Vacant Places, Principle of
The principle is a method for estimating or calculating approximately with a positive accuracy the probable location of any particular card in the four holdings of one board at one bridge table, Applied the principle can be of enormous assistance in reaching a decision, either at declaring or defense, in employing a certain action and to derive the entire suit division probability table.

In modern day terms: the Jack. A noun still used in France to refer to the Knave or Valet, in other words a male servant, which the Jack is to the King.

A term used in duplicate bridge:

1. the certifying by the director of the correctness of an auction play;
2. the approval of the opponents to a correction of the scoring of the results of a board of duplicate play;
3. the initialing of a pair score in team play by the opponents of this pair on a set of boards.

The sponsoring organization for a bridge tournament may also require that a player validate his or her residency in order that the player may play in a certain group or at a certain level, etc. A Credentials Committee of the ACBL Board has been established to review residency challenges and approve requests for residency verification.

The valuation of a holding is first considered under the aspects of the values given to the honor cards. Secondly, after a fit with one’s partner has been established, the values increase according to length, singletons, doubletons, voids and general distribution.

Value Of Game
Playing matchpoint, it must be realized that a game bonus of 300 points is added to a fulfilled game contract when non-vulnerable, and a game bonus of 500 when vulnerable. These bonuses must be kept in mind when deciding to sacrifice against a game contract of the opponents. Regarding the score, it could be more advantageous for the opponents to sacrifice.

Value Swiss Raises
This is a modification of the Swiss convention used in the Aces Scientific System used by the responder after a major suit opening, which informs partner a range of forcing balanced raises. These raises do not indicate a singleton nor a 5-card suit, but promise a 4-card suit or a 3-card suit with two of the top honors.

This was a bridge tournament, conducted over six days, and held annually since 1949 in Alaska, British Columbia, or in the state of Washington, United States. Also prior to the year 1967 the tournament was conducted also in Oregon. From the beginning the tournament was conducted at a time that it coincided with the birthday of George Washington, the first President of the United States, but only until 1958. Starting in 1959 the tournament was conducted in the early fall, and starting in 1968 the tournament was conducted either in late May or early April.

During the years from 1963 and 1967 the tournament was conducted twice annually, once in the spring and once in the fall. The designation for the tournament conducted in the spring was not always identical or regular since it was also known as the Pacific Northwest Regional Championships, or Polar, Polar-Canadian Regional, Canadian, and also as British Columbia Centennial, but the tournament was designated in 1968 as the Pacific Northwest Regional when the tournament, which was conducted in the fall, was replaced by the Canadian and Puget Sound Regionals.

Vanderbilt Club System
During the evolving years of contract bridge, it was Mr. Harold S. Vanderbilt who codified the game, and to some extent the laws, of contract bridge in 1925. He was the first bridge player who strongly suggested using the bid of 1 Club to indicate a strong hand. The system proved quite popular, but interest in the bridge community declined over the years. Several features of his system built the basis of the Blue Team Club of Italy, but it was not until 1964, when Mr. Harold S. Vanderbilt published a revised version of his system, that interest in this system was reborn.

Vanderbilt Club Opening Bids
This is a bidding system devised and developed by Mr. Harold Stirling Vanderbilt, born July 6, 1884 and died July 4, 1970, and first published in 1934, these opening bids formed the foundation for all following bidding systems employing a strong, artificial, and one-round forcing 1 Club opening bid.

Vanderbilt Cup
This trophy was donated and presented by Mr. Harold Vanderbilt to the winners of the National Knockout Team Championships which were founded in 1928. The Cup is also referred to as The Vandy colloquially. The managing organization heading the oversight of the championships and the presentation of the trophy was the Vanderbilt Cup Committee. The championship games became a part of the Spring North American Championships in 1958, but the trophy itself remains one of the most prized trophies of bridge. The Vanderbilt Cup was also donated and presented by Mr. Harold Vanderbilt for the first World Olympiad Team Championship held in Italy in 1960.

