UBA
This is an abbreviation for University Bridge Association, which is a fund raising organization to support the development of University Bridge, more specific the creation of bridge clubs at universities and the participation of poor countries at international university bridge events.

UDCA or Upside Down Count Attitude or Reverse Signals
A defense signaling method of informing one's partner as to attitude towards the card led and/or both count and attitude.

Uganda Bridge Association
The Uganda Bridge Association is no longer listed by the World Bridge Federation. We continue to list the last known address in Kampala, Uganda. We also include this link to Uganda fielding a bridge team for the first time at the Commonwealth Games in October, dated August 17, 2010.

Contact Address: Kampala Bridge Club
P.O.Box 2251
Kampala
Uganda

Ukrainian Bridge Federation

Ultimate Club
This relay system was developed by Mr. Dave Cliff of New Jersey, United States, and enhanced by Mr. Matthew Ganovetter, Mr. Ron Rubin, Mr. Matthew L. Ginsberg and Mr. Mike Becker, who published the book: Ultimate Club in 1981. The concept of the Ultimate Club is that after a 1 Club opening, which is always strong, the responder can use various responses to inform his partner about the number of Aces, Kings, and Queens, and the locations of these high honors.

Ultimate Club Opening Bids
This relay system was developed by Mr. David Leigh Cliff of New Jersey, United States, and later enhanced by Mr. Matthew Ganovetter, Mr. Ron Rubin, Mr. Matthew L. Ginsberg and Mr. Mike Becker, who published the book: Ultimate Club in the year 1981. The concept of the Ultimate Club is that after a 1 Club opening, which is always strong, the responder can use various responses to inform his partner about the number of Aces, Kings, and Queens, and the locations of these high honors.

Ultimate Five Majors Opening Bids
These opening bids were devised by Mr. Erich Friedman of De Land, Florida, United States, and are based on the Ultimate Club bidding system, and is therefore a variation. Mr. Erich Friedman is a member of the Math and CS Department of the Stetson University in DeLand, Florida, United States.

Ultimate Club Bidding System Summary
The following is a list of .pdf files which summarize the the features of this particular bidding system. They have only been archived on this site. As .pdf files they will be, depending on your browser, either be downloaded to your computer and opened with Adobe Acrobat or automatically opened by your browser.

1 Club Opening

1 Diamond Opening

1 Major Suit Opening

1 No Trump Opening

2 Clubs Opening

2 Diamonds Preempt Openings

Unassuming Cuebid
This is a cue bid of the opponent's suit after your partner has opened the bidding. It shows 4-card support for your partner and a good raise to the next level of your partner's suit. For example, if your partner opens 1, and the opposition overcalls 1, a bid of 2 would show 4-card support for Hearts and enough points for a raise to 3, the next level of Hearts. This leaves the bid of 3 after the 1 bid for preemptive purposes used on a weaker hand with better distribution. Partner will then repeat their suit with a minimum bid, or bid something else with a stronger hand.

It is also used after your partner has overcalled. For example, if the left hand opponent opens 1 and partner overcalls 1 and the right hand opponent passes, you can now bid 2 to show support for Hearts and a good raise, leaving 2 as a preemptive bid.

Unauthorized Information
This is information, which in any way, shape, manner, or form is transferred to one’s partner. The only legal information allowed to be transferred must occur during proper play or during a proper auction. Questions, emphasis, mannerisms, remarks, etc. are considered improper conduct and perceived as transferring unauthorized information to one’s partner, and is considered under Law 16.

LAW 16 - UNAUTHORISED INFORMATION

Players are authorized to base their calls and plays on information from legal calls and plays and from mannerisms of opponents. To base a call or play on other extraneous information may be an infraction of law.

A. Extraneous Information from Partner

After a player makes available to his partner extraneous information that may suggest a call or play, as by means of a remark, a question, a reply to a question, or by unmistakable hesitation, unwonted speed, special emphasis, tone, gesture, movement, mannerism or the like, the partner may not choose from among logical alternative actions one that could demonstrably have been suggested over another by the extraneous information.

1. When Such Information Is Given

When a player considers that an opponent has made such information available and that damage could well result, he may, unless the regulations of the sponsoring organization prohibit, immediately announce that he reserves the right to summon the Director later (the opponents should summon the Director immediately if they dispute the fact that unauthorised information might have been conveyed).

