No Trump Opening
This partnership understanding allows the partnership to determine whether only a partscore is possible and also whether only game or slam is possible by the use of the first responses in the Minor suits.

Stayman and The Minor Suits
This variation of the Stayman convention deals with long Minor suits and how to bid them.

Stayman Convention and Stayman Variations
The initial concept of the conventional method designated as Stayman was employed in the early days of the game of bridge by Mr. Ewart Kempson, 1895-1966, of England and was further developed by Mr. Seca Jascha Skidelsky, or Mr. S. J. Simon, or better known just as Skid, born in the year 1904, in Harbin, Manchuria, and died in the year 1948, to exchange additional information about the holding of partner following an opening of 1 No Trump.

Stayman Convention
The agreement between two partners when one partner opens the auction with 1 or 2 No Trump, that the response of 2 Clubs is asking whether the No Trump bidder has a 4-card major. The minimum requirement for the responder is that he holds at least 8HCPs and a 4-card major suit. The history of the Stayman Convention is sometimes confusing because it was Mr. George Rapee who developed the concept. However, it was first published by his friend and longtime partner Mr. Samuel Stayman in The Bridge World magazine in 1945, and the bridge community referred to it as the Stayman Convention. A similar concept was played in the Thirties by Ewart Kempson in England, and a group of bridge players in Boston, Massachusetts, consisting mainly of Mr. Lawrence Weiss and Mr. Jack C.H. Marx of England devised an identical concept in 1939, which was slightly improved by Mr. S.J. Simon. However, the approach of the war prevented the publication, because of the lack of paper available for printing. It was not until 1946 that the article describing this concept appeared in the Contract Bridge Journal.

The New Improved Stayman Convention
The concept of the Stayman conventional method was revised and/or improved by Mr. Easley Blackwood in his publication Blackwood On Bidding, in association with Mr. Stanley Mc Comas, published 1956 by The Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana, and New York, New York, Chapter 17, pages 123 - 127, Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 56-13044.

Stayman For Stoppers
With a singleton and/or void in one of the Major suits, this variation assists the partnership to seek stoppers held by the No Trump bidder. See: Two Way Stayman.

Stayman In Doubt
This variation of the Stayman conventional method is employed when the responder holds game values, has found a Major suit fit with partner, but remains uncertain as to whether a game contract in No Trump or the Major suit is preferable.

Stayman On The Second Round
This method is employed on the second round once a partner has made a certain No Trump rebid. This concept can only be applied to bidding sequences, in which No Trump is a rebid. Unofficial designations can also be Puppet Stayman On The Second Round or Checkback Puppet Stayman.

Stayman Opening Bids
Mr. Samuel M. Stayman, in the early days of the game of bridge, devised a list of opening bids as the basic foundation for a partnership agreement. In his publication The Complete Stayman System of Contract Bidding, published by Rinehart and Company in the year 1956, he outlined his bidding system and included the opening bids.

Stayman Showing Stoppers
In certain partnership agreements the idle bid of 2 Diamonds is used as a method of discovering whether the partnership has the Major suits stopped for a final contract in No Trump.

Stayman Three Clubs
This is the Stayman response by the partner after a 2 No Trump opening to ask for a 4-card major suit. The responses by the opener are the same as had the opener bid 1 No Trump. A different variation was devised by Mr. George Rosenkrantz, which is his bidding structure after a 2 No Trump opening.

1. 3 Diamonds denies five Spades, denies four or five Hearts, denies both Major suit. A 3 Hearts relay asks for a four-card Spade suit and 4 Spades shows a four-card Spade suit.
2. 3 Hearts shows four or five Hearts, and a relay of 3 Spades asks for 3 No Trump with four Hearts.
3. 3 Spades shows a 5-card Spade suit.
4. 3 No Trump shows 4-4 in the Major suits.

Steal
1. when pertaining to a trick, to win with an unusually low card;
2. when referring to a trick, to win without losing the lead;
3. when describing the tempo, to gain time needed to perform some other function or deprive the opponents of such time;
4. when pertaining to a contract, to make through deception when there was a way to defend successfully. In this situation, the term also refers to a successful deceptive defense which is not normally as such applied and/or employed;
5. when describing the auction, to become the declarer at an unexpectedly low contract when the opponents could have profitably bid a higher contract.

Stenberg Convention
The origin of Stenberg is not known, but it is a variation on the Limit Major Raises. The year of the origin of Stenberg is unknown, but the conventional method is named for the Swedish master and theoretician Mr. Alvar Stenberg, who introduced the Stenberg convention into the praxis of Sweden's bridge community.

Step
To bid one bid higher than the previous bid. For example: 1 Diamond is one step higher than 1 Club.

Step Bid or Response
A bid or response whose meaning derives from the number of steps it is above the previous bid.

Step Responses to a Strong Artificial Two Clubs Opening
These are responses to a strong, artificial Two Clubs opening. They are more commonly referred to as controls (See: Control Showing Responses) since the responder responds by showing controls, counting Kings as one control and Aces as two controls.

Steppingstone Squeeze
This is a secondary squeeze, analyzed and named by Mr. Terence Reese, in which the opponents must choose between a throw-in and a suit establishment play, each of which allows the declarer to gain a trick.