Vanderbilt, Harold Sterling
As one of the pioneers in establishing the rules, guidelines, and updating the game of bridge Mr. Harold Sterling Vanderbilt has been called the Father of Contract Bridge. As a public figure many articles were published about him and his circles, his status and activities. Mr. George Plimpton authored an article for the magazine Sports Illustrated, November 5, 1956, Volume 5, Issue 19, titled House Of Cards, which is preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference. At the date of publishing Mr. Harold Sterling Vanderbilt was 72 years old.

Variable Cuebids
See Denial Cuebids. Denial Cuebids form a method of showing the location of honors. The bidding sequence was first developed by Mr. Roy Kerr in association with other bridge players in New Zealand, and which was used as part of the Symmetric Relays. The concept has also been attributed to Mr. David Leigh Cliff. This concept has achieved several interpretations over the years and has been designated by different authors with different names such as Spiral Scan Cuebids (or Spiral), designated by Mr. George Rosenkranz of Mexico, and the book The Ultimate Club, written by Mr. Mike Becker, Mr. Matthew L. Ginsberg, Mr. Matt Granovetter and Mr. Ronnie Rubin, uses the designation Variable Cuebids. The method is based on the assumption that one partner has in some manner informed his partner of his holding, his distribution, his strength, and possibly certain Key Cards.

Variable No Trump
A term for opening a weak 1 No Trump when the partnership is non-vulnerable, and a stronger No Trump when the partnership is vulnerable.

Variation of Extended Stayman by Ron Klinger
According to Mr. Ronald (Ron) Denny Klinger, a bridge expert, prolific author of bridge publications, and theoretician of the highest caliber, the concept behind the Extended Stayman conventional method has some drawbacks in that it becomes limited to an opening of No Trump. Mr. Ron Klinger adapted the concept to include similar responses if the opener begins the auction with a suit bid and then rebids No Trump.

Vasilevsky Convention
This competitive conventional method was described in the book Competitive Bidding in the 21st Century by Mr. Marshall Miles. The concept is that the opponents can enter the competitive auction after a Major suit opening, a pass by one's partner, and a first response by the partner of the opening bid of 1 No Trump. The name of this conventional method is unknown, but it could be possible that it has been named after the bridge professional Mr. George Vasilevsky of Las Vegas, Nevada, United States.

Variation: the definition of this word follows. It is under this definition that a method of specific bidding in order to communicate information to either partner or opponent is to be understood.

1. a) The act, process, or result of varying; b) the state or fact of being varied. See Synonyms at difference.
2. The extent or degree to which something varies: a variation of ten pounds in weight.
3. Magnetic declination.
4. Something slightly different from another of the same type.
5. Biology
    a) Marked difference or deviation from the normal or recognized form, function, or structure.
    b) An organism or plant exhibiting such difference or deviation.
6. Mathematics
    A function that relates the values of one variable to those of other variables.
7. Music
    a) A form that is an altered version of a given theme, diverging from it by melodic ornamentation and by changes in harmony, rhythm, or key.
    b) One of a series of forms based on a single theme.
8. A solo dance, especially one forming part of a larger work.

Variant, Definition of - Definition of Variant

Noun: Something that differs in form only slightly from something else, as a different spelling or pronunciation of the same word.
Adjective: 1. Having or exhibiting variation; differing.
  2. Tending or liable to vary; variable.
  3. Deviating from a standard, usually by only a slight difference.

Vaupillon Club System
This is the designation given to the partnership agreement between Mr. Mark Horton and Mr. Ron Tacchi, who together formed a respected partnership in the bridge community. The designation is the name of the small village or hamlet in France, where Mr. Ron Tacchi resides. The partnership agreement adheres to the general French standard of opening 5-card Major suits, a No Trump range of 15-17 points, and other treatments.

VeeJay System Opening Bids
These opening bids were developed and devised by Mr. A. D. J. Victor of New Delhi, India. The book Veejay System of Modern Bidding at Contract Bridge was published in 1983 by the publishing house of Devyn Press, Louisville, Kentucky, United States. ASIN: B00071OZTO.

Venezuela: Federacion Venezolana de Bridge - Contacts

Vendig, Ira - Age 103
In the June 27, 2015, issue of The News & Observer, bridge buff Mr. Ira Vendig is pictured at the Triangle Bridge Club, at which he, at the age of 103, continues to bid and play. This newspaper article has also only been preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.