2. When Illegal Alternative Is Chosen

When a player has substantial reason to believe  that an opponent who had a logical alternative has chosen an action that could have been suggested by such information, he should summon the Director forthwith. The Director shall require the auction and play to continue, standing ready to assign an adjusted score if he considers that an infraction of law has resulted in damage.

B. Extraneous Information from Other Sources

When a player accidentally receives unauthorized information about a board he is playing or has yet to play, as by looking at the wrong hand; by overhearing calls, results or remarks; by seeing cards at another table; or by seeing a card belonging to another player at his own table before the auction begins, the Director should be notified forthwith, preferably by the recipient of the information. If the Director considers that the information could interfere with normal play, he may:

1. Adjust Positions

if the type of contest and scoring permit, adjust the players' positions at the table, so that the player with information about one hand will hold that hand; or,

2. Appoint Substitute

with the concurrence of all four players, appoint a temporary substitute to replace the player who received the unauthorized information; or,

3. Award an Adjusted Score

forthwith award an artificial adjusted score.

C. Information from Withdrawn Calls and Plays

A call or play may be withdrawn, and another substituted, either by a non-offending side after an opponent's infraction or by an offending side to rectify an infraction.

1. Non-offending Side

For the non-offending side, all information arising from a withdrawn action is authorised, whether the action be its own or its opponents'.

2. Offending Side

For the offending side, information arising from its own withdrawn action and from withdrawn actions of the non-offending side is unauthorized. A player of the offending side may not choose from among logical alternative actions one that could demonstrably have been suggested over another by the unauthorized information.

Unbalanced Distribution
Any distribution of the 13 cards that includes a void, a singleton, or two doubletons. The foregoing is the standard definition, which has been altered to a void, a singleton, or one doubleton.

Unbalanced Hand
A hand with unbalanced distribution.

Unbalanced Heart Convention
Contributed by Mr. Marvin French of San Diego, California. He was born April 1927 and died February 16, 2014. The concept assists the partnership is describing an unbalanced holding held by the responder of game-invitational strength with five hearts and fewer than four spades. The Unbalanced Heart Convention was published in The Bridge World magazine, February 1978, and in the Contract Bridge Forum, August 1977. It is included in the book Bridge Conventions Complete, by Amalya Kearse. This conventional method has only been archived and preserved on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.

Unbalanced Swiss Raise
This is part of the Aces Scientific System and applied together with Value Swiss Raises to provide a complete range of game-forcing raises in response to an opening by one’s partner in a Major suit.

Unbeatable
A colloquialism for a contract, which can not be defeated by any means.

Unbid Minor Suit Forcing
During the auction, if the opener has rebid 1 No Trump, the responder can bid an unbid minor to extract further information about his partner’s holding. This is a low level, but forcing rebid by the responder. This action is sometimes referred to as New Minor Forcing.

Unbid Suit
A term to describe a suit that has not been named, or indicated, in the auction.

Unblock
A term to describe an offensive or defensive play and/or to discard a high card that is preventing the run of a suit.

Unblocking Squeeze
Another designation for a Jettison Squeeze, which is another designation for Entry Squeeze.

Unconstructive
This is a term to describe a bid which is definitely discouraging, but does not force one’s opponent from making any further bidding.

Under
Slang: to be to the right of. For example: West is under North, North is under East, etc.

Underalls
An English-based colloquial term, that refers to the places / positions just under the winner's circle.

Underbid
1. a bid less than one's cards warrant;
2. a bid less than what the final contract could have been.
3. an underbid may also be made as an upside-down type of Shooting.

Underbidder
A player who generally bids less than what the values of his holdings contain.

Under Jump Shift
The origin of the under jump shift is unknown. The responder, following an opening by partner, initiates this action by making a jump shift in the suit immediately below the Major suit named by the opener. This presention is only archived and preserved on this site in .pdf file format for future rerference.

Underlead
To lead a card that does not rank equally with the highest card or cards held in the suit. To underlead from honors against a No Trump contract is normal procedure, but not preferable against suit contracts.

Underruff
A term to describe a ruff with a trump smaller than one already played to the same trick. There are several reasons why this play is valid, although unusual.