Steps Against Insufficient Raises - STAIR
This is a conventional method with the sole purpose of communicating information to partner following a suit raise by the partner of the opener, which is insufficient. Depending on whether or not it becomes opportune for the non-offending side to accept or not to accept the insufficient bid, certain information can be communicated via this decision. Mr. Jon Schuster describes this conventional method in the Sunshine Bridge News of District 9, page 22. This bridge-related material has only been archived and preserved on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.

Stern System
See: Vienna System

Stephen Levy Screenplay - Cards On The Table
A screenplay written by Mr. Stephen Levy, bridge teacher and author. Nothing has been changed to the original manuscript, and is reproduced here with the specific permission of Mr. Stephen Levy.

Gerald Steuernagle Award
Mr. Jerry Steuernagle, born 1940 and died 1971, was one of the most liked and respected bridge players in Cincinnati. He was particularly known for his sense of humor and for always a gentleman at the bridge table. Since 1972 the Cincinnati Bridge Association has presented the Gerald Steuernagle Award annually to the most outstanding CBA player of the year. The Award is based on four factors: 1. The nominee's contribution to the promotion of duplicate bridge; 2. The nominee's action in setting high ethical standards; 3. The nominee's compassion, sportsmanship, and sense of humor; 4. The nominee's willingness to help less experienced players.

Sticks and Wheels
An English-based colloquial term, that refers to a final score of 1100, or "11" (sticks) and "00" (wheels).

Stiff
1. Slang: singleton, mostly used to refer to a major honor, unsupported by additional low cards;
2. Slang: to blank or to discard the guards as in stiff the Ace of Spades, which means that the player, in order to win a possible trick, should discard all remaining cards in Spades except the Ace;
3. Slang: to denote a singleton.

Stitch Bidding System
This bidding system is devised and developed by Mr. Jochen Rich and is presented on his website. The main strategy for Stitch is to hook the suits together like a stitch. A 1 minor opening either means 4 of the stitched Major or 5 of the Minor. This has several advantages. First, the opposition does not know what your bid meant if that was the only bid you made. Second, you are more able to find a 4-4 major fit, since you have ways of differentiating 4 and 3 card suits. Third, you can open every hand that would normally get opened (basically, Rule of 20 openings). Fourth, because 1-level minor openings are forcing, you can actually pack fairly strong bids into them. Finally, because so much can be packed into a minor suit opening, 1 NT and 2 NT can be much more authoritative bids. This bidding system is only archived and preserved on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.

St. Kitts and Nevis: St. Kitts Bridge Association - Contacts

St. Lucia Bridge Association - Contacts

Stolen Bid Doubles
The origin of this treatment is unknown. Also known as Shadow Doubles and sometimes also as Double of a Cuebid. This is a colloquial expression for bidding sequences when the opponents have intervened and the intervention is the suit, which one partner conventionally decided to bid after the opening by partner.

For example, North has opened the auction with 1 No Trump and South has a 4-card Major suit and wishes to employ Stayman to ask. However, before South has an opportunity to bid 2 Clubs, East overcalls the No Trump opening with 2 Clubs. By doubling, South communicates to North that East has stolen my bid, and is asking for a 4-card Major suit.

Another example is when North opens the bidding with 1 No Trump, East overcalls with 2 Diamonds, and South wanted to transfer his partner to Hearts by bidding 2 Diamonds. The favored conventional method is to simply double, meaning: Partner, East stole my bid.

These so-called stolen bids generally apply to the first round of bidding and can be employed in the above mentioned bidding sequences. Any double following a stolen bid later in the auction is normally considered to be for penalty.

Stone Age ACOL With Pakistani Preempts
A complex system developed by Mr. Munir Ataullah of Pakistan, in which all opening bids between 2 Clubs and 4 Diamonds have various meanings, as many as seven possible meanings. The type of holding such as the suit quality, the suit length, the suit strength is identified by the subsequent bids.

Stop
1. an exclamation to inform the opponents of a special occurrence such as a skip-bid warning;
2. a stopper.

Stop Bid
This bid fixes the final contract and dictates that the partner should pass. However, under certain conditions, the partner may have a good reason to continue the auction in the case that the partner has not yet fully exchanged sufficient information.

Stoplight Convention
The origin of this conventional method is unknown. The intent of the concept is that a light opening by one partner is recognized, after a forcing response, by partner to possibly stop short of game. This is accomplished by employing an artificial rebid which informs the responder that opener holds a very light opening, hence the designation: "Stop - Light". This concept is similar to the Wolff Sign Off method. This article has been contributed by Mr. Marvin French of San Diego, California, and which, as a .pdf file, will be automatically opened by your browser. An article about the conventional method of Stoplight was published in Popular Bridge magazine, February 1978. The article won second place in the International Bridge Press Association's Awards for Best Article or Series on a System or Convention (C. C. Wei "Precision" Award). It was also published in the Contract Bridge Forum, August/September 1982. It is included in the book Bridge Conventions Complete, by Amalya Kearse.

Stopper
This is a card which can be expected to stop the run of a suit, or does stop the suit from being run. The term also applies to a certain requested card during the auction, especially when the auction will most likely end in a No Trump contract.

Stopper-Ask
This term refers to a call that asks the partner to bid No Trump with a stopper in the suit or suits of the opponents.

Stopper-Bid
This term refers to a call that promises or strongly suggests a stopper in the suit or suits bid by the opponents.

Stopping On A Dime
This means to stop one trick short of game or slam and making exactly the number of tricks bid.

