TAB - Trump Asking Bid
An abbreviation for the term Trump Asking Bid. It is used in the Romex bidding system and occurs only after a 1 No Trump or 2 Clubs opening. If the trump suit has been agreed upon and the opener either raises the agreed trump suit below the level of game or bids a minimum number of No Trump, this bid is then a Trump Asking Bid. Compare with STAB or Romex Special Trump Asking Bid, which is employed only after a strong, artificial 2 Clubs opening bid.

Table
1. a bridge game, but also the four players in such a game.
2. the board; dummy;
3. one of the units of activity in a tournament;
4. to put down dummy's cards;
5. to play a card.

Table Feel
A manner of drawing inferences from the behavior of the opponents, rather than from their calls and plays, although drawing such inferences could result in the exchange of unauthorized information.

LAW 16 - UNAUTHORIZED INFORMATION

Players are authorized to base their calls and plays on information from legal calls and plays and from mannerisms of opponents. To base a call or play on other extraneous information may be an infraction of law.

A. Extraneous Information from Partner

After a player makes available to his partner extraneous information that may suggest a call or play, as by means of a remark, a question, a reply to a question, or by unmistakable hesitation, unwonted speed, special emphasis, tone, gesture, movement, mannerism or the like, the partner may not choose from among logical alternative actions one that could demonstrably have been suggested over another by the extraneous information.

Table Guide Card
A large card placed under the boards in the center of a table and on which are the instructions for the players regarding position, seat, how to move, what boards are to played and by which players, etc.

Table Manner
Since the game of bridge is a social activity, certain manners should be observed at the bridge table among the bridge players. See: Etiquette, Conduct, Propriety, Zero Tolerance.

Table Numbers
These are rectangular cards placed in the center of the table and provide the number of the table in the section. Different colored table numbers distinguish the different sections.

Table Presence
This is the designation which distinguishes a good bridge player into an expert bridge player. Although the term cannot be defined in and of itself, the term refers to a player with a combination of instinct, the drawing of correct inferences from any departure from the normal rhythm by the opponents, the exercise of discipline in bidding, the ability to coax maximum performance from the partner, and the ability to make the opponents feel that they are facing a player of a higher order. Sometimes also referred to as Table Feel.

Table Spacing
This is a term to describe the arrangement of bridge tables for a duplicate tournament. Since the play itself should be enjoyed, the encroachment upon other players has been determined to be a certain space. This distance between the tables should be spaced with nine foot centers. If this is not practical for the establishment, then the minimum has been determined to be around seven foot centers in a row. If the concept of the row can not be maintained, then the tables can be staggered in adjoining rows. The last spaced table should be near the first spaced table in order to maintain a certain flow of the boards and players.

Tactics
These are various maneuvers in the play of the hand, bidding nuances and choices of action or strategy. All together the tactics take into consideration the method of scoring, the quality of the competition and the conditions of the contest.

Takeout
A bid at a denomination other than the one previously called by the partner. This is contrast to the other methods such as a jump shift, a single or double raise, etc.

Takeout Double
This is the designation for a low-level double in certain circumstances requesting partner to bid an unbid suit. Doubling on the one-level and giving it the interpretation of a penalty double is certainly neither reasonable logic nor reasonable bridge.

Responses to a Takeout Double by Your Partner
The responses to a takeout double are dependent upon the situation. For example, the situation must be clear as to whether the advancer has previously passed or whether has the responder bid over the takeout double. The more preferred responses are presented to the bridge player and these responses are based upon the holding itself.

Tallies - Tally - Bridge Tally
These are prepared cards for the recording of results at the end of each round, usually four deals, used mainly in Progressive or Party Bridge. They assumed a personal touch since many were designed with pictures by artists depicting many motifs and scenes. The shown Tally is published by American Greetings of Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

TAM II 2 Clubs and 2 Diamonds Openings
The origin of this conventional method is unknown. A. This is the designation for very strong holdings containing generally fewer than three Losing Tricks. An opening of 2 Clubs shows either:

1. a holding with fewer than 3 Losing Tricks and a point count between 26 and 29 high card points and balanced distribution. After the one-round forcing bid, the opener rebids No Trump to show range and point count.

2. a holding with fewer than 3 Losing Tricks, at least 25 plus high card points and an unbalanced distribution. After the one-round forcing bid, the opener rebids the long suit.

If the first response is 2 No Trump, the responder shows a holding with no values. If the first response is in a suit, then the responder promises at least one quick trick in the suit bid. Per individual partnership agreement, a jump in the level of the first response may indicate the possession of two or more quick tricks in the suit bid such as Ace-King or King-Queen-Jack.

B. An opening of 2 Diamonds promises a balanced distribution with values between 22 and 25 high card points. The relay response of 2 Hearts by the responder asks only whether the holding is minimum or maximum in strength. A rebid by the opener of 2 No Trump shows minimum values and a rebid of 3 No Trump shows maximum values.

Tangerine Club
Developed by Mr. Jan Eric Larsson in 1995. Tangerine Cub was born out of distrust for the standard system, and incorporates features from other bidding systems, such as the Neapolitan Club, the Blue Team Club, Precision, and the Swedish system Hjortron, (Cloudberry). Tangerine Club was invented at the same time as Cloudberry, and precedes the weak/strong Carrot Club with more than five years.

Tank
A colloquial phrase used in the expression "to go into the tank", meaning to fall into a protracted huddle. The player does not take action for an extended period of time and seems to be in a state of intense concentration.

Tanzania Bridge Association
Founded in 1993
Contact Address
P.O.Box 5104
Dar-Es-Salaam
Tanzania
Telephone: 255-51-38 375/46 614
Fax: 255-51-112 949

Tap
1. Slang: to shorten a hand in trumps by forcing that particular hand to ruff;
2. TAP, an acronym for the Teacher Accreditation Program used by the Education Department of the ACBL, which is a ten-hour seminar and which participants must successfully complete to earn accreditation.

Tap the Table
A practice of many bridge players to signify an informal Alert or to signify a Pass, but which does not meet with the approval of all since such a practice can lead to confusion, thereby creating problems at the bridge table among the four players, since the intention is often open for interpretation.

Tape Relay Opening Bids
The Tape Relay bidding system was devised by Mr. Donald Evans, and uses a Forcing Pass as an opening bid in any seat, after other players in rotation, opponents or partner, have passed. A Forcing Pass is a pass which forces the partner to take an action, even with insufficient values.

Tartan Two-Bids
These two-bids were conceived by Mr. Hugh Kelsey and Mr. Tom Culbertson. The essence of the concept is: 2 Hearts and 2 Diamonds are Multi openings, which become clear after a series of relay responses.

Tax
The first tax on playing cards in the United States was levied in 1862 to raise money for the War between the States and varied from 1¢ to 15¢, or 15% of the cost, whichever was greater, until 1866 when it became 6¢ per pack. This tax on playing cards was repealed in 1883 and was not levied until the depression under President Cleveland's second administration, whereupon a 2¢ per pack tax was imposed under the Act of August 27, 1894. Since that time it has been retained by the Federal Government as a constant source of revenue. The levy remained constant until the necessity of increased revenue following World War I caused an increase in 1920 to 8¢ per pack, which was increased to 10¢ per pack in 1925, and to 13¢ per pack in 1961. This first tax levied on playing cards, according to records, was discontinued on July 1, 1965. The history of taxing playing cards is vague, but old accounts show that King James I of England imposed a tax as early as 1615.

Team
Four, five or six players competing as a unit in a bridge tournament. In mixed team events, no two members of the same sex are permitted to play as partners.

Team Games
A team consists of two pairs who play in different directions at different tables for a common score. One pair plays North-South for a designated number of boards and the other plays East-West for the same number of boards at a different table. For example, if Team A plays Team B, a deal is played at table A-1 with the North-South pair from Team A and the East-West pair from Team B. Then the board is replayed at table B-1 with the North-South pair from Team B and the East-West pair from Team A. Each team plays the deal from each direction and the scores are compared.

Team-Of-Eight Match
A 4-table team contest in which each team has 8 active players.

Team-Of-Four Events
These are contests between team of four, five or six players, and such events are a standard part of duplicate tournaments beginning at the sectional level on up. The manner of scoring will sometimes vary.

Team Of Two Pairs
Both of a team's two pairs sit in the same direction in different sections in this unusual type of pair event. Everyone plays a session of matchpoint duplicate, just like a pair game. Of each team's two results on a board, only the better is entered to determine the matchpoint score. Naturally the score not used for your team is the "better" score for your opponents. Strategy is necessary to maximize potential matchpoints. To be successful, a team should not play or defend the same contract or make the same play at both tables. In other words, the methods used by the two pairs should be different to increase the possibility of a favorable result. This event is usually sanctioned only at sectionals.

Teammate
Any player on the same team, or sometimes one of the players on one's team at the other table.

Telephone Number
Slang: a term to designate a four digit penalty result.

Telling and Asking Cuebids
The origin of this conventional method is unknown. The concept is not to be mistaken for the Fourth Suit Forcing conventional method. These are cuebids below the level of 3 No Trump and are generally attempts to reach a final contract of 3 No Trump. When the partnership, without competition, has bid two suits, then the cuebid of the third suit is a Telling Cuebid, looking for a stopper in the fourth suit. When the partnership, without competition, has bid three suits, then the cuebid of the fourth suit is an Asking Cuebid, asking for a stopper in that suit. With competition the partnership must decide the continuances.

Opener Responder
1 2
3 3 3 is a Telling Cuebid
Opener Responder
1 2
3 3 3 is an Asking Cuebid

Tempo
1. refers to the element of timing in the play of the cards and sometimes important in order not to convey information to the opponents when making an attacking lead or play;
2. refers to the speed with which a bid or a play is made.

LAW 73 - COMMUNICATION

D. Variations in Tempo or Manner

1. Inadvertent Variations

It is desirable, though not always required, for players to maintain steady tempo and unvarying manner. However, players should be particularly careful in positions in which variations may work to the benefit of their side. Otherwise, inadvertently to vary the tempo or manner in which a call or play is made does not in itself constitute a violation of propriety, but inferences from such variation may appropriately be drawn only by an opponent, and at his own risk.

2.  Intentional Variations

A player may not attempt to mislead an opponent by means of remark or gesture, through the haste or hesitancy of a call or play (as in hesitating before playing a singleton), or by the manner in which the call or play is made.

Calculations of Card Play Time - An Exercise

If every trick were played in an unvarying tempo of 20 seconds, then a bridge hand would take over 17 minutes to play. No law prohibits that.

Taking the time of 20 seconds for each card to be played to a trick, the calculations are:

20 seconds x 52 cards = 1040 seconds x 24 boards = 24,960 seconds= 6 hours + 56 minutes

10 seconds x 52 cards = 520 seconds x 24 boards = 12,480 seconds= 3 hours + 28 minutes

8 seconds x 52 cards = 416 seconds x 24 boards = 9,984 seconds= 2 hours + 47 minutes

7 seconds x 52 cards = 364 seconds x 24 boards = 8,736 seconds= 2 hours + 26 minutes

6 seconds x 52 cards = 312 seconds x 24 boards = 7,488 seconds= 2 hours + 5 minutes

5 seconds x 52 cards = 260 seconds x 24 boards = 6,240 seconds= 1 hour + 44 minutes

4 seconds x 52 cards = 208 seconds x 24 boards = 4,992 seconds= 1 hour + 23 minutes

Allow 2 Minutes per Auction per Board = 2 x 24 = 48 minutes for all auctions.

1. at 7 seconds per play = 2 hours + 26 minutes + 48 minutes/auction = 3 hours + 40 minutes

2. at 6 seconds per play = 2 hours + 5 minutes + 48 minutes/auction = 2 hours + 53 minutes

3. at 5 seconds per play = 1 hour + 44 minutes + 48 minutes/auction = 2 hours + 32 minutes

Temporizing Bid
A term to describe a delay bid before taking any definitive action. Also called Waiting Bid.

Ten Commandments for Bridge Players

1. Thou shalt not play any game other than bridge whilst at the bridge table.

2. Thou shalt not call a misdeal just because thou hast been dealt no picture cards.

3. Thou shalt never take the rules of bridge in vain.

4. After losing three games, thou shalt not cry, nor stamp thy feet, nor set fire to thy bridge table.

5. Thou shalt honour thy tournament director’s decision, even though thou might find it unfavourable.

6. When thy partner makes a mistake, thou shalt not kill.

7. Thou shalt not resort to hand signals, meaningful looks or kicks under the table to instruct thy partner.

8. If thou breakest Commandment 7, thou must not get caught.

9. Thou shalt keep table talk to a minimum, unless thou hast some juicy gossip that will not wait.

10. Thou shalt not covet thy opponents’ aces, nor their kings, nor their success at making 7NT doubled and redoubled.

Found on and copied from a tea towel that hangs on the wall of the Severna Park Duplicate Bridge Club in Severna Park Maryland.

Ten or Ten Spot
The fifth ranking card in each suit, and in regards to trump, it is the lowest ranking honor card.

Tenace
This is a combination of two cards in the same suit where one card outranks the second card. However, they are not touching cards, but rather one card is two degrees lower than the other card. For example: Ace — Queen in the same suit form a major tenace. King — Jack in the same suit form a minor tenace.

Etymology: modification of Spanish tenaza, literally, forceps, probably from Latin tenacia, neuter plural of tenax. Date: 1655. Definition of Merriam Dictionary: a combination of two high or relatively high cards (as ace and queen) of the same suit in one hand with one ranking two degrees below the other.