1. in order to avoid a trump surplus;
2. in order to avoid discarding winners in a plain suit;
3. in order to have the ability to lead a plain suit at a later period during the play, known as a Robert Coup;
4. in order to avoid a premature squeeze.

Understanding, Definition of - Definition of Understanding

Noun 1. The quality or condition of one who understands; comprehension.
  2. The faculty by which one understands; intelligence. See Synonyms at reason.
  3. Individual or specified judgment or outlook; opinion.
  4. a. A compact implicit between two or more people or groups.
    b. The matter implicit in such a compact.
  5. A reconciliation of differences; a state of agreement: They finally reached an understanding.
  6. A disposition to appreciate or share the feelings and thoughts of others; sympathy.
Adjective 1. Characterized by or having comprehension, good sense, or discernment.
  2. Compassionate; sympathetic.

Under The Gun
Slang: to be in a position where a course of action is dangerous because of an unknown quantity or of unknown values in the hand of one’s partner. For example: holding 19 high card points and a balanced hand, the player is under the gun if his right hand opponent opens the auction with a preempt on the Three Level.

Undertrick
A trick that declarer fails to make, thus failing to fulfill the contract, and for which scoring penalties has been established.

Undertrump
The act of underruffing.

Unfaced Hand
During the bidding process, all hands should be concealed and caution must be taken as to prevent any other player from viewing any cards. During the play, unfaced hands are those of both defenders and the declarer.

Unfavorable Vulnerability
The state of being vulnerable against non-vulnerable opponents.

Unfinished Rubber
This is a rubber which has not been completed for any reason. The scored points are 300 points for that partnership which has already won one rubber. If no rubber has been won, then the partnership with a partial score is awarded 100 points. It was only 50 points prior to 1993.

Unguard
Slang: to discard accompanying and protecting small cards.

Unintentional
In the game of bridge, a violation of the rules, ethics, proprieties, and any other similar irregularity covered by the rules and Laws of Bridge are considered unintentional, instead of deliberate. Under this understanding, any irregularity considered intentional by an opponent becomes also a violation of ethics.

United States Bridge Federation
The title of an organization, which has been created by the American Contract Bridge League (ACBL) and the American Bridge Association (ABA) in early 1999 to represent the bridge interests of the United States in international competition and to be eligible, as a solely American organization, to apply for membership in the United States Olympic movement, and also to conform to the required and necessary Conditions of Membership of the International Olympic Committee (IOC).

At its inauguration, eight players have been named to the first Board of Directors by ACBL President Mr. Jim Kirkham: Mr. Dan Morse, Mr. Bruce Reeve, Mr. Nick Nickell, Mr. Shawn Quinn, Mr. Alan Popkin, and Mr. Michael Becker. Mr. David Silber, the Chief Executive Office of ACBL, will be an ex-officio member with a vote. American Bridge Association President Cleo Therrell named two ABA members to the Board of Directors: Dr. Arnold Jones and Col. Robert Friend.

Note: Those bridge players, who hold citizenship in the United States and who are also members in good standing of the ACBL and the ABA, are also members of the United States Bridge Federation, generally with no required additional fees or dues.

Unit Championships
Each unit may conduct 16 unit championship sessions per year. These games award masterpoints based on 85% of sectional rating. these games may be held at one centralized location or with so-called split-sites at various clubs throughout the unit. In addition, each unit is allotted four unit Charity championships per year.

United States Bridge Association
The USBA formed one of the predecessor organizations, which eventually merged to for the American Contract Bridge League. The main function of the USBA was organizing and conducting national tournaments in the United States. The USBA was also a charter member of the International Contract Bridge Union, which was organized in 1934 under the joint sponsorship of the United States Bridge Association, the National Bridge Association of Great Britain, and the French Contract Bridge Association. The American Bridge League, organized in 1927, and the International Bridge League existed at the same time, but this situation was eliminated in 1937 when the American Contract Bridge League was established through the merger of the two United States organizations.