Strachan Rebids After Short Diamond
The origin of this conventional method is unknown. We have no information regarding the continuances regarding rebids after an opening of one of a suit. If any visitor is able to supply us with additional information, we would greatly appreciate the information. See: Orange Book 2002.

Strain
A term referring to all four suits and No Trump. It is the non-numerical element of a bid and refers only to the denomination.

Stratified
The designation for a type of game movement where all players are assigned to a group (strat) based on their current masterpoint holdings. Each contestant plays against players of all point ranges. Masterpoints are awarded to leaders of each strat. If a Strat C player scored better than one of the leaders in Strat B (a higher-ranked strat), the Strat C player will be awarded the points for Strat B.

Stratified by Expertise Pairs
A preset limit on masterpoints is set. If both members of the partnership are over the limit, they are in Strat A. If one is over and one is under, they are in Strat B. If both are under, then the pair is in Strat C. Otherwise the conditions are similar to those of regular Stratified Pairs.

Stratified Pairs
This type of game is different from most others because it produces more than one set of winners. The field is divided into two or three strata, each with a predetermined maximum and minimum masterpoint limitation. The tournament directors attempt to seed the field in such a manner that approximately equal numbers of players from each stratum are competing in each direction. During the course of the event, pairs from each strata play pairs from all other strata.

All pairs in the event are ranked when computing the overalls in the top stratum. The pairs in the top stratum are then eliminated and a second set of rankings is determined for the pairs remaining. Next the pairs in the second stratum are also eliminated and a third ranking is done for the third stratum. It is possible for pairs in the second and third strata to place in a higher stratum, but pairs in the top stratum are eligible for awards only in the top stratum.

The stratum in which a pair plays is determined by the member of the pair who has the most masterpoints. Unlike flighted events, pairs do not have a choice of strata. They are automatically placed in the lowest stratum for which they are eligible.

The game is run like an ordinary open pairs, although usually the field is carefully seeded so that each Strat A pair plays against all Strat A pairs in the section against which they are competing.

Stratified Teams
A Swiss Team event that produces more than one set of winners. The event is run along exactly the same lines as an Open Swiss Teams. Any team may be paired against teams from any of the other brackets.

The only difference comes in the rankings. First overall in the top stratum is determined by comparing all scores. Then the scores from the top stratum are eliminated and a second ranking takes place for the remaining teams. Next the scores from the second stratum are eliminated and a third ranking takes place.

It is possible for teams in the second and third strata to place in a higher stratum, but teams in the top stratum are eligible for awards only in the top stratum.

The stratum in which a team plays is determined by the player who has the greater number of masterpoints. Teams do not have a choice of strata. They are automatically placed in the lowest strata for which they are eligible.

Stratiflighted
This is an event which is a combination of flighted and stratified. The upper level strat has no masterpoint restriction and is played as a separate game. The other players are sub-divided into two or three strats with specific lower and upper masterpoint limits. Participants may enter either the unrestricted group or the stratified group with a masterpoint restriction for which they are eligible.

Stratiflighted Pairs
The Stratiflighted Pairs is almost identical to a Stratified Pairs with one major difference. The pairs in the top flight compete in a separate event, totally apart from the other strata (two or three strats). The top flight can be divided into two strata if preferred. The remaining pairs play a stratified game handled exactly like a Stratified Pairs. In other words, there are two games, both of which are run along the lines of an open pairs.

Stratum
An arbitrary division for a Stratified Pairs or a Stratified Teams event. All contestants are placed in groups determined by the masterpoint holding of the player with the most masterpoints.

Strefa Polish Bidding System or Strona przeznaczona do usuniecia
This is a Polish Bidding System presented in the languange of Poland. The English version was tranlated by Mr. Daniel Neill and posted to the Internet on September 2003. The author of this particular bidding system is unknown. This material has also been archived on this site in .pdf file format only for future reference.

Strefa System Notes
Compiles in English by Mr. Daniel Neill and posted to the Internet as of November 24, 2003. This write-up represents Version 2 as of October 1, 2003, and contains minor improvements, revisions, and adjustments.

Strength
The valuation of a hand or the top-card holding in a suit, considered either as stoppers in a No Trump contract, the ability to draw adversely held trumps, plus the trick-taking potential, or to establish long cards in any suit as winners.

Strength Showing Stayman
This variation of the Stayman conventional method is generally used when the partnership has agreed to open a strong No Trump with a point range between 16-18 points and balanced distribution. The No Trump bidder can show either minimum or maximum strength first before bidding a possible 4-card Major suit.

Stripe-tailed Ape Double
In the days of yore when the scoring methods of the game of bridge was evolving a certain Mr. Sam Scaffidi in cooperation, collaboration and possible conspiracy with Mr. John Lowenthal discovered that if the opponents doubled at the five level when the other two players were definitely heading towards a makeable slam contract, then the slam bidders might possibly consider playing at the five level doubled. (Note: at that time, when this scoring method was in effect, there were rare ocassions, whereby a redoulbe could achieve the same effect.)

Strip Play
1. a method of play by which a chosen opponent is deleted of cards in a certain suit, the purpose being of later allowing this opponent to win a trick in order to lead a suit desired by the declarer;
2. a method of play by which the declarer deletes the cards in a suit or suits in both his hand and the dummy, with the purpose of establishing a ruff-sluff situation for the declarer.

Strip-Squeeze
A squeeze in which the squeeze card is followed by the loss of one or more tricks to the opponents. It is also called a Secondary Squeeze and Squeeze Without The Count.