Webster Dictionary: n. 1. (Whist) The holding by the fourth hand of the best and third best cards of a suit led; also, sometimes, the combination of best with third best card of a suit in any hand.

Note: In the game of bridge many sponsoring organizations and early, pioneering bridge authors defined two possible bridge tenaces. Source is the publication Complete Auction Bridge for 1922 written by Mr. Bryant McCampbell.

1. Major Tenace: a holding of Ace-Queen

2. Minor Tenace: a holding of King-Jack

Ten Implies
An opening lead convention in which the lead of a ten shows an interior sequence including the Ace, King or Queen.

Ten Tables
At duplicate, 10 tables provide for competition among 40 players as individuals, 20 pairs, or 10 teams-of-four. Playing as an individual, the 13-round Mingled Movement or the 10-round Irregular Rainbow Movement would be preferable. Playing as pairs, the preference would be the Mitchell movement.

-tenth
Within or heading a ten-card holding. For example: Ace-King-tenth shows ten cards headed by the Ace-King.

Terrorist's Moscito
Also titled Major-Oriented Strong Club with Intrepid Two Openers was published by Mr. Bo-Yin Yang of the Department of Mathematics at the Tamkang University in Taiwan. Contributing authors are: Mr. Ruey-Lun Lin, Jessica Y. Lee, and Mr. David Morgan. This information was presented online March 28, in the year 2000. This is a .pdf file, which will automatically opened by your browser. This information has also only been preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference. Source.

Terrorist Two No Trump - Terrorist 2 NT
The origin of this conventional method is unknown. The employment of this conventional method is only applicable if the player is the first player in rotation to make an opening bid. This conventional method is also known by the designation of Economou Two No Trump and Economou Two Spades.

Tertiary Pairs - Tertiary Teams - Tertiary Individuals
The designation of tertiary is defined simply as being third in place, order, degree, or rank .... or coming next after the second and just before the fourth in position. In the game of bridge there is a winner and a second winner. The first winner generally receives the Gold medal, the second winner generally receives the Silver medal, but the manner of how the third winner is selected may differ, especially in other countries and bridge zones. In some countries this selection is arrived at under the heading of Tertiary - (sponsoring organization designation). The decision to present and award gold, silver and bronze medals is a completely arbitrary feature and need not be employed by every bridge-playing country. In this example, Mr. I. Nan Liu, the Tournament Director, presents an example from such a tertiary pairs session. This example, among others, was first reported by Mind Sports Zine and is only archived and preserved on this site for future reference. In the selection of the third place or rank of any bridge event such sessions may be conducted and designated accordingly.

T-Rex Agreement
This is a .pdf file and will automatically download to your computer and be automatically opened by Adobe Acrobat Reader or automatically opened by your browser, depending on your server. This document is only archived here and the origin is unknown.

Texas Convention
This conventional method was devised by Mr. David C. Carter of St. Louis, Missouri, United States, born in the year 1906, (Source: OEofB, 1976, page 600), and also independently by Mr. Olle Willner, born in the year 1923, of Stockholm, Sweden, which he described in the Swedish bridge magazine Bridge Tidningen. He published a series of articles beginning at the end of the year 1953 and ending early in the year 1954. In order to understand the origins it must be stated that the two mentioned bridge experts devised the concept to easily accommodate certain bidding sequences with certain bidding guidelines.
This conventional method is also a feature of the optional conventions used in the Acol Bidding System.

Dutch Texas Transfer or Dutch Texas Transfer Bids
The
designations Dutch Texas Transfer and Dutch Texas Transfer Bids refer to the original Texas Convention, and is a variation thereof. Although unsubstantiated the origin is most likely The Netherlands.

Extended Texas Convention
The origin of this conventional method is unknown. This is a variation of the Texas Convention combined with the Smolen conventional method to show a particular holding in both Major suits.

Roth Texas Convention
This variation of the Texas convention was developed by Mr. Alvin Leon Roth, and was described in his publication Picture Bidding, published in 1991 by Granovetter Books, ISBN: 0940257114. The idea of the concept is the realization that a Texas transfer bid may result in a game contract, which may catch the No Trump bidder with a very weak 2-card suit.

South African Texas Convention
A variation of the Texas Convention developed by Mr. Max Sapire with the sole purpose in the early stages of the evolution of the game of bridge
that neither partner should not forget, but rather be reminded of the transfer bids.

Texas At The Two Level
Although quite similar to the Jacoby Transfer conventional method, this approach is different is several aspects. One main difference is that the responder is able to transfer partner to a Minor suit. A second feature of this conventional approach is that the partnership can use the two level, the three level, and the four level to communicate certain distributions.

Texas Star Awards
The Texas Star Awards were established in 1995. They honor those Unit volunteers who work so steadfastly at the Unit level to promote Bridge and to further Unit activities. Selection is made by the Unit Board of each Unit and the awards are traditionally presented during the February Lone Star Regional.

Much like the Oswald and Jim Jacoby Service Award, the Texas Star Awards are meant to go to worthy volunteers. Unlike the Jacoby Award, they go to unit-level workers for service performed in their own units. The decision on who is to get the award in a particular unit is left to the Board of Directors of that Unit. The Unit Board then merely informs the Texas Star Award Committee of the decision.

Thailand
Contract Bridge League of Thailand

Contact Address: Room 265, Sports Authority of Thailand
2088 Ram Kam Haeng Road
Hua Mark, Bangkapi
10240 Bangkok, Thailand
Telephone: 66-2-369-3434
Facsimile: 66-2-369-1528

Their Hand
Slang: a deal on which "their side" can conceivably make the highest possible score.

Thin
A designation and/or term for the following two reasons:

1. a hand without substance and lacking intermediates, although the high card points total 14 or more, such as 3 Aces and 2 Jacks.
2. a contract, which could be made, although both hands do not contain the traditional amount of points needed to make the contract.

-third
Within or heading a 3-card holding. For example: Jack-third shows three cards headed by the Jack.

Third and Fifth Leads
This is a conventional lead method, by which a bridge partnership can exchange communication. It is an opening lead method in which the third highest card is led from a three-card suit or a 4-card suit, and the fifth highest card from a 5-card or longer suit.

Third From Even, Low From Odd
An opening lead method in which the third highest card is led from even length, the lowest card from odd length. This method is part, and perhaps the most distinctive feature, of Journalist leads against suit contracts.

Third Hand
1. in the bidding, the partner of the declarer;
2. in the play of the hand, the partner of the leader to a trick;
3. the player to have the third opportunity to make a bid or call.

Third Hand High
This describes a principle of card play from the game of Whist, whereby the third player to play to a trick generally plays the highest card from his holding in that suit, if possible, and is generally limited to the defenders as a part of their strategy, not the declarer.

Third Hand Play
The success or failure of the defense to a contract is usually determined at the first trick. The correct play by the partner of the opening leader generally provides and set the correct defensive strategy. It is traditionally correct to play the highest card on the third hand, although it is only necessary to play as high as possible. Possible encouraging, discouraging, attitude and preference signals can be made on third hand play, and the partnership understanding is most important.

Third Highest Lead
This is a defensive method of leading the highest card but two, and is standard defense when holding three cards headed by an honor.

Third Suit Alternative Relay
This method is attributed to Mr. Monroe Ingberman. TSAR, an acronym for Third Suit Alternative Relay, named for its most important standard-bidding application, designates a principle of bidding in situations meeting certain requirements. The most important requirement is the principle for relay bidding when one player has described a limited hand with a long Minor suit, plus some other distributional restrictions, through a sequence ending at two of the long Minor suit. The player opposite the long Minor suit is called the Tsar, and generally assumes the role of captain and establishes the final contract.

Third Suit Bid
Traditionally a bid in a third suit at the one level is considered as non-forcing. However, if two suits have been bid at the one level and the third suit is bid at the two level in a suit ranking higher than the first bid, then this situation is considered to be forcing. If the third suit is lower ranking then the bid is not forcing. There are and have been several bidding systems, such as the Baron System, where a bid of a third suit is considered forcing regardless of the bidding level.

Thirteen
Many myths are related to this number and astoundingly there are official designations for the fear factor, which has evolved through the ages. This number is only relevant since the bridge player is dealt 13 cards and a grand slam consists of 13 tricks. In order that the bridge player understand this fear factor, the knowledge of such designations may be the first step in combatting such fear. Once the fearful item has a name, then the fear lessens.

Note: This information has been contributed on Friday 13, 2009, in the month of February.

1. Fear of Friday the 13th carries two designations:

A: friggatriskaidekaphobia. Frigga (or Frigg) was an ancient Scandinavian fertility and love goddess, equivalent to the Roman Venus, who had been worshipped on the sixth day of the week. Christians called Frigga a witch and designated the day of Friday as the Witches' Sabbath.

B: paraskavedekatriaphobia, which was coined by therapist Dr. Donald Dossey, who is a behavioral scientist, media personality, and author. Dr. Donald Dossey is an internationally acclaimed authority in the treatment of anxieties, phobias and stress. Dr. Donald Dossey is also well known as an entertaining historian folklorian. The designation itself is a word derived from the concatenation of the Greek words Paraskeví (Παρασκευ?) (meaning Friday), and dekatreís (δεκατρε?ς) (meaning thirteen), attached to phobía (φοβ?α) (meaning fear). With some luck these Greek letters will appear correctly on your monitor.

2. Irrational fear of things associated with the number 13:

A: triskaidekaphobia. Many people believe that the number 13 is an unlucky number because there were thirteen people at the Last Supper. Many people believe that the number 13 owes its bad reputation to Loki, the Norse god of evil, who started a riot when he crashed a banquet at Valhalla attended by twelve gods. On the other hand and conversely, the number 13 was considered a lucky number in ancient Egypt and China.

Thirteener
Slang: the card remaining in a suit after all other cards in that suit have been played on the first three tricks of the suit.

The Thistletree System
This is a treatise written and composed by Mr. Jack Goodman and Mr. Albert Rice, and which appeared in several publications of that era, when the game of bridge was the social sport of the century in the United States, or otherwise around the middle 1930s. Among other publications the essay also appeared, by permission, in the successful book authored by Mr. Albert A. Ostrow titled The Bridge Player's Bedside Companion, published 1955. This system has only been preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference. It is only a source of amusement for all bridge players to read at their leisure.

Thomas Convention
The origin of this convention is unknown and is properly designated as the Thomas Four Diamonds - Thomas 4 Diamonds convention. It can be used in several bidding systems, such as the Universal Club bidding system, but can also be employed as a stand-alone method of asking for Aces. The convention is used only used after an opening of a Major suit, not after a Minor suit opening.

Thomas Four Diamond Convention
See: Thomas Convention

Threat Card or Menace
The term for a potential winner. This card will take a trick if the opponent’s holding in that suit can be sufficiently weakened. See: Menace

Three Card Major Suit Support
As an alternative to the generally accept concept of supporting a Major suit by partner with only four cards this method allows the partnership to support with only three cards support. With the addition of a continuance method the partnership is able to determine not only the length but also whether the values are minimum or maximum.

Three Club Response as Major Raise
This method was devised by Mr. Alvin Roth in order to make a strong Major suit raise while conserving space for further exchange of information as to trump suit texture, singletons, and controls below the level of game.

Three Club Response To 1 No Trump
Depending on the bidding system used, this response can be applied with various partnership understandings:

1. The response is strong and forcing, suggesting interest in slam.
2. The response is weak and preemptive.
3. The response is invitational and normal with four-suit transfer bidding systems.
4. The response is a transfer to Diamonds.
5. The response is a type of Stayman asking for a major, which is now completely obsolete. (Note: The OEofB, 1971, designates this response as a Stayman prototype.

Three-Level Response Methods To A 1 No Trump Opening
Following an opening bid of 1 No Trump of practically any range the three level has been idle, unused, unemployed, and in general inactive as a possible response bid by the responder. Over time and during the evolution of the game of bridge many bridge players within the bridge community have devised and developed methods for bids on the three level, thereby unlocking many new creative and innovative means to describe the holding to partner.

Three No Trump Opening
In standard methods, this bid shows 25 to 27HCPs, a balanced hand, and nine quick tricks. See Gambling 3 No Trump and also Acol 3 No Trump Opening Bid.

Three No Trump Overcall
After a preempt on the three level, a bid of 3 No Trump indicates a strong balanced hand with at least one stopper in the preemptive suit. The call of double is also not possible because of lacking length in the suits which would be indicated by doubling. The bid of 3 No Trump can also actually be preemptive in nature.

Three No Trump Response
After an opening on the one level by the partner, the responder can bid 3 No Trump, and the meaning can vary according to the partnership understanding.

1. Traditional: showing 16 to 18 high card points and any 4-3-3-3 distribution.
2. Limit: indicating 13 to 15 high card points and any 4-3-3-3 distribution, as used in the Acol System.
3. Conventional: this treatment, devised by Mr. Monroe Ingberman, is used with limit raises over an opening in a Major suit showing a standard forcing jump raise.
4. Distributional: indicates a 13 to 15 support point range with a singleton after an opening in a Major suit.
5. Extra Strong or Distributional: shows one of a series of conglomerate Major raises with extra values
6. Ace-asking: See: Baby Blackwood
7. Psychic Control: this indicates a holding of 23 high card points or more.
8. Preemptive Major Suit Raises: a similar bid to a direct raise to four of a Major after an opening in a Major suit, and showing only moderate defensive value.

Three-Odd
A term to describe three tricks over book or a total of nine tricks.