United States Bridge Federation - United States Bridge Federation
The United States Bridge Federation (USBF) was formed in 2001 to advance the interests of the United States in international bridge competition, including the selection and support of United States bridge teams and players in international and Olympic bridge competition. USBF conducts United States Bridge Championships to select teams for participation in certain World Bridge Championship events. The Open and Women’s selection events used to be called the U.S. Team Trials, and were limited to four teams that qualified by winning the major ACBL team championships. However, since 1995, these trials, renamed the United State Bridge Championship and the United States Women’s Bridge Championship have been open to any team eligible to play in the World event. In addition, USBF holds Senior and Junior United State Bridge Championships to select teams for World Senior and Junior events. See the tournament pages for more information about the individual USBCs, including Conditions of Contest, dates, and locations.

All ACBL and American Bridge Association (ABA) members who are US citizens may become Active Members of the USBF ($50 a year dues, but $25 for juniors), whereupon, among other rights, they may enter the USBCs. Residents who are not citizens may also become USBF members and play in the USBCs if they meet eligibility criteria. Foreign players are welcome to participate in ACBL events but may not enter the USBCs.

USBA General Conditions of Contest for all United States Bridge Championships
This is a .pdf file and will either be downloaded to your computer and/or, depending on your browser, be opened by your browser.

Unit Growth Program or UGS
This is the designation for a program funded by the ACBL and designed to assist key unit officials, teachers, club owner and volunteers in working together to recruit new members, to retain current members and to increase participation. This program was developed by Betty Starzec. The instructional seminars are offered to the units at no cost to the unit.

Units of ACBL
A division of the American Contract Bridge League in a specific and allocated geographical area. They are managed by appointed or elected directors and/or board members. Groups of units form ACBL districts. The appointed or elected directors and/or board members of the units elect the representative of the district. East Unit is expected to meet certain requirements and perform certain functions:

1. Establish and maintain a membership of at least 100.
2. Promote and stimulate interest in duplicate bridge among members and prospective members by providing an attractive program of bridge events.
3. Expand and increase membership by interesting new players.
4. Conduct or supervise tournament events at which masterpoints and rating points are awarded under ACBL regulations.
5. Establish and maintain contact with neighboring units, supporting each other's activities.
6. Conduct annual elections by popular vote for officers and/or directors.
7. Elect, in collaboration with other units in the district, a member of the National Board of Directors, a first and a second alternate Director, and three representatives, to the National Board of Governors.
8. Adopt bylaws consistent with those of the ACBL, which must be filed with ACBL.
9. Assume fiscal responsibility for funds collected on behalf of the ACBL, and membership dues from its members, submitting semi-annual financial reports to its officers, and to maintain accurate records.

Unit Wide Championship
This is a designation for a game with unit championship rating and is held simultaneously at three or more locations within the unit boundaires with a minimum of five tables at each site. Hand records are used and the event is ranked overall.

Universal Club Opening Bids
This bidding system was developed by Mr. Fred R. Thomas and was published in the year 1980 by the UNICLUB Press, located in Los Angeles, California, United States. The title of his publication is Universal: The System For Everyone, and in the words of the author, is so named because it is the one system that is natural and also universally suitable for everyone, average players as well as the experts. Portions of the bidding system are presented in addition to the opening bids.

Universal Club Opening Bids
This bidding system was developed by Mr. Fred R. Thomas, born in the year 1925, and was published in the year 1980 by the Uniclub Press, located in Los Angeles, California, United States. The title of his publication is Universal: The System For Everyone, and in the words of the author, is so named because it is the one system that is natural and also universally suitable for everyone, average players as well as the experts.

Universal Club Two Clubs Opening
In the Universal Club bidding system, origin unknown, the opening bid of 2 Clubs has been assigned a specific meaning, which is that it shows a three-suited holding, generally a distribution of 4-4-1-4, with values between 12 and 17 high card points. A minimum and a maximum point count is known and also the short suit, which is Diamonds.

Universal Club Two Diamonds Opening
In the Universal Club bidding system, origin unknown, the opening of 2 Diamonds has been assigned a specific meaning. This opening bid promises a three-suited holding. The required point count is between 16 and 21 high card points. This opening demands that the Diamond suit be one of the three suits as opposed to the 2 Clubs opening bid, which shows Diamond shortage.