Venice Cup
A trophy presented to the winners of the Women's World Team Championship, which began in Venice, Italy, in 1974. The format of this championship has been changed over the years.

Venice Cup Trophy
A picture and short summary of the trophy.

See: Transfer Opening Three Bids

Verne, Jules
The author Mr. Jules Vernes is considered the master of fantastic stories, of stories about events which portended future machines and devices. In his adventure novel titles Around the World in 80 Days, first published in French with the title Le tour du monde en quatre-vingts jours, first published in 1873 he related the adventures of Phileas Fogg of London and his newly employed French valet Passepartout, who attempt to circumnavigate the world in 80 days on a £20,000 wager set by his friends at the Reform Club. It is in Chapter 28, in which he describes a game of Whist being organized and played at eleven in the morning as the train had reached the dividing ridge of the waters at Bridger Pass, 7,524 feet above the level of the sea, one of the highest points attained by the track in crossing the Rocky Mountains. The Chapter 28 has been included, archived and preserved in a .pdf file format for future reference only.

To agree upon the score on a deal, session or match. All players must agree as to the correct amount of tricks won by each partnership and upon the correct score before entering the score for evaluation.

Vice Squeeze
This is a secondary squeeze that leads to a suit establishment play. This form of squeeze was named by Mr. Terence Reese. It describes a squeeze in which pressure is applied to a holding of two or more cards that rank between cards held by opponents, who lack the master card of the suit.

Victoria Conventional Method
See: Two Hearts Negative Response

Victor Mitchell Trophy
This trophy honors one of the most colorful characters of the game of bridge, a champion player, philosopher and mentor to the stars. Mr. Victor Mitchell, a Grand Life Master with more than 10,000 masterpoints, won five North American championships including the Spingold in 1956 and 1959, the Life Master Men’s Pairs in 1962 and the Men’s Teams in 1962 and 1963. He was inducted into the Bridge Hall of Fame in 1996

Victory Certificates - Victory Awards
Begun by the American Contract Bridge League July 1942 all bridge players / winners at all future tournaments will be given a choice of a Victory Certificate or Victory Award, which was stamped by the American Contract Bridge League as such. The actual Victory Certificate testifies that the winner of the tournament has accepted the Victory Award in order that the value of the trophy may be donated in the winner's behalf to the cause of the war relief. The photograph below shows the presentation of the very first Victory Award, which was presented in July 1942.


Victory Points
Just as IMP scoring is enacted according to a mathematical conversion, so also are victory points the result of a scoring conversion system for multiple team contests in which the actual score of each match is converted according to a standard scale.

Victory Points in Swiss Teams
In these events the scoring is done first in IMPs which are then converted to Victory Points. To receive credit for a full win, a team must win by three or more IMPs. A win by 1 or 2 IMPs constitutes a 3/4 win, with the losing team getting the other quarter of a point. However, the team winning the match receives the entire match masterpoint award.

Vienna Coup
This is the cashing of one or more winners to avoid blockage in a squeeze position. It is an unblocking play made in preparation for an Automatic Squeeze.

Vienna Relay Mini (Weak) No Trump
The Vienna Relay is a bidding system based on a weak No Trump and a forcing, but not necessarily strong 1 Club opening combined with a 1 Diamond waiting response. This version is in .pdf file format and, depending on your browser, will be automatically opened with your browser or otherwise downloaded to your computer and opened with Adobe Acrobat. Summary by Mr. Kerry Kappell.

Vienna Relay System
The Vienna Relay is a hybrid of the Vienna System and the Montreal Relay. It features a forcing but not necessarily strong 1 Club opening with a 1 Diamond waiting response. The 1 Club opening makes room for a weak 1 No Trump opening and eliminates all short Diamond openings. This version is in .pdf file format and, depending on your browser, will be automatically opened with your browser or otherwise downloaded to your computer and opened with Adobe Acrobat. Summary by Mr. Kerry Kappell.