Striped-Tail Ape Double
A particularly inhibitory double of an opposing game contract made by a player whose card sense informs him that the opponents have good slam possibilities. By doubling the game contract, the opponents may decide for this contract instead of investigating slam. The result of a doubled game contract, even with the overtricks, would be less than if the slam were bid and made. The same strategy can be used after the opponents reach a small slam, if a grand slam could have been bid and made. Mr. John Lowenthal and Mr. Samuel Scaffidi used this term in an article in the Bridge Journal because the doubler flees like a striped-tail ape if confronted with a redouble.

Strong Club Relay Excessively Accentuating Majors or SCREAM
Presented on the Internet by Mr. Mark Abraham at the above link. This strong club system is the latest in the SCRAPE family. It features a strong Club with variable-captaincy relays for positive responses that ensure an unbalanced hand shows shape opposite a balanced hand whenever this occurs. The 1 and 1 opening are transfer-style, eaching show the next higher-ranking suit. Both of these deny the other Major (a sound tactical idea) and the 1 opening caters for those hands that have both Majors. The 1NT opening is approximately a weak notrump, but includes the 5-4 minor two-suited hands. Long-Minor hands are opened with 2 and 2. Enhanced relay structures are found throughout, improving right-siding of contracts. Relayer has the option to ask for AKQ, AK or A controls after full shape resolution, and after an AKQ-showing response, the new King Parity technique developed by Mr. David Morgan is used to improve denial cue-bidding effectiveness. Competitive bidding agreements are treated in detail. This .pdf file has also only been archived on this site for future reference.

Strong Kings And Tens
This is a defensive system used in England of leading honors against a No Trump contract. The lead of a King or Ten indicates a strong holding whereas the lead of any other high card indicates a weak holding.

Strong No Trump
The traditional or standard point count for an opening of 1 No Trump was always 16 to 18 high card points, with a distribution of 4-3-3-3, 4-4-3-2, or 5-3-3-2. Although the strong No Trump opening is still used by many partnerships, the conversion to the 15 to 17 high card points range has become more popular. Therefore, the range of 15 to 18 high card points has been adopted by many partnerships.

Strong No Trump After Passing or SNAP
A response of 1 No Trump by a passed hand indicates a strong bid with around 9 to 12 high card points, excluding distribution since the opening suit bid by his partner has not been supported. This application of the No Trump bid allows the bidding to remain in a low-level contract, especially if the partner has opened with a minimum hand after two passes. The No Trump response denies holding any 5-card Major, but a balanced hand.

Strong Pass
This is an element of several bidding systems which incorporates an opening pass indicating the values for an opening bid, whereas opening bids indicate less than opening values. The partner is normally required to bid even though he has less than opening values. The disadvantage to this strong pass is that the partnership must develop an entirely new defensive bidding system, which could hamper the bidding process as a whole.

Strong Suit
Any suit of four or more cards containing a minimum of 6 points.

Strong Two Bid
This is the traditional use of an opening two bid in a suit to show a hand which can almost guarantee game, or even slam. This is also referred to as the Culbertson Two Bid, the Forcing Two-Bid, or Demand Bid. It formed the foundation of the Culbertson system. However, during the evolution of the game of bridge, this method has been abandoned in favor of Weak Two Bids, the Acol Two Bid, etc.

Stub
Slang: a part-score.

Submarine
This is possibly the slang or short designation for TOSR or 4-Card Transfer-Oriented Canapé Symmetric Relay System, which is a bidding system featuring a strong Club opening, limited transfer-style one-level openings with a normal Weak No Trump range, game-forcing and invitational or better relay structures.

Submarine Squeeze
This is the concession of a trick by the declarer in order to correct the count for a squeeze. When the declarer surrenders a trick on a lead by the opponents, the declarer is "rectifying the count"; if the declarer concedes a trick when the declarer actually holds the lead, then this has become known as a submarine squeeze.

Substitute
1. when a player makes an illegal call, he may be required to substitute a legal call, and his partner may suffer the appropriate penalties, such as passing for the remainder of the auction;
2. if a player in rubber bridge replaces a member of the table, then he becomes a substitute;
3. a player in duplicate who has been allowed by the director to replace a player who is unable to continue the session;
4. reference to a board in team play introduced by the director after an irregularity has occurred that makes a normal result impossible.

Sucker Double
The sucker double is not a conventional method, competitive or otherwise, but rather a tactic employed by a player. It is the designation of a freely bid game or slam contract by a player, who relies completely on defensive high card strength. A disadvantage to such a double is the fact that the double seldom results in more than perhaps a small profit when played against good opponents. Conversely, the end result can result in a complete disaster for the partnership when the double assists the declarer to make the contract by finessing, for instance, the player, who doubled. However, it will prove more the case that the declaring side has unknown distribution strength, or even a void to compensate for the lack of high card points.

Sucker Play
This term identifies a card play tactic and strategy, that depends on a blunder or error in judgment by the defenders for its successful execution.

Suction Convention
This conventional defense method is ascribed and credited to Mr. Harold Feldheim of Hamden, Connecticut, United States. The suction conventional defense method is employed after the opponents open the auction with No Trump
.

Inverted Psycho Suction
The concept behind the conventional method designated inverted psycho suction is the development of Mr. Thomas Andrews. Following the orginal concept of psycho suction it was evident from the original version that the player would be able to minimize the number of times of being forced to pass instead of competing.