Universal Club 2 Hearts and 2 Spades Opening
The Universal Club bidding system has relegated special, if not specific, information in the opening bid of either 2 Hearts or 2 Spades. Either of these two openings promise at least a 5-card card, or longer, and a second, unspecified second suit, also a 5-card suit, or longer. The point range is a minimum of 14 high card points and the upper range is unlimited. Therefore, these two opening bids are forcing for one round. They are not considered to be absolutely game-forcing in nature.

Universal Transfer Responses
Devised by Mr. Kenneth L. Lindsay this is a bidding structure which applies after any natural opening bid in a suit, not No Trump, below the three level, provided the opener's left hand opponent passes. The concept can also be applied after an artificial 2 Clubs opening provided either: This information is has only been preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.

University Bridge Association
The abbreviation is UBA, and is a fund raising organization to support the development of University Bridge, more specific the creation of bridge clubs at universities and the participation of poor countries at international university bridge events.

Unlawful
Any action which is not in accordance with the mechanics of the game of bridge.

Unlimited
A term to describe an action not defined within narrowed limits.

Unlimited Bid
Any bid showing no limits in valuation.

Unlucky Expert
This is a character from the publication Why You Lose at Bridge by Mr. S.J. Simon, published in 1946 and reprinted in 1996. Other characters include Mr. Smug, Futile Willie and Mrs. Guggenheim. The fictional character Unlucky Expert is marked by superb technical skill but an inability to consider the possibility of imperfections in others at the bridge table, and therefore is a descriptive term for any such bridge player displaying similar attributes.

Unmakeable
Any contract which can not be fulfilled unless the defense is totally indifferent in its strategy.

Unmixed
This term describes a partnership, whereby both players are of the same sex.

Unmixed Pairs
All pairs consist of either two men or two women, no mixed-gender pairs.

Unnamed Strong Two Bid Openings
The origin is unknown. This is a designation for a strong, sometimes artificial Minor suit opening on the Two Level, which promises either a game holding or a near-game holding. It is part of the Acol bidding system or a variation of an Acol bidding system feature. Also known as: Benjamin Two Bids or French Two Bid Openings.

Unpassed
This designates a player, who has not yet had the opportunity to make a call, and who has not passed previously.

Unpenalty Double
See: Double For Sacrifice. This action is also referred to as: Negative Slam Double or Positive Slam Double.

Unpigmented Points
These points are awarded for success in online play and are colorless.

Unplayable
1. when referring to a contract, noticeably inferior or worse;
2. when referring to an understanding, agreement, or bidding system, leading to inferior results in an obvious or dramatic manner.

Unseeded
A condition of not being seeded. Seeded lower than the current opponent.

Unseeded Knockout Teams
This is a method, originating in 1982, for improving the attendance at Knockout Team events. The concept includes random draws to determine the pairings for all rounds leading up to the final.

Unusual Major Jump Over 1 Diamond Opening Bid
The origin of this conventional method is unknown. The concept behind Unusual Major Jump Over One Diamond Opening is quite effective whenever the holding requires the player to show a certain distribution of both Major suits. Many partnerships have reduced the long designation to a group of first letters to result in the unpronounceable UMJOODO.

Unusual No Trump
This conventional defense method was devised by Mr. Alvin Roth and Mr. Tobias Stone. The Unusual No Trump is a conventional defense method designed to show two suited hands in competitive situations with one bid. The logic and reasoning behind the convention is to consume bidding space and to describe to your partner the distribution of your hand as quickly and as accurately as possible.

Super Unusual No Trump
This web page contains and excerpt from the book authored by Mr. Larry Cohen in his publication titled: To Bid or Not to Bid - The Law of Total Tricks beginning with page 118-119. This information has been contributed to this website by Mr. Larry Cohen.

Defense Method Against Unusual No Trump Overcalls
There are several defense methods to counteract the impact imposed on the partnership once it is forced to compete on the three level. One variation is presented on this site.

Defense Method
This is a presentation of a defense method to Unusual No Trump over a Major suit only. Both Major suits are considered and separately treated regarding continuances after a competitive Unusual No Trump bid. This defense method for the responder is presented in .pdf file format and will be automatically opened in a new window.

Unusual Positive
This refers to a group of artificial jump responses to a Precision Club opening in order to describe a 4-4-4-1 distribution.

Unusual Over Unusual
The origin of this defense method remains unknown. This conventional defense / response method of Unusual Over Unusual is a devised response method for the opener and partner against an immediate overcall of 2 No Trump by the next player in rotation, which defines the limits and support of the responder to partner.