Three Quarter No Trump
The application by partnerships who use a weak No Trump when not vulnerable. Normal No Trump ranges are used when the partnership is vulnerable. Bridge partnerships which combine this feature with a fourth-hand Weak No Trump at all vulnerabilities, which is considered to be safe since neither opponent can double and dummy must have logically some values, is described as playing 13/16ths.

Three Spot
The second lowest card in any given suit, and sometimes referred to as "trey".

Three-Suiter
A hand with at least three suits of four or more cards, such as in the distribution of 4-4-4-1 or 5-4-4-0.

Three Tables
At duplicate, three tables provide for competition among 12 players as individuals, 6 pairs, or 3 teams-of-four.

Through
A term meaning from the right.

Through Strength
A concept dating back to the days of Whist. The idea is that a defender seated left of the declarer should lead through strength located in the dummy. This percentage play has shown that one’s partner may hold the missing honors behind the dummy.

Throw Away
1. to discard a non-winner or a card that will not take a trick;
2. to defend or play in such a manner as to score very poor results.

Throw In
1. to make a throw-in play. See below.
2. in rubber bridge, to throw the cards into the center of the table after four consecutive passes.

Throw-In Play
Upon the execution of a throw-in play, an opponent is intentionally given the trick. However, the lead thereafter will cost the opponent also one trick or more. There are several types of throw-in plays:

1. Tenace Throw-in: the opponent takes the trick but is forced to lead from a broken honor holding which will cost at least one trick.
2. Trump Throw-in: the opponent takes the trick but is forced to concede a trick or tricks through a ruff and discard play by the declarer. This is also known as an Elimination Play.
3. Entry Throw-in: the opponent takes the trick but is forced to lead a suit in which the declarer already has established his tricks and to which there is otherwise no entry for the declarer.
4. Double Elimination: the opponent takes the trick but is forced to lead a suit which the declarer wins. The declarer then lets the opponent win a second trick but the opponent must again lead a suit which gives the declarer one or more tricks.
5. Pseudo Elimination: the opponent wins the trick believing that the declarer has purposely allowed him to win the trick in order to establish a ruff/discard or ruff/sluff situation, which in the end is not the case because the declarer is attempting to conceal a loser.

Throw-In Squeeze
A term for a squeeze which can only be executed when a trick is intentionally surrendered. Generally around the ninth or tenth trick, the declarer surrenders a trick, realizing that only the lead from the opponent who has taken the trick must lead, giving the declarer the final tricks to make the contract.

Thrump Doubles
Instead of describing the Thrump Double independently the author contributed this informative description.. The following description is by Mr. Marty Bergen, who invented and devised the Thrump Double and its application. In case the visitor or bridge student would like to contact Mr. Marty Bergen, he/she can do so by visiting the (website) of Mr. Marty Bergen.

Thurner Movement
This is a team movement for a round robin event between an even number of teams, in which for every round there are two tables sharing boards.

Timanus, Eddie
Mr. Eddie Timanus is no stranger to competitive games. The resident of Arlington, Virginia, born 1971, is well known to fans of the television game show Jeopardy as a five time champion of the program, a feat that trivia buffs revere the same way sports enthusiasts glorify winning the decathlon. Mr. Eddie Timanus, a sports writer for USA Today, who covers the collegiate beat (especially lacrosse), has now set his sights on tournament bridge. Why should this be unusual (or difficult) for such an obviously gifted young man? It is because Mr. Eddie Timanus is totally blind.

Despite being born without sight, Mr. Eddie Timanus developed a fascination with all types of games, and by the time he was in junior high school Timanus had developed a group of friends who shared his interests. One member of that group, Joe Hertz of Sterling, Virginia, has remained good friends with Mr. Eddie Timanus and is his bridge partner here in Washington.

Although Mr. Eddie Timanus has long been familiar with rubber bridge, Mr. Joe Hertz persuaded him to give duplicate a try at the Arlington regional last year. The pair entered the 0–5 masterpoint Newcomer Pairs on Friday afternoon where they finished fifth overall with a 59% game. In the evening game, they finished second overall, again with a 59% effort.

"I earned my first red points," said Mr. Eddie Timanus, who plays with the help of Braille cards (there are raised "dots" on the corners of the cards) and an "electronic bidding box" produced by Baron Barclay. The other players at the table announce their bids and their cards as play proceeds.

ACBL allows the use of Braille cards, but they must be supplied by the player who requests their use, so Mr. Eddie Timanus and Mr. Joe Hertz created several of the special decks.

Modifying game components to allow Mr. Eddie Timanus to participate is nothing new to Mr. Joe Hertz. "When we were younger, we played all kinds of board games, but the trick was to find ways to include Eddie," he said. The group even came up with their own name for the process - "Eddiefying".

"Eddiefying a game requires imagination, but we always came up with a solution, even for games like football," said Mr. Joe Hertz. Their football solution was to make Mr. Eddie Timanus the quarterback for both teams, so that the real strategy lay in which side could best plan the blind player's pass attempts during the huddle. Mr. Eddie Timanus was able to parlay his love of games and trivia into multiple Jeopardy championships. In 1999, Mr. Eddie Timanus won five days in a row on the popular game show earning $69,700. He was invited back to play in the program's Tournament of Champions (open only to other strong contenders) later that year, and made it to the semifinal round to earn another $5000.

With all of his accomplishments, Mr. Eddie Timanus has recently added one more. He was married in July 2002 to his girlfriend, Kelli. "Even though I'm a newlywed, I do have my wife's permission to be here. She's not a bridge widow yet!"

Tickets
1. a term to describe the pick-up slips;
2. private score cards or tallies;
3. a term describing the right high cards for a certain action.

Tie
The sameness or the equality in a competition, meaning no winner.
1. On a board;
2. In a Knockout match. The regulations determine that additional boards must be played, in accordance with the conditions of contest, to determine a winner;
3. In overall standings or section standings.
In all ACBL contests and competitions, since 1992, any margin is determined as a win.

Tierce
A term describing a sequence of three cards of the same suit, of which one or more is an honor. The term is derived from a card game called Piquet which was played by two persons using a deck of 32 cards. The cards from the deuce to the six were excluded. The term is now obsolete.

Tight
A colloquial and/or slang term for any of the following three reasons:

1. Slang: a term to describe a singleton or a stiff, normally a high ranking honor;
2. Slang: the term also refers to doubleton honors such as Ace-King or King-Queen;
3. Slang: describing the attribute of being conservative.

Timing
In planning the strategy of play there is an element of timing involved as to when the trumps should be pulled, when losers should be trumped, when side suits should be established. During the play, timing is important in deciding when to act passively or aggressively. This factor of timing is applied by both the declarer and both defenders.

Tip the Duke - Tip the Hand - Tip the Mitt
All three expressions have the same and identical meaning and that is to give away one's holdings by one's actions; to inform in some manner. The intent is to cheat by signaling to an accomplice the value of a down card or of the holdings of another player. These expressions are used mainly in the game of poker, but is not limited to such games of chance.

Duke: 1) The nuts, usually preceded by an expression as: I wouldn't call that bet with your money; he's got a duke this time. 2) Get rid of (a poker hand), as in: As soon as I called, he duked his hand.

Mitt: A poker hand, that is, a fistful of cards.

Mitt Joint: A crooked gambling establishment that relies on marked cards.

Nuts: 1) Very good hand; usually preceded by the. Every time I get a good hand, they show me the nuts. Also, the berries, a duke, the Holy City, the Brazilians, the Brass Brazilians, the Royal Brazilians, the como se llamos, the watchamacallits, los cojones, the golyoonies, the World's Fair, and others. 2) The best possible hand at a given point in a pot.

Tiroler Berg Weak Two Bids
The origin of this conventional method is unknown. The basis of the concept is the Weak Two bid in either Major suit with the original opening showing a specified suit. The opening can have several meanings, which are then clarified by the rebids.

Toad Club System
This bidding system was developed by Americans Mr. Ken Schutze and Mr. Jim Griffin. The Toad Club system is a Big Club System in which all good hands (16 plus high card points or equivalent playing strength) are opened with 1 Club. Failure to open 1 Club, therefore, limits the hand to at most 15 points
.

The system actively encourages aggressive opening bids and, by design, allows the opener to get out at a low level in many auctions in which he has elected to open light. Consequently, many auctions that would be forcing in Standard American are non-forcing in Toad Club. The major component of the Toad Club system is the use of many distributional relays to ascertain partner’s exact distribution.

This bidding system is only preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference. The visitor should select the link for the original version as presented by Mr. Marin Johnson.

Tollemache Cup
The Tollemache Cup is the inter-county championships for teams of eight. Entry is open only to County Associations of the EBU (English Bridge Union) and District Associations of the WBU. Teams are limited to 12 playing members, although not necessarily the same 12 in the qualifying round and the final. The qualifying event is normally played in November and will be played in four sections, in each of which every team plays every other. The composition of sections will be determined by open draw at noon on the first day of play, but the previous year’s finalists will be seeded, two into each section.

Tolleson Transfer Bids
Tolleson Transfer bids, a new way of 4-way transfers after 1 No Trump opening. They have been devised and invented in the year 2004 by American-born German player Jeanine Greifswald-Tolleson, and contributed by Mr. Frank Göbel to this website on May 19, 2004. The following bids are all based on the assumption that partner opened with 1 No Trump, the range being between 15-18 high card points and a possible 5-card Major suit.

Tonto Convention
This conventional method was devised and developed by Mr. Robert Stone. The designation is an acronym for Transfers Over 3 No Trump Overcalls. It is basically a means employed by the partnership to continue to explore for additional information after one partner has overcalled an opening preempt bid on the three level by the opponents with 3 No Trump.

Top
A designation and/or term, which can apply to any of the following four circumstances:

1. when playing a board, the best score made in the play of a hand in a duplicate tournament;
2. when playing a board, top refers to the value in matchpoint play and is one less than the number of times the board has been in competition;
3. the best score for a session of play among the contestants after completion of the competition;
4. a term to describe the highest card in the dummy’s suit when called by the declarer to play.

Top and Bottom
This term relates to a style of strategy and/or tactic that generally results in a very good or very bad result on each deal.

Top and Another Cuebids - T and A Cuebids
This conventional defense method was developed by Mr. Gene Hendricks. The defense method consists of a cuebid, generally an immediate cuebid of the opening suit bid by the opposing side, which can be employed both according to the principles of both the Michaels Cuebid and the Unusual No Trump overcall, both of which are defense methods.

Top and Bottom Cuebids - Bottom and Bottom Cuebids
The origin of these cuebids are unknown. They are employed after a suit opening of any opponent and not after any No Trump opening by the opponents. The direct cuebid of the suit of the opponent may be employed in direct seat or in the balancing seat. The concept behind this method is to show that the two suits of the cuebidder are known to be the highest unbid suit and lowest unbid suit of the suit of the opener.

Top Of Nothing
A defensive method of leading a relatively high spot card to show no honor in the suit.

Top Of A Sequence
In leading against either a suit contract or a No Trump contract the bridge player has the option of leading frm the top of a sequence, meaning that if the player holds Ace-King, then the player will lead the Ace. The information that partner can gain from this lead is that the King is behind the Ace, and the partner can, as a consequence of this information, communicate attitude and/or preference.

One definition of a sequence is that the holding is able to take two tricks. This means that the following holdings constitute sequences: AK, KQJ, QJ109. However, this defintion is rather strict and has been modified. In more modern thinking a sequence will show the possession of the next highest-ranking card, such as AK, KQ, QJ. In the case of a sequence headed by the Queen, the school of thought is that the sequence contain three cards: QJ10. However, even this sequence has been modified to include a broken sequence of one card, meaning that the possession of QJ9x fulfills the definition of a sequence. But if the holding is QJ8x, then this holding does not fit the defintion. In this instance the 'x' would be deemed the more correct card to play since it is the fourth down from the longest, strongest suit. (Source: Introduction To Bridge: Introduction to Defender's Play by Mr. Edwin Kantar in his publication of 1968.

Top Score
This is the highest number of matchpoints any contestant can score in direct competition.

Torino Bull
This is a trophy presented by the City of Turin, Italy, for the World Women’s Team Olympiad. The trophy was first presented in 1960 and is held every four years.

Torpedo Pairs Opening Bids
These opening bids are a variant of the Symmetric Club bidding system and employs Symmetric-like relays in generally all subsequent bidding. These bids were devised by Mr. Dean Eidler and Mr. Murat Genc of New Zealand, who intended Third Seat opening requirements of 12 to 16 high card points and Fourth Seat opening requirements of 17 high card points plus. These opening bids were, for all general purposes, the foundation of an individual partnership agreement based on their mutual bidding system, which gained some popularity.

TOSR 2003 as presented by Mr. Mark Abraham
The long designation is: 4-Card Transfer-Oriented Canapé Symmetric Relay System. A bidding system presented on the Internet by Mr. Mark Abraham. As self-described:

This system features a strong Club and limited transfer-style one-level openings with a normal Weak No Trump. Various game-forcing and invitational or better relay structures are described.

Reputedly this system was first invented in New Zealand and was known as Submarine, but I am sure we have warped it beyond recognition. We have based our structure and notes on those of Mr. Bruce Williams of Tasmania. The current versions incorporate John Fout's Overcall Structure for added psychosis in the auction.

TOSR 1999 Version as presented by Mr. Mark Abraham
As self-described: It is not a literal copy of the website, because the latter has some extraneous stuff on it. It has all the essential components, however, except the change to the 1C-1D-1H-1S-2C sequences. This Version has also be archived on this site as a .pdf file, and, depending on your browser, will be automatically downloaded to your computer and opened with Adobe Acrobat or automatically opened by your browser.