Psycho Suction
The concept behind the conventional method designated inverted psycho suction is the development of Mr. Thomas Andrews. Following the orginal concept of the original suction conventional method it was evident from the original version that the responder and the No Trump bidder could easily formulate a defense method to penalize the competition with a penalty double.

TWERB Suction
The origin of this conventional defense method is unknown. This defense method is employed after an opponent has opened the auction with No Trump. This defense method is a variation of the Suction convention as is mainly used in TWERB or Two-Way Exclusion Relay Bidding. It has therefore been give the designation Twerb Suction.

Suction Redwood
The origin of this conventional defense method is unknown. The Suction Redwood conventional defense method is employed against an immediate overcall of No Trump by the opponent on the one level.

Sufficient Bid
This is a bid of the same number of a higher ranking denomination or of a greater number in a lower ranking suit or the same denomination. In case the requirements of the penalty for an insufficient call or bid allows a player to substitute a sufficient bid, a double of an opponent’s bid may not be substituted, even though this call is a legal call.

Suicide Squeeze
Through inaccurate defense, it is possible that one defender may put a squeeze on his partner. Although totally unintentional, this situation may under certain circumstances not be unavoidable. Also referred to as the Cannibal Squeeze.

Suit
1. one of the four divisions of the pack: Spades, Hearts, Diamonds, or Clubs;
2. with a trump suit, as opposed to No Trump, as in a suit contract.

Suit Combination
Basically, a partnership's combined holding in one suit. After the combination of the suit has been established along with other pertinent information gained from analyzing the combination, then the mathematical percentages can be calculated as to the success of certain plays either by the defense or the declarer. The strategy of play by both the defenders and the declarer are then based on this calculated percentage rate. Since there are so many suit combinations with 52 cards, the analysis of the different combinations has become a science.

Suit Distribution and Patterns
All together there are 39 possible suit distributions ranging from 4-3-3-3 to 13-0-0-0.

Suit Preference Signal
A defensive signaling method used by the opponents to exchange information and to communicate encouragement or discouragement or the suit lead or played, and/or preference for another suit. This method of exchanging information with the play of a certain card was devised by Mr. Hy Lavinthal in 1934 has been adopted by many bridge players and also altered to meet certain partnership agreements.

Summary of Defensive Signaling
There are many ways to indicate, show, promise and inform a partner by the lead of a certain card or via a discard of a specific card the expectation of the ensuing play. These defense signals have a definite meaning and belong in every partnership agreement.

Summer North American Bridge Championships
This championship was formerly known as the Summer Nationals. The event began in 1929 and was first under the auspices of the American Bridge League, but since 1938 has been conducted by the American Contract Bridge League.

Sunday Times Pairs
In 1963 the newspaper London Sunday Times sponsored an invitational pair event, and it continued until 1981, at which time the event was put on hold. The event was resumed in 1990 together with the Sunday Times and Macallan Malt Whisky as co-sponsors.

Super Accept
In regards to a transfer, the acceptance of the transfer at a higher level than suggested by the transfer. This method is used by many partnerships to show minimum from maximum range, especially after No Trump openings. For example: 1 No Trump - 2 Hearts (as a transfer) - 3 Spades as the super-acceptance.

Super Blackwood
Mr. Easley Blackwood developed the Blackwood convention using the bid 4 No Trump to ask for Aces. However, he realized that under certain circumstances this 4 No Trump bid should be a natural bid. These circumstances are:

1. when the partnership has not bid a suit;
2. when no suit has been agreed upon, and the 4 No Trump bidder has already bid No Trump;
3. when no suit has been agreed upon, and a No Trump bid has immediately preceded the 4 No Trump bid.

Mr. Easley Blackwood suggested that a bid of 4 in the lowest-ranking unbid suit would be the bid asking for Aces, accompanied with step responses. Thereafter, a bid a 5 No Trump would be asking for Kings.

Super Blitz
This is a designation for a win by such a large amount or extent that the winner gets maximum score and the loser a negative score, that makes, as a result, the total scores less than zero.

Super Crash Convention
The first publication of the Super Crash conventional method appeared in the August 1986 issue of The Bridge World magazine, authored by Mr. W. D. Bannion. The developer is Mr. Charles Galloway. This variation of the original Crash conventional method is devised to show either a one-suited holding, a two-suited holding, or a three-suited holding after the opponents begin the auction with a strong, forcing 1 Club opening.

Super Gerber
This Ace-asking conventional method, modeled after and based upon the Gerber convention, was devised by Mr. Robert Goldman (Bobby), born November 10, 1938 and died May 15, 1998, and lived in Highland Village, Texas, United States.

SuperLambda or System Stabych Otwarç
This information is only archived on this site in a .pdf file as a reference. The English translation was completed by Mr. Daniel Neill and is posted on his website: bridgewithdan.com.

Super Michaels
This method or modification of the Michaels Cuebid conventional defence method is based on the same principle of the Michaels Cuebid except that a jump cuebid of a Minor suit opening bid by the opposing side shows both Major suits and a jump cuebid of a Major suit promises the other Major suit and an unspecified Minor suit.

Super Mixed Precision Opening Bids
This variation on the opening bids was developed in Sweden and the originator is unknown. These opening bids are based on the original concept of the Precision Club as devised by Mr. Chung Ching Wei, feature the opening of a 5-card Major suit and employ a reduced value for a No Trump opening. The 1 No Trump Forcing convention after an opening of a Major suit is employed.