Up
1. ahead;
2. a verbal instruction to the dummy, meaning a higher card than that of the left hand opponent’s card, or the highest card in that suit in the dummy.

UP: A short treatise, satirical and amusing, about the English word up, which has so many meanings in the English language. Although singularly it has but one meaning, which is a near-to vertical ascension from the relative location, it assumes many other definitions when employed in combination with other verbs. Even in the language of the game of bridge certain designations use this word to describe a feature such as go up, or pick up, up-the-line, and so on. We wish the reader some leisure time. This is a .pdf file and will be automatically opened by your browser.

Upgraded Club Championship
This is the designation for an extra session that a club earns by recruiting 10 new members during the year. The game awards full sectionally-rated black points.

Upside Down Count
This designation applies to a carding and/or discarding method, which communicates certain information to a bridge partner. The origin is unknown, but this particular method has gained popularity with the bridge community. The name of this carding method is also referred to sometimes as reverse signals.

Up The Line
Borrowed from the Baron System, this is the principle of making the cheapest bid when responding or rebidding with two or three four-card suits. The term refers to the ranking of the suits, with the lowest rank mentioned first, if there is not a 5-card major holding. Other bidding systems do not always adhere to this principle.

Uppercut
A term to describe a ruff in an attempt to force out a higher trump of an opponent.

Upper Suits Cuebid
The origin of this conventional method is unknown. The concept is based on other cuebid defense methods, whereby a two-suited holding can be communicated to partner. The upper suits cuebid, however, must be employed in the immediate seat following an opening suit bid by the opposing side.

Upside-Down Ghestem
See: Ghestem Convention. Some partnerships have decided to alter the Ghestem system and use a modified version or a version called Upside-Down. These versions use interchanged and reversed meanings of the original Ghestem system.

Upside-Down Signals
This method of signaling the partner is credited to Mr. Karl Schneider, but was apparently first published by Mr. E. K. O'Brien in a The Bridge World magazine article published in 1937. Regarding defensive card play, playing upside-down reverses the traditional meaning. Therefore, playing an upside-down attitude means that a low card encourages the continuation, and/or per partnership agreement a shift to an indicated suit, whereas a high card discourages such action. An upside-down count means that a low card shows an even number of cards, whereas a high card shows an odd number of cards.

The main theoretical advantage of this method is that a player may not have the opportunity to discard a high card from a strong holding, which could eventually also become a trick-taking winner. A second, possible advantage to this method is that it is more difficult for the declarer to falsecard effectively, and that a single discard signal during the defense may be clearer than with other methods of signaling.

Note: Mr. Alan Truscott, in his bridge column for The New York Times, dated and published September 18, 1966, writes that this concept dates back to the days of Whist, and its prototype was originated by Lord Henry Bentinck in 1834. This bridge column has only been preserved and archived in .pdf file format on this site for future reference.

Up To
1. meaning leading toward the hand that will play last to a particular trick;
2. meaning leading toward a vulnerable third-hand holding as in King-9-8 or Queen-Jack-6.

Up To Strength
A general practice if the opponent to the right of the dummy has the lead and has no other practical lead up to the dummy. The validity of this principle or practice has remained questionable since its inception.

Up To Weakness
A general practice if the opponent to the left of the dummy has the lead and has no other practical lead up to the dummy. The saying states: if the dummy is on your right, lead the weakest suit in sight. The validity of this principle or practice has remained questionable since its inception.

USBA
An acronym for United States Bridge Association, which was one of the bridge organizations through which the American Contract Bridge League was established.

USBF
An abbreviation for the United States Bridge Federation.

Useful Space Principle
This is an action by a partnership, which assigns meanings to actions, specific or non-specific, so that the remaining bidding space matches the needs of the auction.

Usernet Bridge Abbreviations

Utility
This term is an expression used in England to describe the straightforward bidding methods used when playing rubber bridge.

Utility No Trump Response
This feature is part of the Churchill Style.

UTRopia
This is a Web Book written and published by Mr. Kenneth L. Lindsay. This Web Book is only preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format.

Uzbekistan Bridge Federation
As listed by the World Bridge Federation.

 


 

 


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