Vienna System
Developed and promoted by Dr. Paul Stern in 1935, and which was perhaps the first conventional system to win acclaim among bridge players in the bridge international community. The foundation of the system is based on an artificial 1 Club bid for holdings of normal strength and on a 1 No Trump bid for stronger holdings. Dr. Paul Stern used the Bamberger Point Count of an Ace counting 7 points, a King counting 5 point, a Queen counting 3 points, and a Jack counting 1 point, but those adherents to this system have now revised this to the standard of the 4-3-2-1 point count.

Slang: to take a view is to make a decision regarding the bidding or play of a board.

Viking Club Opening Bids
These opening bids constitute a strong 1 Club relay system and was developed and devised by Mr. Glenn Groetheim of Norway, and published in his book: Viking Club, and excerpts of which may be found by clicking on the picture. Mr. Glenn Groetheim has been Norwegian champion many times and he has played in the Bermuda Bowl three times, earning a silver medal in 1993 and 2001, and a bronze medal in 1997. Mr. Glenn Groetheim has represented Norway in the Olympiad and European Championships frequently. He is also a frequent contributor to Scandinavian bridge magazines. Mr. Glenn Groetheim has played with Mr. Ulf Tundal and Mr. Geir Helgemo, his current partner is Terje Aa, with whom he has played with since 1993. He lives just outside Trondheim, Norway.

1 : 16 high card points Any shape
1 : 11-15 high card points Various shapes:
1. 5+ Diamonds or
2. both Minor Suits or
3. balanced holding, not 1 NT interval
1 : 11-15 high card points 5-card plus Heart suit
1 : 11-15 high card points 5-card plus Spade suit
1 NT: 10-12 high card points Balanced shape:
1. between 10-12 high card points in 1st and 2nd Seat - not vulnerable
2. between 13-15 high card points in 3rd and 4th Seat - not vulnerable
3. between 14-16 high card points by unfavorable vulnerability
2 : 11-15 high card points 5-card plus Club suit
2 : 11-15 high card points Distribution: 4-4-4-1 - any suit
2 : 6-10 high card points Distribution: 6-card Heart suit
2 : 6-10 high card points Distribution: 6-card Spade suit
2 NT: 6-10 high card points Distribution: 5-5 plus in both Minor suits

Vinje Signals
In his book, New Ideas in Defensive Play in Bridge, Mr. Helge Vinje of the Oslo Academic Bridge Club devised a series of defensive signals, which pinpoint distributions and situations that are somewhat ambiguous in standard signaling.

Vint is a Russian card-game, similar to both bridge and whist and it is sometimes referred to as Russian Whist. Vint literally means a screw in Russian, and the name is given to the game because the four players, each in turn, propose, bid and overbid each other until one, having bid higher than the others care to follow, makes the trump, and his vis-a-vis plays as his partner.

The game developed during the latter half of the 19th century. In primitive forms, known as Siberian Vint, the value of the trick depended on the level of the contract and the trump suit. Later, this was simplified so that the level of the contract was the only thing the value of the trick depended on.

Towards the end of the 19th century, the kitty was added to the game. The highest bidder took a kitty of 4 cards to his hand and gave one card for every other player before the card play started. Towards the end of the 19th century, also the card exchange mechanism used in Skruuvi was born. The highest bidder took the kitty in his hand, gave 4 cards for his partner, who, in turn, gave one card for every other player. This enabled the declarer side arrange themselves very shaped hands, which lead to higher contracts. There are references to Vint in classical Russian literature, notably in the short stories of Anton Chekhov.

Vint has many similarities to rubber bridge: The cards have the same rank. The score of tricks is entered under the line, and points for slam, honors, and penalties for undertricks above the line. The bidding is similar to bridge, one bids the number of tricks and the trump suit or no trump.

During the progress of the bidding and declaring, opportunity is taken by the players to indicate by their calls their strength in the various suits and the high cards they hold, so that, when the playing begins, the position of the best cards and the strength of the different hands can often be fairly accurately estimated.