See also: 4-Card Transfer-Oriented Canapé Symmetric Relay System by Mr. Mark Abraham and Mr. Tim Johnson, July 1998. This Version has also be archived and preserved on this site as a .pdf file, and, depending on your browser, will be automatically downloaded to your computer and opened with Adobe Acrobat or automatically opened by your browser.

See also: 4-Card Transfer-Oriented Canapé Symmetric Relay System by Mr. Mark Abraham. This Version has also be archived and preserved on this site as a .pdf file, and, depending on your browser, will be automatically downloaded to your computer and opened with Adobe Acrobat or automatically opened by your browser.

See also: SCRAPE - Strong Club Relay Avoiding Passing Ever - formerly known as Strong Club Relay, Opening Transfers Emphasising Majors. These pages have also been archived on this site in .pdf file format. See: Glossary

Included on the Website of Mr. Mark Abraham are:

Notes on T-Rex
CATOMULT
REGRESsion
Relay Precision
Suspensor Forcing Pass

TOSR as presented by Mr. Daniel Neill and Mr. Josh Sher
A bidding system presented in segments by Mr. Daniel Neill and Mr. Josh Sher. This bidding system is also known as 4-Card Transfer-Oriented Canapé Symmetric Relay System. The categories of this bidding system are listed below. Each is in .pdf file format and, depending on your browser, will be automatically downloaded to your computer and opened with Adobe Acrobat or automatically opened by your browser.

This bidding system is represented on the Internet at the URL: http://www.geocities.com/daniel_neill_2000/sys/TOSR/frames.htm and are only archived and preserved here.

Description of Opening Bids

1 Club Opening

1 Diamond Opening

Continuations After a 1 Diamond Opening

1 Heart Opening

1 Spade Opening

1 No Trump Opening

2 Clubs Opening

2 Diamonds Opening

2 Hearts Opening

2 Spades Opening

2 No Trump Opening

Leads - Signals - Discards

Third and Fourth Seat Adjustments

Appendices

TOSR by Mr. Mark Abraham and Mr. Tim Johnson
A bidding system. By Mr. Mark Abraham and Mr. Tim Johnson, published on the Internet July 1998 in one segment. This bidding system is also known as 4-Card Transfer-Oriented Canapé Symmetric Relay System. These pages are only archived and preserved on this website. This is in .pdf file format and, depending on your browser, will be automatically downloaded to your computer and opened with Adobe Acrobat or automatically opened by your browser.

Toss Convention
This conventional defense method was devised by Mr. William (Willie) Jago of Melbourne, Australia. A complete outline can be found in his publication MOST, which describes in detail his Standard System MOST. His publication was first published in the year 1994/1995 and is an acronym of the letters Most Oriented Standard, ISBN: 0646221612, published privately in Docaster, Victoria by the author.

Total Point Scoring - Total Points
Known in England as Aggregate Scoring. This is the computation of scores based on points earned minus the points lost. This computation can be used in various forms of bridge such as Contract Bridge, Duplicate, Rubber and/or Chicago.

Total Tricks
This is the sum of the numbers of tricks that each side can take, double-dummy, in its longest trump suit.

Total Trumps
This term is used for the sum of the number of trumps held by each side in its best combined fit.

Touching Cards
1. these are cards that are in sequence in the same suit;
2. the physical act of touching any cards other than one’s own cards, which is illegal in duplicate, unless the player is arranging the dummy’s cards and has explained his action prior to the act.

Touching Escape Bids
This conventional method provides a so-called escape method in particular auctions, whereby partner has opened the bidding with a bid of No Trump, followed by an immediate penalty double. The escape bids represent possible actions by the responder.

Touching Honors
A holding of two or more honors that are in sequence, although the holding may be longer.

Tournament
An organized competitive duplicate bridge event, which has been sponsored, publicized, promoted, organized, and directed to completion, meaning that a winner has been determined after the scoring has been totaled. During the earlier days of Whist and Auction Bridge, such an event was referred to as a Congress.

Tournament Director
The official and appointed representative of the sponsoring organization for the duration of any competitive duplicate bridge tournament, who is responsible for the element of play, the management of the event, and making decisions after the occurrence of an irregularity.

Tournament Events
Tournament events may be classified by type: Individual, Pair, Team. These types of events may be organized by 1. Expertise (masterpoint holdings) as: Open, Flighted, Stratified, Stratiflighted, Handicapped, Bracketed (Teams), Masters, Non-Masters, Life Masters, specific masterpoint restrictions (0-5, 0-20, etc.). Events may also be restricted by 2. Gender: men's, women's, mixed or unmixed, and by 3. Age: Junior (25 years of age or younger), Senior (55 years of age or older). Scoring Methods are: Individual (matchpoints or internations matchpoints - IMPs), Pair (natchpoints or IMPs), Team (win/loss, victory points, total points, board-a-match).

Tournaments
The ACBL sanctions the following types of tournaments: NABCs - three major national championships each year; Regionals - sanctioned to each of the 25 Districts; Sectionals - sanctioned to the 300+ units.

Towie Bridge
This is a form of bridge for three players but intended to be played usually by four, five or more players, of whom only three play at one time. The other players participate in the defenders' score against the declarer. The game originated in Paris in 1931 by two Americans, Mr. J. Leonard Replogle and Mr. Paulding Fosdick. In 1935, Mr. J. Leonard Replogle, with the assistance of Mr. William Huske, sought to make Towie a popular game in the United States. This attempt had only moderate success, though the game is stilled played. The principal books on this variety of bridge were written by Mr. William Huske and by Mr. Stuyvesant Wainwright Jr. The play of Towie is that after dealing four hands, the dealer turns up six cards of the dummy, after which the auction proceeds as in any three-handed game. Scoring is based on the 1932 International Code, which differs from later codes in undertrick penalties and in the fact that No Trump tricks count 35 points each. The three active players bid for the dummy. The high bidder becomes the declarer. If the declarer fulfills the contract, he collects from every other player, actively or not actively participating. If the declarer fails to fulfill the contract, the declarer then pays every such player. After each deal, one player is replaced by an inactive player, in order of precedence except that a player who is not vulnerable takes precedence over a vulnerable player. If a game contract is reached, the hands are thrown in, and a Goulash follows, a deal in which the cards are distributed in large packets such as 5,5,3 or 5,4,4, instead of one at a time.

Note: The rules of the game of Towie was also published by Mr. Hoyle and can be found in his publication The New Complete Hoyle Revised, compiled by Mr. Albert H. Morehead, Mr. Richard L. Frey, and Mr. Geoffrey Mott-Smith. The pages have been preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.

T-Precision Bridge Bidding System
Authored, developed, and presented online by Mr. Steve Mcgrahan, this is a complete detailed bridge bidding system using 1 Club as a strong and forcing bid with most hands 16 plus points, unbalanced or 17 plus points, balanced. The system employs transfer responses over 1 Club. The blogspot of Mr. Steve Mcgrahan can be found online. This write-up, or draft, has been only preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.

Note: Mr. Steve Mcgrahan has released his newest updated Version 2.02 Draft D online, which is dated September 1, 2012. Among the new features is the differentiation between balanced and unbalanced holdings and the required high card point range in first and second seat, non-vulnerable, as opposed to first and second seat, vulnerable, and inclusive of all states of vulnerability in third and fourth seat. This write-up, or draft, has been only preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference. The opening bids are more detailed, explained more accurately, and are accompanied with appropriate and systemic continuations.

Track
Slang: the act of putting or laying down on the table, as in the dummy tracked with six strong Hearts.

Tram Tickets
Slang: a term, generally used in Britain, for a holding with very poor cards.

Tranare Bidding System
The origins of this bidding system is unknown and is only archived here. Any assistance in discovering the author and/or origins of this bidding system would be greatly appreciated. This is written in a .pdf file format, and, depending on your browser, will either be automatically opened by your browser or automatically downloaded to your computer and opened with Adobe Acrobat Reader.

Trance
Slang: a prolonged interruption in the tempo and rhythm of the play during which a player ostensibly tries to solve an unexpected problem. This interruption in the tempo can lead to ethical difficulties through misinterpretation of the intent and may lead to subjection of a call for the director to assess a ruling.

Transfer
1. a bid that shows length in a different suit;
2. a call that asks partner to make a certain call regardless of his holding;
3. to use a transfer;
4. to remove protection in a suit from one opponent and give it to the other;
5. a squeeze involving a transfer.

Transfer Breaks
In the game of bridge conventional methods are employed to communicate information about a holding. In certain conventional methods one partner may employ transfer bids with the intention that the hand of the stronger partner declares. This is the case, for example, with the Jacoby Transfer conventional method, which uses an artificial bid by the responder to transfer partner to a certain suit.

However, the player being transferred is under no obligation to accept the transfer. The Laws of Duplicate Contract Bridge disclose that a player may, in rotation, make any legal bid without penalty. It is owing to these two parameters of the game of bridge that transfer breaks were introduced. The designation only means that the player being transferred is not obligated to accept the transfer, but rather may make a bid higher than the intended suit to communicate certain information.

An illustrating example of the Jacoby Transfer conventional method is: 1 No Trump - 2 Diamonds (transfer bid) - 2 Spades, whereby the No Trump bidder has commited a transfer break in order to communicate certain previously agreed upon information. As an example only, this bidding sequence with the transfer break may communicate the information that the No Trump bidder has 3-4 cards support for Hearts (the intended transferred suit), excellent support also for Diamonds, plus maximum No Trump values.

In principle this treatment / approach can be applied to any conventional method, which makes use of transfer bids. The approach is mainly employed over a 1 No Trump opening bid, a 2 No Trump opening bid, and even a 3 No Trump opening bid.

Transferable Values
This designation describes strength that is likely to be useful on either offense or defense, thus high cards in suits where the partnership is not known to have great combined length.

Transfer Advance Approach
This is a conventional method whereby the responder (advancer) first transfers the opener to the intended suit after an opponent has opened the auction in a suit and the next player (partner) in rotation overcalls. The object is to have the partner captain the auction and/or to become the declarer. The following illustration presents this concept:

West East
KQ876
87
K953
43
 
54
AKQ106
Q86
QJ10
     

South

West North East
1 1 Pass 2

The 2 first response by East is the Transfer Advance to Hearts in this example.

Transfer Bids
These bids have only one goal, and that is to make the stronger of the two hands the declarer. They were first employed by Mr. David Carter, who devised Texas Transfers. After gaining popularity, other bridge players such as Mr. Oswald Jacoby for Jacoby Transfer Bid continued the development of Transfer Bids. Such bids were also devised independently by Mr. Olle Willner of Sweden, who published corresponding articles in Bridge Tidningen during 1953 and 1954.

Transferred King
This is a phrase to describe the fact that if an opponent opens the auction at the one level and the next two players pass in rotation, the the player in the balancing seat can generally assume that partner has some values.The ususual rule or guideline is to imagine that the player in the balancing seat holds a King more that in actuality and bid accordingly. The partner bids in a manner, that makes a suitable allowance for this circumstance.

Transfer For Lead
The idea behind the concept of Transfer Bid For Lead occurs in specific situations and bidding auctions, in which the opposing side competes. In order to defend against an opposing bid in a competitive auction it becomes necessary in several situations to decide and/or to indicate early in the auction that the lead should be determined in advance in the event that the opposing side declares.

Transfer Opening Preempts
The concept is that the partner of the preempting player transfers his partner to that suit, which is intended. Such a Transfer Opening Preempt is used with NAMYATS. Four No Trump Opening As Minor Preempt, Rubin Transfers, Transfer Opening Three Bids, Two-Under Opening Preempts.

Variation: A variation is also designated as Transfer Opening Preempts and has the following openings. The origin is unknown. The assumed advantage of such transfers is that the lead will come up to the player, who accepts the transfer.

2 NT: A standard preempt in Clubs. Partner should bid Clubs.
3 : A standard preempt in Diamonds. Partner should bid Diamonds.
3 : A standard preempt in Hearts. Partner should bid Hearts.
3 : A standard preempt in Spades. Partner should bid Spades.

Transfer Opening Three-Bids
This is a feature of the Texas principle, although the method was refined by Mr. Svend Novrup and Mr. Anders Lausten of Denmark in 1968, which they called Verdi. An opening of Three Clubs, Three Diamonds or Three Hearts transfers to the nest-higher suit and contains normal preemptive strength. An opening of Three Spades shows a solid Minor suit, which allows 3 No Trump to be played from the correct side. An opening of 3 No Trump shows a semi-solid Minor suit. NAMYATS is also used with this method. Opening on the Three Level with the intention of transferring has several advantages. The lead will be to the hand which holds the stronger side suits. The defense has little knowledge concerning the strength and distribution of the declarer. The opening bidder is able to show a two-suited holding by rebidding his second suit.

Transfer-Oriented Canapé Symmetric Relay System
See: TOSR

Transfer Precision Opening Bids
These opening bids are based on and is a variation of the Precision bidding system and was developed by Mr. Ian Wilson of Irvine, California, United States. One feature of priority of these opening bids was to, by relay bids after a 1 Club opening, make the opener the declarer. The similarity between these opening bids and the Truscott Symmetric Opening Bids is obvious, but the subsequent bidding process, however, differs significantly as does the opening No Trump range.

Transferring The Menace
This action refers to a squeeze play, that transfers the guard from one defender to the other defender.

Transfers Following A Double - Transfers After A Double
There are many partnership agreements and many conventional methods for any following action after a double of a No Trump opening bid by the immediate opponent. Many of these practical methods dealing with the competition in the form of a double do not have specific designations, and are therefore difficult to classify. The attempt has been made to include these methods as a list.