Super Precision
This is a version of the Precision Club system and which uses specialized bids and asking sequences for the exchange of information about the holdings.

Super Precision Opening Bids
These opening bids are a result of the Precision bidding system, which was developed by Mr. Benito Garozzo and Mr. Georgio Belladonna, and which were employed by the italian Blue Team for many victories in international events and for many years. This opening bid structure allowed the partnership to open more frequently due to the fact that the 1 Diamond opening could show various shapes.

Supernatural Version 4.0 - System Notes
Compiled by Mr. Marc Umeno and Mr. Josh Sher. This information has been archived only on this site as a .pdf file for future reference.

Super Precision Opening Bids
These opening bids are a result of the Precision bidding system, which was developed by Mr. Benito Garozzo and Mr. Georgio Belladonna, and which were employed by the italian Blue Team for many victories in international events and for many years. This opening bid structure allowed the partnership to open more frequently due to the fact that the 1 Diamond opening could mean various shapes.

Super Sudhaker - This conventional method has been developed by Mr. Sudhakar Bhatt. It is a conventional method of responding to a strong, artificial 2 Clubs opening whereby the responder may or may not be a passed hand. The concept has borrowed elements of other conventional methods, with which it has several similarities, but contains certain requirements for the responder which differ and excludes the first response of a 2 No Trump bid. This is a .pdf file and will be automatically opened by your browser.

Super Swiss
The origin of this variation of the Swiss conventional method is unknown but demands the same requirements and follows the same guidelines as the original convention.

Super Texas
This is another designation given to the variation of the Texas convention known properly as the South African Texas convention as developed by Mr. Max Sapire. A second designation is Minor For Major.

SuperWriggle
This is the designation given to a variation of the concept of Wriggle by Mr. Bill Macmillan. Employing this variation provides a method for escaping from 1 No Trump, doubled. After a penalty double, just trying to escape may make the opponents abandon the pursuit of penalties in favour of their own contract. This information has only been archived and preserved on this site in .pdf file format. See also: Wriggle.

Support
1. the cards in a suit bid by partner;
2. to raise the suit of the partner.

Support Doubles - Support Redoubles
The concept of the support double and also the support redouble was devised by Mr. Eric Rodwell, and is a method that enables the opening bidder to clarify or show precisely the degree of support of the suit of the partner or responder. This generally occurs in a competitive auction, in which an opponent interferes at a low level.

Supporting Trick
A supporting trick is a card or a combination, which will probably take in support of partner’s suit bid. Definition is from Mr. Ely Culbertson from the publication Contract Bridge Blue Book as authored by Mr. Ely Culbertson and published by his founded company The Bridge World.

Super Unusual Two No Trump - Super Unusual 2NT
This variation appears in the book authored by Mr. Larry Cohen in his publication entitled: To Bid or Not to Bid - The Law of Total Tricks beginning with page 118-119. The content of this web page is an excerpt from this book and posted to the Internet with the permission of the author.

Suriname Bridge Bond - Contacts

Surplus Cards
A card in excess of 13 in a bridge hand before the play begins, or a card in excess of the number of tricks remaining to be played after the play has started. This irregularity is covered by Laws 12 and 67.

Surrogate Suit
A surrogate suit is one played by declarer in which a defender has neither need to signal his attitude or count nor use to give a preference signal; usually the trump suit is a good surrogate suit if a trump echo is not needed. The suit in which the count will be given is called the target suit.

Suspension Bridge Contract
This is the designation presumably given to a bidding system or agreement, which was presented in the publication titled Suspension Bridge Contract, authored by Helen Lyman in the year 1929 in Berkeley, California, United States, close to San Francisco, where the Golden Gate suspension bridge is located, and which was conceived in the year 1916 and completed in the year 1937. Any additional information would be greatly appreciated.

Suspensor Forcing Pass
This is a forcing pass system mainly played by Polish bridge personalities Mr. Cezary Jacek Balicki and Mr. Adam Artur Zmudzinski (Adam Artur Żmudziński) at the 1991 Bermuda Bowl tournament, at which they won a silver medal. With the employment of this system the player passes with 13 plus high card points, but with a weaker holding the player bids something, which is the reverse tactic of standard bidding systems. Mr. Cezary Jacek Balicki was born August 5, 1958, and Mr. Adam Artur Zmudzinski was born January 18, 1956.

Note: The bridge student should also study the Summary of Suspensor's Opening Bids as authored and posted online by Mr. Peter Gill, Mr. Murray Green, and Mr. Mark Abaham. This information has also only been preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.

Note: The bridge student should also study the authored online prepared Suspensor Opening Bids as posted by Mr. Michael Wilkinson, Mr. Tony Nunn, and Mr. Brad Coles. This information has also only been preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.

Note: This information has also only been preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.

Note: The concept of a forcing pass approach to bidding is defined as an agreement or understanding that a pass call obliges the partner to bid, double, or redouble over an intermediate opposing pass.

Note: The actual origin of this conventional suspensor forcing pass system remains unknown. The definition of the English word suspensor is an athletic supporter, or a support for the genitals worn by men engaging in strenuous exercise.