Unlike the game of bridge, in Vint there is no dummy, all taken tricks count toward a game, meaning that the tricks taken by the defenders as well as the tricks taken by the declarer side including overtricks, regardless of whether the contract was made or not, and the bidding ends after eight consecutive passes. Eeveryone passes twice including the player, who made the last bid. The value of a trick depends on the level of the contract. In higher contracts the value of a trick is higher.

The card play follows the standard whist formula. One must follow suit, but if unable to do so, one can play any card. The trick is won by the highest trump, if there are trumps in the trick, otherwise by the highest card of the suit led. The winner of the trick starts the next one. Points are awarded also for honours. In a no trump declaration aces count only as honors; in a suit declaration both the aces and the five next highest cards.

1. the act of disregarding a Law of Propriety. It is understood that the penalty for such an act is to indemnify the non-offending side and not to punish the offender;
2. the act of deliberately breaking the established partnership understanding or system agreement.

Virgin Islands Bridge Federation - Contacts

Vise Squeeze
This is a secondary squeeze that leads to a suit establishment play. This form of squeeze was named by Mr. Terence Reese. It describes a squeeze in which pressure is applied to a holding of two or more cards that rank between cards held by opponents, who lack the master card of the suit.

To recall the number and denomination of cards played during the play and forming a mental image from the auction is an important feature in determining how to play the hand as declarer and as an opponent.

Amusing side-note: The following paragraph constitutes logically-placed words, which communicate information. Although the paragraph is visual, the reader may have difficulty in discerning the one factor, which determines that the paragraph is very unusual. The object of this training exercise is to illustrate that the brain, whether it sees or does not see, does indeed have difficulty in not only visualising something communicated, but also registering something communicated. The paragraph follows and the answer is provided at the bottom of this web page.

This is a most unusual paragraph. How quickly can you find out what is so unusual about it? It looks so ordinary that you would think that nothing is wrong with it at all, and, in fact, nothing is. But it is unusual. Why? If you study it and think about it, you may find out, but I am not going to assist you in any way. You must do it without any hints or coaching. No doubt, if you work at it for a bit, it will dawn on you. Who knows? Go to work and try your skill. Good luck!

A holding of zero cards in any particular suit. The French word is chicane, and the word blank refers to the same situation.

Void-Showing Bids
Although Mr. Ely Culbertson originally conceived the idea, but never followed up on it, it was E.M.L. Beale of Cambridge University, England, about 1948, who took the concept to its fruition. It is the use of a jump bid, which has no natural meaning in the partnership agreement, to show a holding containing a void.

Voidwood Blackwood
A form of Roman Key Card Blackwood in which partner is asked to show Aces and/or Key Cards except in a particular suit, which has been determined to be a void. This convention is also known as Exclusion Keycard Blackwood.

Volmac Precision
This strong club system was developed by Mr. Benito Garozzo to train the Dutch Volmac group and was first used during the 1980 Olympiad in Valkenburg, The Netherlands. Thereafter this competition began formally in 1987 and was first called the Staten Bank Invitational, then the Cap Volmac World Top Tournament, and finally the Cap Gemini Pandata World Top Tournament.

Volmac Precision Opening Bids
These opening bids were devised and developed by Mr. Benito Garozzo in the year 1978. Several of the bridge players, who used this system of opening bids, which was designated as the Volmac Precision bidding system, are Mr. Anton Maas, Elly Schippers and Marijke van der Pas.

Volmac Precision Summary
A summary of the Volmac Precision System as presented by Mr. Daniel Neill. This information is also only preserved and archived on this site in a .pdf file format for future reference.

Vondracek Phenomenon or Vondracek Effect
Distribution in the game of bridge is tantamount, and on occasional deals both the partner and the responder will discover that both hold a fit of 5-3 fit in both Major suits. The partnership must then decide in which Major suit the contract should be declared for the optimal result. It has been proven by Mr. Felix Vondracek, published 1956 in a series of articles for the Bridge World, that the weaker of the two fits (or even the weakest of three) identically distributed potential trump suits offers the superior contract. The series of articles is titled The Weaker Suit For Trumps.

Von Zedtwitz Award
The von Zedtwitz Award is given annually by ACBL to a living or deceased player who made outstanding contributions to bridge either as a player or in some area outside of playing expertise. The first winner and recipient of this Award was Mr. P. Hals Sims.