1. Jacoby Transfer bids are generally accepted bidding actions since the double by the immediate opponent has in no manner interferred with the partnership agreement.
2. Since a 2 response by responder is an idle bid, this particular response has been adopted, especially by Acol players, to show the following. It should be noted that the range for an opening bid of 1 No Trump for Acol players is between 12 and 14 high card points.
1 NT
Double
2
Promises a semi-balanced to balanced distribution and exactly 11 high card points. The response of 2 does not guarantee a stopper in any of the suits promised by the opponent.
1 NT
Double
2
Promises a semi-balanced to balanced distribution and exactly 12 high card points. The response of 2 does not guarantee a stopper in any of the suits promised by the opponent.

This particular response has also been varied by partnerships to be employed as a way to transfer the No Trump bidder to a Minor suit. This method has been adopted by Acol players and is shown below:

1 NT
Double
2
The responder shows either exactly 11 high card points or a long Minor suit.
2NT
Pass
The No Trump bidder rebids 2NT with a minimum values. This rebid generally promises a stopper(s) in one of the specified suit(s) of the intervenor. The responder then must decide between passing or bidding the long Minor suit. If the responder bids the long Minor suit, then the No Trump bidder is required to pass and the responder becomes the declarer if the auction ends.
3
The No Trump bidder rebids 3 with a maximum values. The responder then either choses to rebid 3 No Trump or to pass with non-game values and a long Club suit. If the responder choses to play in a long Diamond suit, then the responder will correct to Diamonds and the No Trump bidder is required to pass.
3. In the Acol bidding system transfers constituted a major element. Although the origins are unknown, in the early 1950s bridge authors (?) devised or reported about bouncing and breaking. This method has become more popular through the bridge books and publications by Mr. Paul Mendelson.
1. Bouncing: Following the standard initiation of a transfer sequence, such as:
North
East
South
West
Meaning
1 NT
Pass (or Double)
2
Pass
3
The No Trump bidder promises maximum values (Acol = 14 points) and a 4-card Heart suit. When these requirements are not met by the No Trump bidder, then the No Trump bidder rebids 2.

Breaking: Following the standard initiation of a transfer sequence, such as:

North
East
South
West
Meaning
1 NT
Pass (or Double)
2
Pass
3
The No Trump bidder promise maximum values (Acol = 14 points) and a doubleton in the bid suit such as Diamonds in this example. A second unexpected rebid by the No Trump bidder would be 3, by-passing the Hearts, to which the responder transfers.

The advantage of this method, referred to as bouncing and breaking, is that the partnership is able to discover game contracts at very little risk to the partnership. However, if the competition continues to the fourth player in rotation, then the partnership must decide upon which action to take.

4. See: Exit Transfer bids.

Transfers Over Doubles Of One No Trump
This is a four-suit escape treatment after an opening of 1 No Trump following by a double by the opponent. The partner of the No Trump bidder has several options. In the case the responder redoubles, and then bids 2 Diamonds over the forced 2 Clubs response, the request is that the partner bid his better Major.

Redouble: Transfer to Clubs
2 : Transfer to Diamonds
2 : Transfer to Hearts
2 : Transfer to Spades

Transfer Overcalls Of One No Trump
This concept was introduced by the Blue Team Club as part of their system. The responder generally is forced to accept the transfer if he would have normally passed the overcall. The transfer overcalls are to all four suits:

2 : Transfer to Diamonds
2 : Transfer to Hearts
2 : Transfer to Spades
2 : Transfer to Clubs

Transfer Preempts
This kind of transfer is generally a feature of the Precision or Mini-Precision Bidding Systems but may be employed independently. The origin of the concept is unknown. The following is a .pdf file compiled by Mr. Dirk Van Compernolle and is only archived on this site for future reference. This version is not to be regarded as the fundamental concept of transfer preempts.

Transfer Squeeze
A form of squeeze by the declarer resulting in transferring the menace by forcing an opponent to lead whereby the opponent forces his partner to become squeezed by having to discard.

Transferred Trick
A term for the trick given to the non-offending side after a revoke has been established. See Law 64.

Transferring The Menace
A defensive strategy by which the control of one suit by one opponent is transferred to his partner.

Transfer Overcalls of 1 No Trump - Transfer Overcalls of 1NT
This competitive conventional method or approach, Transfer Overcalls of 1 NT, was first introduced as part of the Blue Team Club. The transfer is to a single-suited holding containing a suit comprised of at least 6 plus cards. Whether or not the holding may contain a void was not addressed. The decision to make such a transfer bid is based upon the power of the distribution of the holding itself, and less upon the values of the holding.

Transfer Over Doubles of a Preemptive Bid
In the case that a preemptive action is doubled, minimum actions can be applied to show length in the next-higher strain, with or without a fit with the opener. A transfer to the suit of the opener shows a fitting top honor.

Transformation Cards
These cards are specially designed cards and packs of cards, whose faces include the various pips on the suit cards. Mr. Albert Field published a book entitled Transformation Playing Cards and which can be purchased at the included link.

Trap Defense Method
The actual origin of this conventional defense method is unknown. However, this defense method was popularized and promoted by Mr. Anthony (Tony) R. Forrester of Upton Bishop, England. It is a defensive bidding system employed after strong, artificial 1 Club openings.

Trap Bid
A term for describing an inconsistent bidding sequence by one partner which traps his own partner. At the second bid, one partner shows limited strength and length, but on the third bid denies the limit bid and shows more strength and length indicated by the second bid.

Trap Pass
A term describing a pass by a player, whose right hand opponent generally has opened the auction with a bid of a suit, in which the player is unusually strong, and who also has enough values to take some other action. Since the player realizes that his opponents may very well have a misfit, the player hopes for a better score with his defensive holding than deciding to enter the auction. Although there is no norm, percentages have determined that with values exceeding 18HCPs, any action other than a pass is preferable, since game is more likely than not.

Trash Stayman
The origin of this variation of the Stayman convention is unknown. Judging by the evidence it appears that the bridge community itself devised bidding sequences to show certain distributional patterns to overcome certain bidding problems. Trash Stayman is a treatment employed by holdings, which do not contain game values, and which have a certain distribution. These distributional patterns are defined as: 4-4-4-1, 3-4-5-1, 4-3-5-1, 4-4-5-0, 3-3-6-1, 3-4-6-0, and 4-3-6-0.

Traveler or Traveling Score Slip
A score sheet, an individual pick-up card, or a traveling scoreslip that accompanies every board played in a tournament.

Traveling
The act of not occupying the same seat or seats throughout the tournament movement.

Travel With Goren
Returning, by cruise ship S.S. Atlantic, from participation in the 1958 Bermuda Bowl conducted in Como, Italy, Mr. Charles Henry Goren provided, more or less as amusement, bridge sessions on board. Since many other participants of the tournament held in Como, Italy, were also on board the sessions proved rather successful not only in attendance, but also in enthusiasm. As a result of this reception Mr. Harold A. Ogust, a successful businessman and owner of a plastics manufacturing company, realized the potential of such bridge sessions conducted by Mr. Charles Henry Goren. Mr. Harold A. Ogust became the founder and President of Goren International, Inc. and together with Charles Henry Goren and Mr. Horace Craddock founded the company called Travel With Goren. The company was incorporated into Goren International, Inc. in the year 1966, and became a one of the very first full-service travel agency specializing in bridge cruises.

Note: Mr. Charles Henry Goren, as bridge columnist for Sports Illustrated, published a descriptive article April 2, 1962, Volume 16, Issue 13, about the cruise, the conducted bridge sessions, and the popularity sustained by the participants. This article has only been preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for the convenience of the bridge student and for future reference.

Tray
1. a term for a board, now obsolete;
2. the device that was slid under the screen in championships, on which the bidding-box cards were carried from one pair of opponents to the other pair of opponents. This tray was created by Mr. Henny Dorsman of Aruba and first used at the Central American and Caribbean Championships in Aruba in 1977. These trays were subsequently altered and improved by Mr. Ernesto D’Orsi.

Treatment
A treatment is a natural bid that indicates a desire to play in the named denomination, or promises or requests values in that specific denomination. By partnership agreement, a treatment also gives or requests additional information on which additional action could be based. A convention, on the other hand, is a bid that gives or requests information unrelated to the denomination named.

Trelde Leads
This concept for the play of the first card to the first trick was developed by Mr. John Trelde of Denmark. This is a method of leading from honor sequences to distinguish between a genuine sequence of 3 touching honors and a false sequence of only 2 touching honors. From a sequence of a 3-card true sequence, the highest card is the correct lead, and from a sequence of a 2-card sequence, the second highest card is the correct lead. Once the dummy is tabled the partner of the player leading the first card, or the Trelde Lead, is able to surmise and determine from which combination the lead card is.

Note: The lead of an Ace to the first trick promises the King. No difference in play is noted for a combination of Ace-King as a doubleton, such as the King first followed by the Ace. The Ace is played first according to standard and accepted agreement. The same standard agreement holds true for sequences such as Ace-King-Queen-x, and also leads from an internal sequence such as Ace-Queen-Jack-Ten, whereby the Queen is the correct lead.

Tresboof Bidding System - Introduction
The origin of this concept can be found on the following web page. The concept is that it is a Forcing Pass System with Moscito Relays. The following .pdf files are only archived on this site and has been compiled by Mr. Todd Anderson, and can be viewed at: http://www.geocities.com/drtodd13/bridge_files/TresBoof.txt. The following .pdf files can also be found at this Internet address.

Tresboof Bidding System
Version 1992, .pdf file.

Tresboof Bidding System
The Version 2001 .pdf file has only been archived on this site for future reference.

Tresboof Bidding System
Version 2001, Last Revision, .pdf file.

Tresboof Bidding System 2003
This is un updated version of the Tresboof Bidding System and has been only archived as the Version 2003 .pdf file on this site for future reference.

TRex Bidding System - T-Rex Bidding System
As presented and hosted by Mr. Mark Abraham of Australia. The link will take the visitor to his website, where he has posted the bidding system in the form of downloads, some in MicroSoft Excel format. The bidding system is so constructed that most opening bids are highly multi-way with many different relay structures. Notwithstanding, it has been used at world championship level by Michael Ware and Andy Braithwaite in Maastricht in 2000 and Andy and Ian Turner. The T-Rex General Agreements have been filed, archived and preserved on this site in a .pdf file format, and depending on your browser will be either automatically downloaded to your computer and opened with Adobe Acrobat Reader or automatically opened by your browser.

Trey
The three-spot card of any suit.

Triangle
Slang: a colloquial designation of a holding, which contains only three points. Often times used with the slang term Heartbreaker together as in the following example:

 
North
J652
Q7432
J102
7
 
West
8
J985
7
Q1086543
 
East
Q4
AK106
83
AKJ92
 
South
AK10973
 
AKQ9654
 
 
West North East South
  Pass 1 2
4 4 6 6
Pass Pass Double Pass
Pass Redouble Pass Pass
Pass      

The contract is 6 Spades by South, vulnerable and redoubled. East was looking forward to setting the contract and scoring big with four top winners. However, the holding of East turned into a so-called Heartbreaker when it was discovered that any lead by West will result in the declarer taking all 13 tricks for a score of 2470 points. East holds a triangle or only three points.

Trial
This is a designation, which describes a tournament that qualifies the successful contestants for a future event.

Trial Bid
After an almost immediate location of a compatible suit or fit in a Major suit by both partners, one partner bids a new suit strongly suggesting game or a final contract in No Trump. If the responder has no extra values, then he signs off below game.

Triathlon
This is a three event tournament consisting of a team-of-four event, after which the teams are divided into pairs for the pairs event. The final event is played as individuals. The winner is the player who has the best aggregate score.

Trick
Colloquially and/or generally: A collection of four cards, one contributed by each player at the table in rotation.

Previous definitions are contained in The Official Encyclopedia of Bridge and differ from edition to edition. Several of these definitions are included below.

OEC - 1963/4: Trick - The unit by which the outcome of the contract is determined, regularly consisting of four cards, one contributed by each player in rotation, beginning with the lead.

OEC - 1963/4: on page 507, the designation 'trick' is defined as follows:

Trick. Consists of four cards played in rotation after an initial lead of one of the cards by the player whose turn it was to lead or to play first to the trick. A trick of four cards can be won by virtue of the the winning card being the highest in rank (number) of the four played; or because the card led is "long", that is, a remaining card in one's hand of a suit not held by any other player; or by having a trump card played to it either by declarer or dummy, or either defender.

OEC - 1975: Trick - The unit by which the outcome of the contract is determined, regularly consisting of four cards, one contributed by each player in rotation, beginning with the lead.

OEC - 1975: on page 528, the designation 'trick' is defined as follows:

Trick. Consists of four cards played in rotation after an initial lead of one of the cards by the player whose turn it was to lead or to play first to the trick. A trick of four cards can be won by virtue of the the winning card being the highest in rank (number) of the four played; or because the card led is "long", that is, a remaining card in one's hand of a suit not held by any other player; or by having a trump card played to it either by declarer or dummy, or either defender.

OEC - 1997: Trick - The unit by which the outome of the contract is determined, regularly consisting of four cards, one contributed by each player in rotation, beginning with the lead.

OEC - 1997: on page 535, the designation 'trick' is defined as follows:

Trick. Consists of four cards played in rotation after an initial lead of one of the cards by the player whose turn it was to lead or to play first to the trick. A trick of four cards can be won by virtue of the the winning card being the highest in rank (number) of the four played; or because the card led is "long", that is, a remaining card in one's hand of a suit not held by any other player; or by having a trump card played to it either by declarer or dummy or either defender.