Svan Opening Bids
These opening bids are versions of the Carrot Club and were developed by Mr. Anders Morath of Stockholm, Sweden. The original version of the Carrot Club was not acceptable to all sponsoring organizations of bridge events and other, acceptable versions had to be developed. This version has gained some popularity with the Swedish Junior Elite and is known by the designation of Skrot, which roughly translated means metal junk.

Swab - Swabber - Swabbers - Whist and Swabbers - Swobbers
This is a designation, which was employed by Whist players from the very begining of the game, which become internationally popular. Although unproven it is assumed that the earliest mention of the word Whist or Whisk is by Mr. John Taylor, born August 1578 - 1653, and who dubbed himself the Water Poet in 1621. He spent much of his life as a Thames Waterman, a member of the guild of boatmen that ferried passengers across the River Thames in London, in the days when the London Bridge was the only passage between the banks.

It was also during the period of 1680 and 1685 that the term swabber become a more acceptable and popular colloquial term and could mean several things. The actual game itself was referred to by Mr. Fielding as Whisk-and-Swabbers, as related in his publication History of Mr. Johnathan Wild, who was perhaps the most famous criminal of London, England, who, as police chief, organized the largest and perhaps most successful groups and gangs of thieves and robbers.

However, it was Mr. Francis Grose, who published Classical Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue in the year 1785, who altered the definition and charged that it referred to the ace of hearts, knave of clubs, ace and deuce of trumps at whist.

The true meaning, as applied to the game of Whist, is unknown. It is, however, safely presumed, that it is probable that the holders of these particular cards as identified by Mr. Francis Grose were entitled to receive a certain stake from the other players. The term, the word itself, in regards to the game of Whist was dropped, became obsolete, and was no longer in use during the 18th century.

For the etymologists we include the following:

Swobber \Swob"ber\, n.
1. See Swabber.

2. pl. Four privileged cards, formerly used in betting at the
game of whist. (Written also swabber.) --Swift.

Swabber \Swab"ber\, v. t.
To swab. (R.)

Swabber \Swab"ber\, n. (D. zwabber; cf.D. zwabberen to swab, G.
schwabbern, Dan. svabre, Sw. svab a swab, svabla to swab.)
1. One who swabs a floor or desk. --Shak.

2. (Naut.) Formerly, an interior officer on board of British
ships of war, whose business it was to see that the ship
was kept clean.

Swan
This term desginates the specific distribution of a holding with a 7-4-1-1 distribution, whereby the 7-card suit can be any suit. (Note: the 7 is the neck; the 4 is the body, and the 1-1 represent the two legs under water.)

Swedish
In many partnership agreements and employing certain carding systems a low-high signal shows an odd number of cards in that particular suit and a high-low signal shows an even number of cards in that particular suit. This is agreed upon to show count. Norwegian is a slang designation used in Norway to signify a carding system showing count. If the high-low signal shows and even count and the low-high signal shows an odd count, then this agreement is referred to as a Norwegian. It the high-low signal shows an odd count and the low-high signal shows an even count, then this is referred to as a Norwegian.

Swedish Bridge League - Sveriges Bridgeförbund
The Swedish Bridge Federation was created in the year 1933. The main reason was that the existing bridge clubs needed to work together in order to select a team to represent Sweden in the European Bridge Championships. In the year 1940 the new Federation started to arrange Swedish championships in various categories, the first one being the Open Pairs.

Swedish Jacoby 2 No Trump
This is a variation of the Jacoby 2 No Trump used in limit raises. This variation is played in Sweden and has gained some popularity.

Swedish Precision Opening Bids
These opening bids are based on the Carrot Club bidding system as formulated by Mr. Anders Morathand and the basic concept of the Precision bidding system as formulated by Mr. Chung Ching Wei. This version employs a variable Weak-and-Strong 1 Club opening system.

Swine Convention
The term Swine is an acronym for Sebesfi-Woods-1-Notrump-Escape, and was developed by Mr. Robert (Bob) Sebesfi of Australia. This is a method of defending against an overcall, either a direct overcall or a balancing action, and is mainly used in the Acol bidding system.

Swine Runouts
See: Twisted Swine or Runouts After 1NT - Dbl or Runouts After 1 No Trump - Double or Swine Runouts

Swing
1. the difference between the scores of two teams;
2. the difference between a score actually made and one that might have been made;
3. to take chances in an attempt to create unusual or especially good results in an effort to make up lost ground;
4. to play a round of, as a suit;
5. a round, as of a suit, as in the declarer pulled trumps in one swing.

Swing Deal
This term describes a deal that provides a swing.

Swing Hand
A term denoting a hand on which a successful or unsuccessful result by a partnership produces a decisive change in the overall results of a bridge match.

Swindle
A deceptive play or bid, either by the declarer of one of the defenders.

Swish
1. Slang: during the bidding to be followed by passes. For example: 3 No Trump floated shows three No Trump was passed out. West's 3 Spades floated around to South shows North and East passed over 3 Spades.
2. Slang: during the play, lead and duck; let ride, usually by declarer not putting up a higher card from his hand or from dummy For example: South floated the Jack of Hearts around to East's Queen.
3. Slang: during the play not getting covered. For example: The 10 of Spades floated, meaning that it was led and won the trick.
A similar term is: Float

Swiss Bridge Federation
Fédération Suisse de Bridge
Contact Address
Klarastrasse 3
CH-8008 Zürich
Switzerland
Telephone: 41-1-262 5655
Facsimile: 41-1-262 5645

Swish
Slang: a desgination for a call followed by all passes as in 4 Spades swish, meaning 4 Spades - pass - pass - pass.