Von Zedtwitz Gold Cup or Trophy
This trophy was donated by Mr. Waldemar von Zedtwitz in 1930 for one of the most highly regarded pair events, and is presented to the winner of the Life Master Open Pairs Championship. The trophy was initially contested by master players, who had qualified by winning a national championship. It was a four-session event, and the field was limited to 64 players so that a complete movement could be played. The trophy was originally presented on the basis that three wins by one player would secure him outright possession of the trophy.

This feat was achieved by Mr. Howard Schenken in 1934, who won in 1931 and 1933 with Mr. David Burnstine and in 1934 with Mr. Richard Frey. He also won in 1941 with Mr. Merwyn Maier and in 1943 with Mr. John Crawford.

The trophy, put back into competition by the donor, was stolen in 1954In 1954 , when it was held by Mr. John Hubbel, but the trophy was stolen. The theft followed a television appearance during which Mr. John Hubbel had exhibited the trophy and given the address of his bridge club, where the cup was normally displayed. The trophy was never recovered and the present cup is an exact replica.

VoSS'N Principle - This is a .pdf file format. This principle called VoSS’N is an acronym for Void/Single/Single/None. It is mainly used when the responder has shown at least 8 cards in two specific suits and we have a known fit (one of the two suits is partner’s suit). It is also used when we open a Minor on the 1-level and partner preempts. This is mainly a feature in the Ekrens bidding system.

An abbreviation for Victory Points.

VROOM Defense to 1 No Trump
This particular defense method is only for the more advanced player and more experienced partnership owing to its complexity. The summary is presented on this site with no examples or illustrations. The summary is compiled by Mr. Mohamed Abdel Bari and has been contributed by Mr. Scott Bennett Graham. The definition of the designation remains unknown.

Vu-graph or Vugraph
This is a method of displaying the bridge boards and play to the spectators or to an audience. This device promoted the interest in the game of bridge. In 1991, the ACBL commissioned Mr. Fred Gitelman, a computer programmer, to create such a device. The necessary funds were donated in the form of a grant from the estate of Mr. Peter Pender, and the final result was eventually named the PeterGraph, and which was first used in Las Vegas, Nevada, in 1991.

The state of being vulnerable, meaning that the scores obtained by fulfilling game contracts are adjusted to 500 points as opposed to non-vulnerable being only 300 points. The scores for the undertricks and doubled contracts are also adjusted. The state of vulnerability affects the bidding strategy to the point that the vulnerable partnership does not readily take unnecessary risks in the auction. The option of sacrificing on the side of the opponents is also much greater.

This particular designation has a history, which is not commonly known. On the fateful cruise of Mr. Sterling Vanderbilt through the Panama Canal in 1925 four gentlemen were sitting in the main cabin discussing a new scoring method for the increasingly popular game of bridge whist, auction whist, auction bridge, and they were attempting to decide the terminology after dividing the degree of daring for placing a bet, or a bid. During their discussion a young lady walked into the room, caught the gist of the conversation and the problem, and promptly offered the suggestion, "Why not call it vulnerable?" The name of this young lady remains a mystery to this day as reported by Mr. Alan Truscott on October 10, 1982.


By Alan Truscott
Published: October 10, 1982

If a bridge historian were offered a time machine capable of making three stops he would surely use it to solve some mysteries. He would start by sitting in on Vanderbilt's famous cruise through the Panama Canal in 1925, and he would find the name of the mysterious young woman who intruded into the men's foursome experimenting with ''a new game'' and suggested the word ''vulnerable'' to represent a partnership that was a game to the good. Vanderbilt and his friends could never remember her name. The last male survivor of this group was Francis Bacon III, who died recently in New York, but the intruder might still be alive.

The traveller would find that it was the scoring rather than the contract bridge concept that was new. There had been a number of contract experiments before 1925, and Somerset Maugham, who took his bridge seriously, claims to have played contract during World War I.