OEC - 2007: - (Proposed Newly Revised Edition 2007): Trick - the unit by which the outcome of the contract is determined, composed unless flawed of four cards, one contributed by each player in rotation, beginning with the lead.

(Note: The first Laws of Duplicate Bridge were published in 1928. There had been successive revisions in 1933, 1935, 1943, 1949, 1963, 1975, 1987, and 1997. In accordance with its By-Laws the World Bridge Federation promulgated the current edition in 2007. )

Trick Appropriated In Error
The descriptive term for scoring the trick for oneself, although the trick was won by the opposing side. If this trick is discovered in time, then this trick must be restored to the winning side. See Laws 67 and 68.

Trick Points
These are points scored for fulfilled contracts. In rubber bridge, these points are carried over to the next hand until a rubber has been won.

Trick Score
The score awarded for tricks bid and made.

Trinidad and Tobago Contract Bridge Association

Triple
1. in relating to a squeeze action, against only one opponent and extending over three suits;
2. when bidding, a jump bid two levels above the cheapest jump in the same strain. For example: 1 Heart - 4 Spades.

Triple Coup
A term to describe a series of plays by the declarer in which he trumps three cards from the dummy’s hand in order to shorten his own trump suit to the number of trumps held by his right hand opponent. The strategy behind this play is that the declarer can lead a card from the dummy at the eleventh or twelfth trick, which the right hand opponent must trump and thereby allowing the declarer to win the last two or three tricks by virtue of his own trumps being higher than those of his right hand opponent.

Triple Four by One
Slang: this describes a distribution of 4-4-4-1.

Triple Grand Coup
A term to describe an action by the declarer whereby the declarer shortens his hand three times in trumps, and at the same time reducing his trump holding to the equal number of trump holding held by his right hand opponent, by ruffing three winners from the dummy.

Triple Raise
If one partner opens a Major suit on the one level, and the partner bids game, then this is a triple raise. It is also informing the opener of an excellent distributional hand with less than moderate values, and that slam should not be considered despite the holding of the opener. In the case of a triple raise after a Minor suit opening on the one level, the responder is showing an even better distributional holding, weak values, and the bid is considered preemptive. A distribution of 0-2-5-6 would be typical for a triple raise of a Minor suit opening. In order to accomplish this Mr. Ely Culbertson outlines the following parameters:

First: For their defensive values, should one of the opponents obtain the declaration and play the hand.
Second: For their offensive value, should the player become Declarer.
Third: For their supporting value: that is, in the event the partner becomes the Declarer.

Triple Squeeze
A squeeze against the same opponent in three suits. The minimum requirements are two 1-card menaces and a 2-card menace with an entry opposite the squeeze card.

Tripleton
A holding of three cards in any given suit.

Triple Valuation
The following conditions must be followed in order to determine the power of the held thirteen cards as expressed by Mr. Ely Culbertson in his publication Contract Bridge Book published by The Bridge World in New York, New York, United States.The publication was first published in the year 1930 and enjoyed its eighth printing as of December 1930. (OCoLC)1475865. LCCN: 31000748.

Tripp, Linda
The Bridge partners of Linda Tripp testify in court about illegal wiretapping.

Triskaidekaphobia
A designation for the fear of the number 13. It is generally considered to be a superstition, which is defined as an irrational belief that future events are influenced by specific behaviors, without having a causal relationship. This fear or phobia may be applied to certain bridge players, who have hesitations or reservations about either bidding a grand slam or actually declaring a grand slam in such a manner as to successfully take thirteen tricks.

Although interchangable this designation is not to be confused with the fear of the specific date Friday 13. This is designated as paraskavedekatriaphobia or friggatriskaldekaphobia. The arrest and murder of the Knights Templar occurred on Friday October 13, 1307. This event is said to be the origin of the supposed unluckiness of Friday the 13th.

Troll
This is a statement posted to a mailing list, newsgroup, etc., that does not reflect the author's thinking but whose purpose is merely to provoke discussion.

Trophy
ACBL has several permanent trophies to be awarded to the winners of many of its major bridge contests. ACBL inscribes the trophies appropriately and keeps them on display at its headquarters. Current permanent trophies include:

BALDWIN: ACBL awards the Col. Russell J. Baldwin trophy to the winners of the North American Pairs champions, Flight A.

BEAN: The Percy Bean trophy is awarded to the winners of the Red Ribbon Pairs held at the Summer NABC.

GEORGE BURNS SENIOR: The George Burns Senior trophy was established in 1993 and is awarded to the ACBL Senior member winning the highest number of masterpoints in senior events during the year.

CAVENDISH: The Cavendish trophy is awarded to the winners of the Blue Ribbon Pairs held at the Fall NABC.

CHICAGO: The Chicago trophy is awarded to the winners of the Mixed Board-a-Match Teams held at the Summer NABC.

IRA G. CORN JR.: The Ira G. Corn Jr. trophy, which is inscribed For the privilege of representing the USA and the ACBL with honor and skill, is awarded annually to the winning team of the United States Bridge Championship or the International Team Trials, whichever is applicable in a given year.

BARRY CRANE: The Barry Crane trophy, formerly the William McKenney trophy, is awarded to the player who earns the highest number of masterpoints during the year.

CULBERTSON: The Josephine Culbertson trophy is awarded to the winners of the North American Women's Team Championship.

FISHBEIN: The Sally Fishbein trophy is awarded to the player winning the most masterpoints at the Summer NABC in NABC+ events.

GOLD CUP: The Gold Cup, donated by Waldemar von Zedtwitz, is awarded to the winners of the Life Master Pairs held at the Summer NABC.

GOLDER CUP: The Ben Golder Cup is awarded to the winners of the North American Pairs Champions, Flight B.

GOREN: The Charles H. Goren trophy is awarded to the player winning the most masterpoints in NABC+ events at NABCs in a calendar year.

HERMAN: The Lou Herman trophy is awarded to the player winning the most masterpoints at the Fall NABC.

JACOBY: The Oswald and James Jacoby trophy is awarded to the winners of the Open Swiss Teams held at the Spring NABC.

KEOHANE: The William H. Keohane trophy is awarded to the winners of the North American Swiss Teams held at the Fall NABC.

LANDY: The Alvin Landy trophy is awarded to the Junior player winning the most masterpoints in a calendar year.

LAZARD: The Sydney H. Lazard Jr. trophy is awarded to players who display admirable ethical behavior and a strong sense of fair play over an extended period of time while playing in high level events.

LEBHAR: The Bertram J. Lebhar trophy is awarded to the winners of the IMP Pairs, held at the Summer NABC.

LEVENTRITT: The Peter Leventritt trophy is awarded to the winners of the Silver Ribbon Pairs, held at the Spring NABC.

MACHLIN: The Sadie Machlin trophy is awarded to the winners of the Women's Swiss Teams, held at the Spring NABC.

ROBIN MACNAB: The Robin MacNab Memorial trophy is awarded annually to the winners of the Grand National Non-Life Master Teams.

MILES: The R. J. Miles trophy is awarded to the winners of the Non-Life Masters Pairs held at the Fall NABC.

MITCHELL: The Victor Mitchell trophy is awarded to the winners of the Open Board-a-Match Teams held at the Fall NABC.

MOREHEAD: ACBL awards the Morehead trophy (donated by The New York Times in memory of Albert H. Morehead) annually to the winners of the Grand National Open Teams, Flight A, held at the Summer NABC.

MOTT-SMITH: The Geoffrey Mott-Smith trophy is awarded to the player winning the most masterpoints at the Spring NABC.

NAIL: The G. Robert (Bobby) Nail trophy is awarded to the winners of the Life Master Open Pairs held at the Fall NABC.

PETER PENDER: The Peter Pender trophy, donated by Peter Pender, is awarded to the winners of the ACBL Junior Bridge Championship (Team Trials) held every two years at the Summer NABC.

PRESIDENT'S CUP: The Presidents Cup is awarded to the winners of the Non-Life Master Swiss Teams held at the Summer NABC.

REISINGER: The Reisinger trophy, donated by Curt H. Reisinger, is awarded each year to the winner of the Reisinger Board-a-Match Teams held at the Fall NABC.

ROCKWELL: The Helen Rockwell trophy is awarded to the winners of the Mixed Pairs held at the Spring NABC.

SHEINWOLD: ACBL awards the Alfred Sheinwold trophy annually to the winners of the Grand National Teams Flight B held at the Summer NABC.

SILODOR: The Sidney Silodor trophy is awarded to the winners of the Open Pairs I held at the Spring NABC.

SOBEL: The Helen Sobel trophy is awarded to the winners of the Life Masters Women's Pairs held at the Fall NABC.

SPINGOLD: The Spingold trophy, donated by Nathan B. Spingold, is awarded annually to the winners of the Spingold Knockout Teams held at the Summer NABC.

STERNBERG: The Marsha May Sternberg Memorial trophy is awarded to the winners of the Women's Board-a-Match Teams held at the Fall NABC.

VANDERBILT CUP: The Vanderbilt Cup, donated by Harold S. Vanderbilt, is awarded annually to the winners of the Vanderbilt Knockout Teams held at the Spring NABC.

WAGAR: The Margaret Wagar trophy is awarded to the winners of the Women's Knockout Teams held at the Summer NABC.

WERNHER: The Sir Derrick J. Wernher trophy is awarded to the winners of the Open Pairs II held at the Spring NABC.

WETZLAR: The Wetzlar trophy is awarded to the ACBL Honorary Member of the Year, who is selected by the ACBL Board of Directors. The honoree receives a commemorative plaque and a lifetime membership in ACBL.

WHITEHEAD: The Wilbur C. Whitehead trophy is awarded to the winners of the Women's Pairs held at the Spring NABC.

Trump
1. a card that ranks above all cards of all other suits;
2. to play such a card after the lead of another suit;
3. the suit named in the final bid, but not No Trump.

Trump Asking Bid
Devised by Mr. Ely Culbertson, it was a convention asking about the partner’s honor card, or key card, holding in the agreed trump suit. The first bid was 4 No Trump and the responses were as follows:

5 : signified no Ace, King, or Queen
5 : signified one of the three top honors
5 : signified two of the three top honors
5 : signified all of the three top honors

If the initiator of the Trump Asking Bid continued to search for slam, he would bid 5 No Trump, and the responder would then show his trump length by a series of artificial bids. Since over time this convention revealed several disadvantages to the emerging newer conventions, it was discontinued by most bridge players.

Trump Asking Bid - TAB
This is the designation employed in the Romex bidding system originated by Mr. George Rosenkranz of Mexico and occurs only after a 1 No Trump or strong, artificial 2 Clubs opening. If the trump suit has been agreed upon and the opener either raises the agreed trump suit below the level of game or bids a minimum number of No Trump, this bid is then a Trump Asking Bid. Compare with STAB or Romex Special Trump Asking Bid, which is employed only after a strong, artificial 2 Clubs opening bid.

Trump Control
Having enough trumps to prevent the opponents from cashing side-suit winners.

Trump Coup
The trump coup is a special or unusual play maneuver or play tactic. The trump coup generally refers to an endplay situation or lay of the cards between a declarer and one defender, whereby the finesseable trump cards of a defender are trapped without a finesse.

Trump Echo
Signaling high-low in trumps, which traditionally has been used to indicate interest in a ruff, but in modern times often used merely to give count. This practice dates back to the era of the game of Whist, when it was designated by the Whist experts and authors as the Sub-Echo. The concept was to show exactly three trumps, if held, when partner calls or leads trumps from strength. Source: Modern Scientific Whist: The Principles Of The Modern Game by C.D.P. Hamilton, date 1884.

Trump Ice

Media announcement of Fountainhead entertainment, LLC, on July 16, 2004.

New York, NY (PRWEB) July 16, 2004 -- Bid it up, Bid it up. As with Contract Bridge, the game is heavily dependent on the bidding process that takes place at the beginning of each game. Most of the game is spent determining whether or not you and your partner have the necessary points in a particular suite to decide on a Trump suit and take the game. Now a new rule introduced by game company, Fountainhead Entertainment, LLC, has proven to up the intensity of the bidding process and speeding up the game.

It's called Trump Ice. The rule came about from extensive R&D on the part of the company, while trying to find a way to entice younger players to join in on the game of Bridge. How it works is that during the bidding process, partners can determine whether or not they have exactly 32 points between them. Under the rule, this would be the Trump of all Trumps. If so, the partners can call Trump Ice. Exposing their cards, the players must show exactly 32 points between them. If they are correct, the game is over and they win the round and double points. If they are wrong, the opposing team wins the round.

Recently, this new addition to Contract Bridge has started to see some momentum build among players all over the country. It has added to the intensity of the game and is even attracting new players. As time goes forward, and the momentum continues, Trump Ice will be the talk or the shout at Bridge tables everywhere.

About Fountainhead Entertainment, LLC: The company was founded with the mission of bringing creative online games to the market. Games are created based on Skill Wagering potential, market penetration, and overall excitement. The company was founded in 2001, and has continued to focus heavily on R&D.

The visitor is also encouraged to read the public court case filed by Donald Trump of New York, New York, against the company. This is in a .pdf file format and is only archived and preserved on this site for future reference.

Trump Indicators and Whist Markers

These pictures of Trump Indicators and Whist Markers are being presented by courtesy of Mr. Bruno Coen Sacerdotti of Italy, who is an avid collector of Trump Indicators and Whist Markers. These pictures represent only a small portion of his collection and we are indebted to him for his permission to present them to our visitors on this site. The visitor should be aware that these pictures are the copyrighted material of Mr. Bruno Coen Sacerdotti and should not be copied.