Swiss Conventional Response Method
The concept is based on the parameters that a response of four in a Minor suit immediately following partner's bid Major suit promises a good hand and good support for the suit of his partner. This action, in general, is a strength-showing substitute used by bridge partnerships employing limit jump raises.

Swiss Fruit Machine
The guidelines and the requirements are the same as for the Swiss Convention. This conventional method is also referred to as: Fruit Machine Swiss. This means that the responder has opening values and a fit in the Major suit opening of his partner.

Swiss Movement
This is a partial round-robin movement and quite similar to the method used in major chess tournaments. Basically, in a Swiss movement, the winning teams or pairs, after the first round, compete against each other, and the losers compete against each other for the second round. Thereafter, new pairings are made on the basis of the records of the matched teams or pairs, whereby no two teams or pairs may play a second match against each other.

Swiss Pairs
The Swiss Pairs is run along the lines of a Swiss Teams. Pairs play against each other in short matches, with various methods of scoring determining the winner. As in Swiss Teams, pairs with approximately the same records are paired against each other for subsequent matches. This type of event has not proved popular and is seldom used at tournaments today.

Swiss Points
This is a method of breaking ties for prize purposes in Swiss Teams events. The scores of all the teams that played against each team involved in the tie are added together. The team whose opponent's total is higher is declared the winner for prize purposes. Sometimes only those matches which take place in the second half of the contest are counted in totaling the Swiss Points.

Swiss Teams Conditions of Contest
Approved November 1999. These Conditions of Contest may not be changed at any level of play during the course of this event. Lack of knowledge does not constitute cause for exemption. These conditions apply to all Swiss team events. At the North American Bridge Championships additional conditions, specific to a particular event, will be appended as necessary. The specific conditions supersede the general. Sponsoring organizations may, with ACBL approval only, amend these conditions for a specific event.

Switch
1. to lead a different suit;
2. a term used as in arrow switch, which refers to the directional arrows used to show directions on table cards at tournaments, and interchanging the directions of the pairs.

Symmetric Club Opening Bids
These opening bids have the Precision bidding system as their foundation and were devised by Professor Roy Patrick Kerr and Mr. Paul Marston of New Zealand. All first responses to a 1 Club opening are considered natural, but otherwise all subsequent rebids are based on a complex system of Relay bids.

Symmetric Relay
A relay system developed by a group of bridge players in New Zealand, and first described by Mr. Roy Kerr of New Zealand. The Symmetric Relay is similar to the Ultimate Club in many ways, but the main difference is that almost all Symmetric responses to the strong club opening, other than the 1 Diamond negative, are natural.

4-Card Transfer-Oriented Canapé Symmetric Relay System
A bidding system. By Mr. Daniel Neill and Mr. Josh Sher. This bidding system is also known as TOSR. The categories of this bidding system are listed below. Each is in .pdf file format and, depending on your browser, will be automatically downloaded to your computer and opened with Adobe Acrobat or automatically opened by your browser.

This bidding system is presented on the Internet on the website of Mr. Daniel Neill.

Description of Opening Bids   2 Clubs Opening
1 Club Opening   2 Diamonds Opening
1 Diamond Opening   2 Hearts Opening
Continuations After a 1 Diamond Opening   2 Spades Opening
1 Heart Opening   2 No Trump Opening
1 Spade Opening   Leads - Signals - Discards
1 No Trump Opening   Third and Fourth Seat Adjustments
    Appendices

Symmetric Relay Opening Bids
The Symmetric Relay bidding system is a relay system developed by a group of bridge players from New Zealand. The system was first described by Mr. Roy Patrick Kerr of Kurow, New Zealand, and Mr. Walt Jones. A modified version, designated as Symmetric Relay, was developed by Mr. Hugh Grosvenor and Mr. Ian Robinson and published in the year 1986.

Symmetric Relay - 1986
Written by Mr. Hugh Grosvenor and Mr. Ian Robinson. This is an adaption of methods developed in New Zealand over the last few years. It is a strong club system, similar in many ways to Precision Club but using relay continuations over all of the openings.

System
The collection of partnership understandings regarding the bidding and the play.

System Declaration of Jan Einar Sætre and Tore Skoglund
In this System Declaration of these two bridge players from Norway, they have established guidelines, by which their partnership understanding has been established. This information is only preserved and archived here. Attention has been carefully given to the format of this System Declaration, which is in English, and nothing has been added or substracted. This is a .pdf file format, and, depending on your browser, will be automatically downloaded to your computer and automatically opened with Adobe Acrobat or opened automatically by your browser without being downloaded.

System Fix
This is a bad result caused by one’s personal bidding methods.

System Off - System On
A partnership understanding that applies to certain artificial methods and treatments if the circumstances are changed during the bidding process. If the circumstances change, then the partnership may play either system on or system off, but must notify their opponents by entry on the Convention Card.

System Over 2 No Trump or System Over 2 NT
Mr. Chris Jagger
has written a summary about a basic system whenever the player opens with 2 No Trump, overcalls with 2 No Trump, or opens a strong, artificial 2 Clubs and rebids 2 No Trump and concludes that an artificial and effective system of bidding is required in order to locate the optimum final contract. This web page has only been archived and preserved on this site in the form of a .pdf file.

 

 


 

 


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