Going back another half century would be the appropriate next move for the time machine, to explore the murky period when whist turned into bridge. It was a primitive form of the game, admittedly, but one that included two crucial elements, a dummy and a little bidding. The traveller would have to visit Constantinople (now Instanbul), Cairo and perhaps Russia for clues. There is some evidence that the word ''bridge'' is of Russian origin, and some Tolstoy translations refer to bridge-playing. But the game was probably vint, which was a whist-like game with a little bidding but no dummy.

The third stop for the time traveller would have to be the beginning of this century, when a crucial and virtually undocumented mutation occurred: bridge, sometimes called bridge whist, became auction bridge. Everyone could now take part in the bidding, which continued in commercial fashion as it does today.

The authority in that period of transition was Joseph B. Elwell, later to be the victim of a celebrated murder. In his 1902 book ''Elwell on Bridge'' he described the diagramed deal. The bidding, of course, was much more abbreviated than the auction shown. The dealer, who was known as Z in those days announced ''I make it hearts,'' and that, in the absence of any doubles or redoubles, ended it. South chose hearts largely because of his honor holding in the suit - worth substantially more in the scoring of the period than the bonus for a grand slam.

A modern declarer in six hearts would have a good deal to think about after a low trump lead. Let us suppose that East makes a good move by playing low, for his ten can have a value. South can draw trumps and lead a club to dummy's nine, planning to make his 12th trick in that suit. This will succeed if trumps are 3-3 and clubs no worse than 4-2 and vice versa. And if it fails, South can try for a squeeze in the minor suits.

This has excellent prospects, but an even better plan is to try for a diamond ruff. If a defender scores the trump ten on the third round of diamonds, an unlikely event, that may be the only trick for the defense. South may still be able to try for a spade finesse with the idea of discarding his club loser on the spade ace.

As it happens both plays succeed. In 1902 Z played for the diamond ruff and then drew trumps. He threw all dummy's clubs on the red-suit winners, coming down to four spades in dummy and a singleton club ace. In his hand he had a trump and his four black cards. East threw a spade instead of a club so Z was able to play spades, ruff the third round and make a grand slam. He did not have to bid a grand slam to score the bonus, just to make 13 tricks. West, who was known as A in those days, probably pointed out plaintively that he held the club eight - a card that would have allowed his partner to unguard clubs safely. NORTH S A 6 4 3 H 9 5 D A 4 C A J 9 4 3 WEST EAST S Q 10 5 S 9 8 7 2 H 7 6 4 H 10 3 2 D J 9 7 2 D 10 8 6 C 8 7 6 C K Q 10 SOUTH(D) S K J H A K Q J 8 D K Q 5 3 C 5 2 Neither side was vulnerable. The bidding: South West North East 1 H Pass 2 C Pass 3 D Pass 3 S Pass 4 H Pass 4 N.T. Pass 5 D Pass 5 N.T. Pass 6 H Pass Pass Pass.

West led the heart four.


Vulnerability Conditions

Slang: amber = both sides vulnerable - United Kingdom.
Slang: equal = neither side vulnerable or both sides vulnerable.
Slang: favorable = non-vulnerable against vulnerable opponents.
Slang: green = non-vulnerable against vulnerable opponents - United Kingdom.
Slang: horse and horse = both sides vulnerable.
Slang: red = vulnerable against nonvulnerable opponents - United Kingdom.
Slang: red = vulnerable - in U.S.
Slang: red against red = both sides vulnerable - in U.S.
Slang: red against white = vulnerable against non-vulnerable opponents - in U.S.
Slang: unfavorable = vulnerable against non-vulnerable opponents.
Slang: white = non-vulnerable - in U.S.
Slang: white = neither side vulnerable - United Kingdom.
Slang: white against red = non-vulnerable against vulnerable opponents - in U.S.
Slang: white against white = neither side vulnerable - in U.S.

Referring in rubber bridge as having scored one game. In duplicate, the vulnerability has been predetermined by the display on the particular boards to be played.


** Unusual paragraph: the paragraph does not contain the letter e, which is the most commonly used letter in the Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, French, German, Hungarian, Latin, Norwegian, Spanish, and Swedish languages. The letter e is derived from the Greek letter epsilon.





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