In the era, when the game of Whist was played, there were different rules. For example, there was no dummy to indicate the actual trump suit. The trump suit was also determined by the last card dealt. Due to this fact, the trump suit was very many times forgotten by the players. In order to rectify this shortcoming, Whist Markers and Trump Indicators were invented as Trump Reminders. The actual form of the Trump Indicator could take on many shapes and became an art. When the game of Whist evolved into the game of Bridge, Trump Indicators were also used to remind the players which suit was trump after the completed auction. Trump Indicators were placed on the table and all players could refer to them as Trump Reminders. Over time, these devices became obsolete and are no longer used.

Trump King
This designation is for the King, which is considered to be the fifth Ace in control-showing bids.

Trump Leads
Not normally recommended as the first lead against a suit contract, there are certain circumstances which would strongly suggest the lead of trump:

1. when the auction indicates that the dummy will be able to trump some of the declarer’s losing tricks;
2. when the leader expects an aggressive lead in another suit, which could be beneficial to the declarer;
3. when the goal of the opponents is to mislead the declarer as to the exact trump holdings between the opponents;
4. when the declaring side has bid three suits before deciding to play the final contract in the fourth suit;
5. when the declarer, although raised in his suit, has bid No Trump and the responder places the declarer back in the original suit;
6. when the declaring side seems to have a good fit, but a misfit in the other suits;
7. when the auction indicates that the dummy has exactly three trump cards;
8. when a takeout double has been passed for penalty;
9. when the opening has been passed out on the one level;
10. when your contract has been doubled for penalty, but an opponent has balanced;
11. when the opponents gain the contract after your side has opened the auction with No Trump;
12. when the opponents are in a high level sacrifice contract.

Trump Peter
This is a designation identical to the definition for a trump echo.

Trump Pick-Up
A strategic defensive play by the declarer against one opponent who holds excellent trump strength and length that reduces the loss of trump by leading the other suits, in order to pick up his trump holding.

Trump Promotion
This is the process whereby the declarer or the opponents forces the premature play of trump cards, which can be achieved in various ways:

1. forcing ruffs, in order to win trump tricks by length;
2. with a coup en passant, in order to win trump tricks by position;
3. ruffing to force out trumps, or an uppercut;
4. creating the impression of an overruff to force out the trumps.

Trump Signal
A play by the defenders, informing the other the length of their trump holding. Traditionally, if the first trump played is higher than the second trump, then that partner holds three trump cards. This is referred to as the High-Low Signal or Trump Echo. This exchange of information could become significant between the opponents if there is a possibility of one partner ruffing a loser with his third trump card, although not a winner when standing alone.

Trump Squeeze
A form of squeeze play whereby the ruffing power of the trump suit plays a major factor in winning tricks. Conversely, a squeeze that would fail in the absence of the ability to ruff.

Trump Suit
The suit, as determined by the auction, whose cards rank above all cards of all other suits.

Trump Suit Preference
This is a signal by the defenders employed when the declarer first plays the trump suit. If the player plays a high trump, then this signal shows interest in the higher-ranking non-trump suit. If the player plays a low trump, then this signal shows interest in the lower-ranking non-trump suit. For example, if Diamonds constitute the trump suit, then when declarer plays the first trump card, than from a holding of Diamond 952 the play of the Diamond9 is asking for a switch to the next higher-ranking non-trump suit, or Hearts. If the Diamond2 is played, then this signal is requesting a switch to the next lower-ranking non-trump suit, or Clubs. In the case that the trump suit is Spades, then the next higher-ranking non-trump suit is Clubs and the next lower-ranking non-trump suit is Hearts.

Such a signal is not confined to the declarer playing the first card of the trump suit according to the publication Easy Guide to Defensive Signals by Mr. Julian Pottage. In this publication he states that the partnership is free to apply this trump suit preference signal when the player on lead also leads the trump suit. The conclusion is that the partnership must decide and mutually agree.

Trump Swiss
Heeding the amount of high card points, but paying attention to the placement and distribution of a solid trump suit, the Trump Swiss convention aids both players to reach a slam contract.

Trump Trick
This is a playing trick in the trump suit.

Truncated Howell Movement
This is a shortening of the Howell Movement to terminate at the end of 13 rounds. The disadvantage to this method was that it did not produce a balanced comparison and is no longer used.

Truscott
A shortened and abbreviated designation to describe a defense method against Big-Club opening bids based on low-level suit bids showing the suit bid and the next highest suit, which were devised by Mr. Alan Truscott.

Truscott Card
This is a card placed in the first board played in a session of team play. The players record their names, their position, and their table number. This is done so that the director can correct an error, if discovered upon the exchange of boards. The idea was introduced by Mr. Alan Truscott in 1976.

Truscott Defense Method to Strong, Artificial Bids
This is a defense method, devised by Mr. Alan Fraser Truscott, by which the defending side is able to show a one-suited or two-suited hand. The method also employs a Jump Overcall as natural and a simple overcall shows length in the bid suit and the suit that ranks just above it.

Truscott Symmetric Relay Opening Bids
These opening bids are a variation on the Precision bidding system and the Symmetric Relay. They were developed by Mr. Alan Fraser Truscott of New York City, New York, United States. These opening bids are a variation on the Precision bidding system and the Symmetric Relay bidding system.

Truscott Two Diamonds
See: Two-Way Stayman

Tunisia
Federation Tunisienne de Bridge
Contact Address
Laboratoire Médical
Centre Cial Jemil
El Menzah 6
1002 Tunis
Tunisia
Telephone: 216-1-751 050
Fax: 216-1-750 858

Tunnel Bid
During the 1950s and even later many New York commuters played bridge games on the trains leaving New York after working hours, or even traveling to New York to work during rush-hour. This practice, or tradition, ended sometime in the 1980s, mainly owing to the introduction of the laptop computer. During these sometimes very lively bridge games the stakes were somewhat larger than intended and several game (and betting) enthusiasts, just about to dash for the terminal, would make a so-called Tunnel Bid since the train would generally end the ride via traveling through a tunnel into the railroad station. This action was a desperate attempt mainly on the final deal, betting on the win, so that the financial loss was not too great.

The excitement was heightened by the goulash or ghoulie. The cards were not shuffled and were dealt in groups of five, five and three. The predictable effect was to defeat normal distributional expectations. The ghoulie occasionally survives in private games, often with a restriction: it comes into action only when the bidding ends below two Hearts. Source: Alan Truscott's article January 31, 2005 in The New York Times, which is only archived and preserved in .pdf file format on this site for future reference.

Turbo Convention
The fundamental concept of the Turbo convention is that the partner rebids 4 No Trump to show an even number of Aces and/or Key Cards. This may only occur after a cuebid has been made showing a first or second round control after suit establishment. If the partner rebids higher than 4 No Trump, then this action shows an odd number of Aces and/or Key Cards and also a first-round control in that named suit.

Turkey - Turkey Game - Turkey Shoot
1. Slang: a weak player;
2. a term to describe events in a tournament other than major championships, such as secondary events, consolation events and side games.

Türkiye Briç Federasyonu
Turkish Bridge Federation

Turn
1. the proper time for a player to make a bid or call;
2. meaning to quit a card at duplicate or a trick at rubber bridge after all four players have faced their cards;
3. to take a trick.

-twelfth
Within or heading a twelve-card holding. For example: Ace-Queen-twelfth shows AQJ1098765432.

Twelve-Fourteen Convention
This convention is mostly used while playing Rubber Bridge. When a player picks up a Yarborough, he inquires of his partner, How's your aunt in Chicago? If the partner replies that She died last week, this means that he holds no values to compete in the auction. Then he will add, Hey, wait! I have only 12 cards! The other partner will then respond I have 14 cards! Thereupon both players will quickly throw their cards into the center of the table and shuffle them, so that the truthfulness of their statements can not be proven. This is also known as the Chicago Convention.

Twelve Tables
At duplicate, 12 tables provide for competition among 48 players as individuals, 24 pairs, or 12 teams-of-four. Playing as individuals, the preference would be the Irregular Rainbow movement. Playing as teams-of-four, the Swiss Team movement can be used, but also the 11-round Thurner movement.

2103 Principle
This is a .pdf file format. The 2103 Principle is employed to indicate the scale used when replying to a relay that asks for length in one specific suit in the Ekrens bidding system, also a .pdf file format.

Twerb
This designation is an acronym for Two-Way Exclusion Relay Bidding. See: Crash and Modified Crash. TWERBs were first seen in United Kingdom in the 1970's as a defence to the then popular strong club systems, ascribed to the late Young Chelsea international Mr. Joe Amsbury.

TWERB Suction
The origin of this conventional defense method is unknown. This defense method is employed after an opponent has opened the auction with No Trump. This defense method is a variation of the Suction convention as is mainly used in TWERB or Two-Way Exclusion Relay Bidding. It has therefore been give the designation Twerb Suction.

Twinned Movement
To twin a movement is to set up two parallel rows, each playing the same movement with the same boards. If the boards are not duplicated, parallel tables share boards.

Twinning
This is the process used to produce identical boards to be played in two or more sections.

Twisted Swine - See also: Runouts After 1NT - Dbl or Runouts After 1 No Trump - Double or Swine Runouts. The origin of this concept known by several different designations, is unknown. The concept deals with an immediate overcall by an opponent after a 1 No Trump opening. The bridge player must be aware of the fact that an overcall of a 1 No Trump opening is a competitive defense mechanism, and therefore this treatment designated as Twisted Swine is a defense mechanism to a defense mechanism. It is with this understanding that the following information be viewed, read, aalledgedlynd understood.

+2/-2
The expression of this bridge-related term was allegedly first coined by some member(s) of the Stanford Bridge Club and is attributed to Mr. Adam Meyerson. The definition refers to a bidding adjustment in which the opener subtracts 2 points from his hand when bidding, and responder compensates by adding 2 points to his hand. Can be applied to just about any existing bidding system, some more successfully than others.

Two
Also known as the Deuce. The lowest-ranking card in any given suit.

Two Bid
Opening any suit on the two level can have various meanings according to the partnership understanding, and can vary also owing to the system used. These bids are generally artificial and can be either weak or strong.

Two by Fours
Slang: a colloquial term in the bridge community to describe a 4-4-3-2 distribution.

Two Clubs Response Methods
The attempt is made to present several various methods for such continuances below. These methods should be examined and reviewed by the bridge player, by the bridge partnership, and employed until the bridge player and/or partnership feels comfortable with such method or methods.

Two Club System Of Bidding
This bidding system was contained and explained in the publication The Two Club System Of Bidding, authored by Mr. Geoffrey Lawrence Butler, which was published in 1940 by Faber and Faber Limited of London, England. Additional information is not available.

Two Clubs Strong
The Artificial Two Clubs Strong Opening was devised and introduced by Mr. David Bruce, who was known as David Burnstine during his bridge career. He was one of the great pioneers of the Game of Bridge and his name is associated with many of the other Bridge Greats.

Two Clubs for Minors, Two Diamonds for Majors
See: Becker

Two Clubs Rebid by Responder as only Force After 1 No Trump Rebid
This is a convention devised by Mr. Edwin Kantar to provide a full range of rebids by the responder over a 1 No Trump rebid by the opener. When applying the 2 Clubs rebid as the only forcing rebid by the responder, all other two level suit bids are considered discouraging and any jump bids at the three level are considered invitational to game.

Two Clubs Strong Artificial Opening
This is a completely artificial opening bid used for very strong holdings and is used in many bidding systems. In general, this bid is part of the partnership understanding if the partnership understanding uses Weak Two-Bids. Its first application was by Mr. David Burnstine in 1929 in New York City.

Two Diamonds Negative Response
A response method showing a certain and definite range of values held by the responder to a strong, artificial 2 Clubs opening bid by partner, and which allows the partnership to stop short of game to play in a partscore contract.

Two Diamonds As Negative And 2 Hearts as Neutral Response
Following a strong artificial Two Clubs opening bid, several partnerships have included in their partnership agreement the understanding that a response of 2 Diamonds is an extremely negative response, showing close to or zero values, and that a response of 2 Hearts shows a holding of additional strength, and is regarded as a neutral response.

Two Diamonds Positive Response
The only response allowed as a positive response after one partner has opened the auction with a strong, artificial 2 Clubs bid.

Two Diamonds As Multi-Suiter
Several conventions use a 2 Diamond opening to show a 2-suited or 3-suited hand, such as the Blue Team Two Diamonds, Flannery Two Diamonds, Roman Two Diamonds, Precision Club, etc.

Two Hearts Negative Response
Among the many and various responses to a strong, artificial 2 Clubs opening are the following first responses to let the opener know a possible distribution and a possible number of values held by the responder.

Two-Ninety-Niner Pairs
All pairs consist of players who have fewer than 300 masterpoints.

Two No Trump Opening
The distribution should be balanced as with a 1 No Trump opening, ranging from 4-3-3-3, 4-4-3-2, 5-3-3-2, 5-4-22, and 6-3-2-2. The high card point range should be decided by the partnership. The standard range was 22 to 24HCPs, but this has been reduced to 20 to 21HCPs by many bridge players.

The conventions of Stayman, Puppet Stayman, Four Suit Transfers, Jacoby Transfers and Texas Transfers are generally employed after a 2 No Trump opening. With most of the above conventional methods, the first response by the partner of 3 becomes an idle bid. Many partnerships have agreed to employ this first response as Reverse Flannery, showing a distributional hand with a 5-card Spade suit and a 4-card Heart suit. However, there are other partnership agreements, which employ the first response of 3 as a puppet to 3 No Trump. The responder then rebids according to the following chart:

Opener Partner Meaning
2 NT 3 Puppet to 3 No Trump.
3 NT 4 Promises a single-suited holding in Clubs.
4 Promises a single-suited holding in Diamonds.
4 Promises both Minor suits and shortness in Hearts.
4 Promises both Minor suits and shortness in Spades.
4 NT Promises either a distribution of 2-2-5-4 or 2-2-4-5 with possible slam values.
4 NT If the opener first bids 4 NT, then, by agreement, this bid is non-forcing.

According to other partnership agreements, the definition of the 4 and the 4 are reversed. The advantage to this is that the opener retains the advantage of declaring.

Two No Trump Opening For Minors
This bid is part of the Strong Club system, where the 2 No Trump bid is not used as a natural bid. It is a conventional bid showing a hand with at least two 5-card Minor suits. The strength of the holding and the meaning of the responses, especially in a major suit, are a matter of partnership understanding.

Two No Trump Either As Both Major Suits Or Both Minor Suits
The origin of this conventional opening method is unknown and is considered to be classified as a Highly Unusual Method - HUM - in that no known suit is recognizable when opened. It is, or was, generally played in Norway and has been allowed to be played in several divisions of bridge events and even on a national level, but has been disallowed owing to the fact that any opening, as defined by the sponsoring bridge organizations, is defined by indicating at least one known suit if the opening bid is weaker than 16 high card points.

Two No Trump Opening with Transfer Responses
Many bridge partnerships employ Jacoby Transfer responses after a 2 No Trump opening. After a limit bid by the opener, the responder has several choices even after the transfer:

1. After a transfer to Hearts, the responder can bid Spades showing four Spades, length in Hearts and interest in slam. This rebid by the responder is forcing.
2. After a transfer, the responder can rebid 3 No Trump which requests the opener to choose between a No Trump contract and a Major suit contract.
3. After a transfer, the responder can rebid a new suit at the Four Level, which is forcing, natural, and showing slam interest.
4. After the transfer, the responder can rebid four of the anchor suit, which becomes a slam invitation, or make a Four Level Texas Transfer.
5. After a transfer, the responder can rebid 4 No Trump, which is natural and invitational, showing generally a 5-3-3-2 pattern with partial slam values.
6. After a transfer to Hearts, the responder can rebid Spades, and according to certain partnership agreements, this would show a two-suited Minor suit holding, at least with 5-4 distribution, and slam interest. The No Trump opener would rebid 3 No Trump with no fit in either Minor suit.

Two No Trump Overcalls
This bid can be used in various ways and should be a matter of the individual partnership understanding. Several of the ways this bid can be interpreted are, according to the individual partnership agreement:

1. Natural: showing a 2 No Trump holding with 20-21 high card points.
2. Unusual: showing a specific two-suited holding.
3. Preemptive: showing a long but broken suit lower in rank than the opening bid.
4. Roman: showing a strong two-suited holding in which the two suits are not specified.
5. Modern: showing a strong holding with a near-solid Minor suit.
6. Artificial: if an immediate cuebid of the opener's suit has a specific meaning, then the idle bid of 2 No Trump can be employed to show a holding of game-going values. The negative response by the partner is conventionally 3 Clubs.

1. Two No Trump Response
After one partner opens the auction with one of a suit, a response by the partner of 2 No Trump can have various meanings, and is part of the partnership understanding. Several meanings include: 1. standard, 2. limit, 3. conventional. In several bidding systems, a response of 2 No Trump can have other interpretations.

2. Two No Trump Response
After one partner opens the auction with a strong artificial Two-Bid, a response of 2 No Trump is sometimes used as a negative response indicating less than 8 support points.

3. Two No Trump Response
This is a convention whereby a response of 2 No Trump after a 1 No Trump opening by the partner forces the opener to bid 3 Clubs. The response is used as a Relay bid.

4. Two No Trump Response
If one’s partner has opened the auction and the right hand opponent has doubled for takeout, a 2 No Trump bid by the partner of the opener shows a limit raise in the opener’s suit. The partner normally has between 9 to 11 support points. This treatment was developed by Alan Truscott and was first published in The Bridge World magazine in 1954. However, this treatment is also known as the Jordan Two No Trump, named after Mr. Robert Jordan, and also as the Dormer Two No Trump.

Two No Trump Response as a Relay to Three Clubs - This treatment is used by many partnerships, which utilize the response of 2 Spades as a slam try in a Minor suit. The concept is easy since, after a 1 No Trump opening by the partner, a 2 No Trump first response is a Relay to Clubs.

Two No Trump Response Over Opponent's Takeout Double
See: Jordan Two No Trump

Two Over One Game Force
A bidding system and approach made popular again by Mr. Max Hardy in the 1990s. This method is included in those bidding systems which advocate opening Five Card Majors. It is a method of bidding which requires the opener, if the partner of the opener bids any suit on the two level, to continue the auction until game has been reached. This method, however, also incorporates the use of the Forcing 1 No Trump response to an opening of a Major suit, in order to manage certain holdings which do not justify game. Certain partnership understandings allow that if the responder first bids a Minor and rebids a Minor, then the game-forcing element is no longer valid. His two books contain the complete analysis.

Two Over One - Improving 2/1 Game Force
These are a series of three articles written by Mr. Fred Gitelman for the Canadian Master Point publication November, 1993, January 1994, and June 1994. These articles are only preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.

Two Over One Response
A minimum response in a lower-ranking suit on the Two Level other than that bid by the opener. The lowest range is generally 9-10HCPs, but may vary with the bidding system used by the partnership.

Two Spades Response to a Weak 2 Hearts Opening
This method was suggested by Mr. Alvin Leon Roth when the opening is a Weak Two in Hearts, and promises values anywhere from 9 to 12 high card points. If this is the partnership agreement, then the 2 Spades first response is forcing and the opener must continue to describe the holding more accurately.

Two-Suiter
A term to describe a hand with two suits of four or more cards, but generally not applied to 4-4-3-2 distribution. Another definition is a holding with one suit of more than four cards and another suit of more than three cards. Traditionally the term used to be described as a holding with at least five cards in each of two suits. A 5-4 distribution is generally referred to as a semi-two-suiter.

Two Tables
At duplicate, two tables provide for competition among eight players as individuals, four pairs of players, or two teams-of-four.

Two Under Transfer Preempt
This method was devised by Mr. Marty Bergen together with Mr. Larry Cohen and the convention uses a preemptive opening as an artificial Preempt at the Two Level and also at the Three Level and higher to indicate a specific suit two ranks higher than the bid suit. This convention allows the responder to use the intermediate suit for an attempt at game.

Two-Way
A term describing a call that may have more than one fundamental meaning.

Two Way Checkback
Two Way Checkback, introduced by Mr. Kit Woolsey in an article in Bridge Today, uses the rebids of two of either minor by the responder after opener's 1 No Trump rebid as artificial and forcing. In the Woolsey-style, 2 puppets to 2 to play 2 or 3 or to invite game in various strains. 2 over 1 No Trump is artificial and game forcing. By Mr. Jeff Goldsmith.

Two Way Checkback Stayman
The following web presentation on this site is a copy of the original as described on the website of Mr. Jeff Goldsmith. This information has only been archived and preserved on this site for future reference. The web article is dated April 15, 1996.

Two Way Drury
This variation employs two bids to discover whether or not the holding of the opener is weak, sub-minimal, or a full opening.

Two-Way Finesse
A situation in which it is possible to hope that either opponent holds a missing card, in order that a finesse in one suit will work against one opponent, and that a finesse in a second suit will work against the second opponent. If no counter-bidding has occurred by the opponents, the finesse is reduced to guesswork, although some clues to a successful finesse can be obtained in the subsequent play.

Two-Way Game Tries
A method of attempting game, devised by Mr. Robert Ewen, that combines both long-suit and short-suit game tries after an opening of a Major suit and a raise of that Major suit by the partner.

Two-Way No Trump
This is the application of a Weak No Trump range when the partnership is not vulnerable, and the application of a stronger No Trump range when the partnership is vulnerable.

Two-Way Two Diamond Response
This is another designation for the conventional method known as the Automatic Two Diamond Response, which is employed following a strong, artificial 2 Clubs opening bid.

Two Way Stayman
’s 1 No Trump opening as the Stayman convention, and, in addition, use a 2 Diamonds response to a partner’s 1 No Trump opening as a supplement to the Stayman convention. These conventions have been developed to assist the partnership in reaching the best final contract, and are known as:

1. Double-Barreled Stayman
2. Stayman 2 Diamonds
    The Stayman 2 Diamonds response is forcing to game and shows an unbalanced Minor suit hand. The responder does not hold any four-card Major suit, but the requirement is that the responder hold a singleton or a void. The No Trump bidder rebids in a suit to show his concentrated strength and not necessarily a four-card suit. The No Trump bidder will rebid 2 No Trump to show values spread among the four suits. In the case that the concentrated strength is opposite the singleton or void of the responder, then 3 No Trump is playable and that there is duplication of values for a suit contract. Any further bidding will describe the additional holdings to determine whether there is a certain disadvantage to playing No Trump as the final contract.
3. Roth 2 Diamonds
    This is a response which is forcing to game and usually considered an invitation to slam. This convention permits the partnership to determine whether slam is possible or not with the distinct advantage of no surpassing game level. Similar to the Double-Barreled Stayman, a 2 Diamonds response asks the No Trump bidder about his four-card Major holdings. In contrast to Double-Barreled Stayman. the 2 Clubs response may be followed by rebids which are game-forcing, similar to the Stayman convention. The rebids by the No Trump bidder indicate whether a four-card Major is present or whether the No Trump bidder holds both four-card Major suits. The rebids by the No Trump bidder can also indicate whether he has no four-card Major and whether he has minimum or maximum values.
4. This is a response which is forcing to game and usually considered an invitation to slam. This convention permits the partnership to determine whether slam is possible or not with the distinct advantage of no surpassing game level. Similar to the Double-Barreled Stayman, a 2 Diamonds response asks the No Trump bidder about his four-card Major holdings. In contrast to Double-Barreled Stayman. the 2 Clubs response may be followed by rebids which are game-forcing, similar to the Stayman convention. The rebids by the No Trump bidder indicate whether a four-card Major is present or whether the No Trump bidder holds both four-card Major suits. The rebids by the No Trump bidder can also indicate whether he has no four-card Major and whether he has minimum or maximum values.
    Employing the Murray 2 Diamonds response asks the No Trump bidder to bid his longer Major suit, even if the holding is a three-card suit. Holding both Majors of four cards each, the No Trump bidder rebids 2 Hearts. The advantage to the Murray 2 Diamonds convention is that the responder can bid weak unbalanced hands with 5-5 or 5-4 distribution in the Major suits. However, the responder does not promise any pre-determined strength, even though the responder may have game-going values. A rebid of 2 No Trump by the responder requests that the No Trump bidder bid his four-card suits up the line. In the rare case that the No Trump bidder has opened with a two two-card Major suit holding, or two doubletons in both Major suits, then the No Trump bidder is obliged to rebid either his 6-card Minor suit or 2 No Trump.
5. Employing the Murray 2 Diamonds response asks the No Trump bidder to bid his longer Major suit, even if the holding is a three-card suit. Holding both Majors of four cards each, the No Trump bidder rebids 2 Hearts. The advantage to the Murray 2 Diamonds convention is that the responder can bid weak unbalanced hands with 5-5 or 5-4 distribution in the Major suits. However, the responder does not promise any pre-determined strength, even though the responder may have game-going values. A rebid of 2 No Trump by the responder requests that the No Trump bidder bid his four-card suits up the line. In the rare case that the No Trump bidder has opened with a two two-card Major suit holding, or two doubletons in both Major suits, then the No Trump bidder is obliged to rebid either his 6-card Minor suit or 2 No Trump.
6. Employing the Murray 2 Diamonds response asks the No Trump bidder to bid his longer Major suit, even if the holding is a three-card suit. Holding both Majors of four cards each, the No Trump bidder rebids 2 Hearts. The advantage to the Murray 2 Diamonds convention is that the responder can bid weak unbalanced hands with 5-5 or 5-4 distribution in the Major suits. However, the responder does not promise any pre-determined strength, even though the responder may have game-going values. A rebid of 2 No Trump by the responder requests that the No Trump bidder bid his four-card suits up the line. In the rare case that the No Trump bidder has opened with a two two-card Major suit holding, or two doubletons in both Major suits, then the No Trump bidder is obliged to rebid either his 6-card Minor suit or 2 No Trump.

Two-Way Two-Bids
Mr. Ira Rubin devised a method of bidding whereby one partner opens the bidding on the two level to show either a strong, an intermediate, or a weak hand. The opening bid is also showing that the artificial opening bid shows actually the higher ranking suit. For example: 2 Diamonds shows an opening of 2 Hearts, and 2 Spades shows an opening of 3 Clubs. The partner assumes first that the opening is weak, and the responses follow the general guidelines for Weak Two-Bids. On the other hand, the opener may have a strong hand, and the partner must assume that the opener has a strong one-suiter or that the opener has a strong two-suited hand.

Two-Way Two No Trump Response to 1 Club or 1 Diamond Opening Bid
The origin of this response is unknown. This first response shows either of the two following meanings. Source: Orange Book EBU, Section 13.

1. A weak preemptive raise.
2. A game forcing raise with an unspecified shortage.

 


 

 


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